Search results for 'Biology Social aspects' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. H. Verhoog (1975). Social and Ethical Aspects of Biology Part of Theoretical Biology? Acta Biotheoretica 24 (1-2).score: 243.0
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  2. Paul R. Ehrlich (1978). Sociopolitical Aspects of Biology Biology as a Social Weapon The Ann Arbor Science for the People Editorial Collective. Bioscience 28 (6):403-403.score: 243.0
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  3. Bradley Franks (2013). The Roles of Evolution in the Social Sciences: Is Biology Ballistic? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (4).score: 216.0
    This paper discusses some widespread but often not fully articulated views concerning the possible roles of biology and evolution in the social sciences. Such views cluster around a set of intuitions that suggest that evolution's role is “ballistic”: it constitutes a starting point for mind that has been, and is, superseded by the role of culture and social construction. An implication is that evolved and the socially constructed aspects of mind are separable and independent, with the (...)
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  4. Richard C. Lewontin (1991/1992). Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of Dna. Harperperennial.score: 216.0
    Following in the fashion of Stephen Jay Gould and Peter Medawar, one of the world's leading scientists examines how "pure science" is in fact shaped and guided by social and political needs and assumptions.
     
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  5. John Alfred Valentine Butler (1976). Modern Biology and its Human Implications. Hodder and Stoughton.score: 207.0
  6. Richard Levins (1985). The Dialectical Biologist. Harvard University Press.score: 180.0
    Throughout, this book questions our accepted definitions and biases, showing the self-reflective nature of scientific activity within society.
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  7. Dittmar Graf (ed.) (2011). Evolutionstheorie-Akzeptanz Und Vermittlung Im Europäischen Vergleich. Springer.score: 180.0
    Die Evolutionstheorie hat sich in den letzten 150 Jahren von einer speziellen naturwissenschaftlichen zur universellen wissenschaftlichen Theorie entwickelt.
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  8. R. Holliday (1981). The Science of Human Progress. Oxford University Press.score: 180.0
  9. David G. Lygre (1979). Life Manipulation: From Test-Tube Babies to Aging. Walker.score: 180.0
     
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  10. Jesse C. MacLeay (1998). Life, What a Puzzle!: Fitting the Pieces Together. Constitution Press.score: 180.0
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  11. Diego Parente (2010). Del Órgano Al Artefacto: Acerca de la de la Dimensión Biocultural de la Técnica. Edulp, Editorial de la Universidad de la Plata.score: 180.0
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  12. Jean Rostand (1973). Humanly Possible; a Biologist's Notes on the Future of Mankind. New York,Saturday Review Press.score: 180.0
  13. Paul A. Weiss (1973). The Science of Life: The Living System--A System for Living. [Mount Kisco, N.Y.]Futura Pub. Co..score: 180.0
  14. Steven M. Flipse, Maarten C. A. Sanden & Patricia Osseweijer (2013). The Why and How of Enabling the Integration of Social and Ethical Aspects in Research and Development. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):703-725.score: 144.0
    New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST) based innovations, e.g. in the field of Life Sciences or Nanotechnology, frequently raise societal and political concerns. To address these concerns NEST researchers are expected to deploy socially responsible R&D practices. This requires researchers to integrate social and ethical aspects (SEAs) in their daily work. Many methods can facilitate such integration. Still, why and how researchers should and could use SEAs remains largely unclear. In this paper we aim to relate motivations (...)
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  15. Steven M. Flipse, Maarten Ca van der Sanden & Patricia Osseweijer (2013). The Why and How of Enabling the Integration of Social and Ethical Aspects in Research and Development. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):703-725.score: 144.0
    New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST) based innovations, e.g. in the field of Life Sciences or Nanotechnology, frequently raise societal and political concerns. To address these concerns NEST researchers are expected to deploy socially responsible R&D practices. This requires researchers to integrate social and ethical aspects (SEAs) in their daily work. Many methods can facilitate such integration. Still, why and how researchers should and could use SEAs remains largely unclear. In this paper we aim to relate motivations (...)
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  16. Melinda Bonnie Fagan (2010). Stems and Standards: Social Interaction in the Search for Blood Stem Cells. Journal of the History of Biology 43 (1):67 - 109.score: 135.0
    This essay examines the role of social interactions in the search for blood stem cells, in a recent episode of biomedical research. Linked to mid-20th century cell biology, genetics and radiation research, the search for blood stem cells coalesced in the 1960s and took a developmental turn in the late 1980s, with significant ramifications for immunology, stem cell and cancer biology. Like much contemporary biomedical research, this line of inquiry exhibits a complex social structure and includes (...)
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  17. John L. Fuller (1966). Biological Aspects of Social Problems J. E. Meade A. S. Parkes. Bioscience 16 (5):365-365.score: 129.0
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  18. John B. Gibson & C. G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor (1973). Biological Aspects of a High Socio-Economic Group II. IQ Components and Social Mobility. Journal of Biosocial Science 5 (1).score: 129.0
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  19. Frederick Osborn (1965). Biological Aspects of Social Problems: A Review. The Eugenics Review 57 (4):182.score: 129.0
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  20. Scott Atran (1998). Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.score: 126.0
    This essay in the is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor (...)
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  21. Jason Scott Robert, Jane Maienschein & Manfred D. Laubichler (2006). Systems Bioethics and Stem Cell Biology. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):19-31.score: 126.0
    The complexities of modern science are not adequately reflected in many bioethical discussions. This is especially problematic in highly contested cases where there is significant pressure to generate clinical applications fast, as in stem cell research. In those cases a more integrated approach to bioethics, which we call systems bioethics, can provide a useful framework to address ethical and policy issues. Much as systems biology brings together different experimental and methodological approaches in an integrative way, systems bioethics integrates (...) of the history and philosophy of science, social and political theory, and normative analysis with the science in question. In this paper we outline how a careful analysis of the science of stem cell research can help to refocus the discussions related to the clinical applications of stem cells. We show how inaccurate or inadequate scientific assumptions help to create a set of unrealistic expectations and badly inform ethical deliberations and policy development. Systems bioethics offers resources for moving beyond the current impasse. (shrink)
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  22. Jack J. Vromen (2003). Collective Intentionality, Evolutionary Biology and Social Reality. Philosophical Explorations 6 (3):251-265.score: 122.0
    The paper aims to clarify and scrutinize Searle"s somewhat puzzling statement that collective intentionality is a biologically primitive phenomenon. It is argued that the statement is not only meant to bring out that "collective intentionality" is not further analyzable in terms of individual intentionality. It also is meant to convey that we have a biologically evolved innate capacity for collective intentionality.The paper points out that Searle"s dedication to a strong notion of collective intentionality considerably delimits the scope of his endeavor. (...)
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  23. Barry Barnes (1996). Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Analysis. Athlone.score: 120.0
    Although science was once seen as the product of individual great men working in isolation, we now realize that, like any other creative activity, science is a highly social enterprise, influenced in subtle as well as obvious ways by the wider culture and values of its time. Scientific Knowledge is the first introduction to social studies of scientific knowledge. The authors, all noted for their contributions to science studies, have organized this book so that each chapter examines a (...)
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  24. Daniel Steel (2008). Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science. Oxford University Press.score: 120.0
    Inferences like these are known as extrapolations.
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  25. Dorothy J. Dankel, Kenneth L. Roland, Michael Fisher, Karen Brenneman, Ana Delgado, Javier Santander, Chang-Ho Baek, Josephine Clark-Curtiss, Roger Strand & I. I. I. Curtiss (forthcoming). Making Common Sense of Vaccines: An Example of Discussing the Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine with the Public. Nanoethics:1-7.score: 120.0
    Researchers have iterated that the future of synthetic biology and biotechnology lies in novel consumer applications of crossing biology with engineering. However, if the new biology’s future is to be sustainable, early and serious efforts must be made towards social sustainability. Therefore, the crux of new applications of synthetic biology and biotechnology is public understanding and acceptance. The RASVaccine is a novel recombinant design not found in nature that re-engineers a common bacteria (Salmonella) to produce (...)
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  26. Ian Moll (2010). Psychology, Biology and Social Relations. Journal of Critical Realism 3 (1):49-76.score: 120.0
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  27. Alex Viskovatoff (1999). Foundations of Niklas Luhmann's Theory of Social Systems. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (4):481-516.score: 117.0
    Of all contemporary social theorists, Luhmann has best understood the centrality of the concept of meaning to social theory and has most extensively worked out the notion's implications. However, despite the power of his theory, the theory suffers from difficulties impeding its reception. This article attempts to remedy this situation with some critical arguments and proposals for revision. First, the theory Luhmann adopted from biology as the basis of his own theory was a poor choice since that (...)
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  28. Patrick Bateson (1989). Does Evolutionary Biology Contribute to Ethics? Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):287-301.score: 117.0
    Human propensities that are the products of Darwinian evolution may combine to generate a form of social behavior that is not itself a direct result of such pressure. This possibility may provide a satisfying explanation for the origin of socially transmitted rules such as the incest taboo. Similarly, the regulatory processes of development that generated adaptations to the environment in the circumstances in which they evolved can produce surprising and sometimes maladaptive consequences for the individual in modern conditions. These (...)
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  29. Francois Berger, Sjef Gevers, Ludwig Siep & Klaus-Michael Weltring (2008). Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects of Brain-Implants Using Nano-Scale Materials and Techniques. Nanoethics 2 (3):241-249.score: 112.0
    Nanotechnology is an important platform technology which will add new features like improved biocompatibility, smaller size, and more sophisticated electronics to neuro-implants improving their therapeutic potential. Especially in view of possible advantages for patients, research and development of nanotechnologically improved neuro implants is a moral obligation. However, the development of brain implants by itself touches many ethical, social and legal issues, which also apply in a specific way to devices enabled or improved by nanotechnology. For researchers developing nanotechnology such (...)
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  30. Bernard Crespi & Christopher Badcock (2008). Psychosis and Autism as Diametrical Disorders of the Social Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):241-261.score: 108.0
    Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autistic-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions, with a focus on schizophrenia. This suite of traits is inter-correlated, in that autism involves a general pattern of constrained overgrowth, whereas schizophrenia involves undergrowth. These disorders (...)
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  31. Michael Lynch & Kathleen Jordan (1995). Instructed Actions in, of and as Molecular Biology. Human Studies 18 (2-3):227 - 244.score: 108.0
    A recurrent theme in ethnomethodological research is that of instructed actions. Contrary to the classic traditions in the social and cognitive sciences, which attribute logical priority or causal primacy to instructions, rules, and structures of action, ethnomethodologists investigate the situated production of actions which enable such formulations to stand as adequate accounts. Consequently, a recitation of formal structures can not count as an adequate sociological description, when no account is given of the local production ofwhat those structures describe. The (...)
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  32. Claus Jacob (2002). Philosophy and Biochemistry: Research at the Interface Between Chemistry and Biology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (2):97-125.score: 108.0
    This paper investigates the interface between philosophy and biochemistry. While it is problematic to justify the application of a particular philosophical model to biochemistry, it seems to be even more difficult to develop a special “Philosophy for Biochemistry”. Alternatively, philosophy can be used in biochemistry based on an alternative approach that involves an interdependent iteration process at a philosophical and (bio)chemical level (“Exeter Method”). This useful iteration method supplements more abstract approaches at the interface between philosophy and natural sciences, and (...)
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  33. Charles Birch (1981). The Liberation of Life: From the Cell to the Community. Cambridge University Press.score: 108.0
    This book is about the liberation of the concept of life from the bondage fashioned by the interpreters of life ever since biology began, and about the liberation of the life of humans and non-humans alike from the bondage of social structures and behaviour, which now threatens the fullness of life's possibilities if not survival itself. It falls into a tradition of writings about human problems from a perspective informed by biology. It rejects the mechanistic model of (...)
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  34. Jamake Highwater (1997). The Mythology of Transgression: Homosexuality as Metaphor. Oxford University Press.score: 108.0
    Jamake Highwater is a master storyteller and one of our most visionary writers, hailed as "an eloquent bard, whose words are fire and glory" (Studs Terkel) and "a writer of exceptional vision and power" (Ana"is Nin). Author of more than thirty volumes of nonfiction, fiction, and poetry, Highwater--considered by many to be the intellectual heir of Joseph Campbell--has long been intrigued by how our mythological legacies have served as a foundation of modern civilization. Now, in The Mythology of Transgression, he (...)
     
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  35. Robert A. Wilson (2004). Recent Work on Individualism in the Social, Behavioural, and Biological Sciences. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):397-423.score: 102.0
    The social, behavioral, and a good chunk of the biological sciences concern the nature of individual agency, where our paradigm for an individual is a human being. Theories of economic behavior, of mental function and dysfunction, and of ontogenetic development, for example, are theories of how such individuals act, and of what internal and external factors are determinative of that action. Such theories construe individuals in distinctive ways.
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  36. Steve Fuller (2014). Recovering Biology's Potential as a Science of Social Progress Reply to Renwick. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (4):497-505.score: 102.0
    Chris Renwick’s recent research into the fate of William Beveridge’s attempt to establish social biology as the foundational social science at the London School of Economics is history at its best by uncovering a moment in the past when decisions were taken comparable to ones being taken today. In this case, the issues concern the political and scientific foundations of the welfare state. By connecting Beveridge’s original reasoning to recruit Lancelot Hogben for the Rockefeller-sponsored social (...) chair with his later formative role in the design of the British welfare state, we are able to witness an alternative vision of the left, one associated with the Fabian movement, which proceeded independently of its Marxist cousin. The Fabian focus on taxing “inheritance” in the broadest sense remains relevant to how we think about the human condition in an era when capitalism has come to encompass the ownership of genetic material. (shrink)
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  37. Sarah Kuhn (1998). When Worlds Collide: Engineering Students Encounter Social Aspects of Production. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (4):457-472.score: 102.0
    To design effective and socially sensitive systems, engineers must be able to integrate a technology-based approach to engineering problems with concerns for social impact and the context of use. The conventional approach to engineering education is largely technology-based, and even when additional courses with a social orientation are added, engineering graduates are often not well prepared to design user- and context-sensitive systems. Using data from interviews with three engineering students who had significant exposure to a socially-oriented perspective on (...)
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  38. Chris Renwick (2014). Completing the Circle of the Social Sciences? William Beveridge and Social Biology at London School of Economics During the 1930s. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (4):478-496.score: 102.0
    Much has been written about the relationship between biology and social science during the early twentieth century. However, discussion is often drawn toward a particular conception of eugenics, which tends to obscure our understanding of not only the wide range of intersections between biology and social science during the period but also their impact on subsequent developments. This paper draws attention to one of those intersections: the British economist and social reformer William Beveridge’s controversial efforts (...)
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  39. Kristian Tylén, Riccardo Fusaroli, Peer Bundgaard & Svend Østergaard (2013). Making Sense Together: A Dynamical Account of Linguistic Meaning Making. Semiotica 194 (194):39-62.score: 99.0
    How is linguistic communication possible? How do we come to share the same meanings of words and utterances? One classical position holds that human beings share a transcendental “platonic” ideality independent of individual cognition and language use (Frege 1948). Another stresses immanent linguistic relations (Saussure 1959), and yet another basic embodied structures as the ground for invariant aspects of meaning (Lakoff and Johnson 1999). Here we propose an alternative account in which the possibility for sharing meaning is motivated by (...)
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  40. Romeu Cardoso Guimarães (2010). Biodiversidade e religião (Biodiversity and religion). Horizonte 8 (17):156-177.score: 99.0
    Explora-se o conceito de que a diversidade propicia robutez nos sistemas processadores de informação e como seria aplicável às areas neurais e sociais, incluindo o fenômeno religioso. Avaliação de estatísticas populacionais indica que o último não é essencial ao humano, apesar de ser praticamente constante nas culturas. Discutem-se os aspectos cognitivos e afetivos na ciência e na religião, sob a proposta de que demarcação adequada pode auxiliar na redução de conflitos. Nesse mesmo sentido pode contribuir a elaboração sobre as tensões (...)
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  41. Alex Rosenberg, Why Do Temporary Invariances Explain in Biology and the Social Sciences?score: 96.0
    The issue of whether there are laws in biology and the “special science”1 has been of interest owing to the debate about whether scientific explanation requires laws. A well-warn argument goes thus: no laws in social science, no explanations, or at least no scientific explanations, at most explanation-sketches. The conclusion is not just a matter of labeling. If explanations are not scientific they are not epistemically or practically reliable. There are at least three well-known diagnoses of where this (...)
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  42. Inmaculada de Melo-Martin (2003). When Is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.score: 96.0
    When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility Abstract I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social (...)
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  43. Donald Lawson Turcotte, John Rundle & Hans Frauenfelder (eds.) (2002). Self-Organized Complexity in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences. National Academy of Sciences.score: 96.0
    Self-organized complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences Donald L Turcotte*f and John B. Rundle* *Department of Earth and Atmospheric ...
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  44. Jan Rivkin (1999). Reviews: Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World, Kevin Kelly. [REVIEW] Emergence 1 (2):179-182.score: 96.0
    (1999). Reviews: Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World, Kevin Kelly. Emergence: Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 179-182.
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  45. Margaret Alston (2004). Who is Down on the Farm? Social Aspects of Australian Agriculture in the 21st Century. Agriculture and Human Values 21 (1):37-46.score: 96.0
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  46. Dušanka Krajnović (2012). Ethical and Social Aspects on Rare Diseases. Filozofija I Društvo 23 (4):32-48.score: 96.0
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  47. Wesley J. Wildman (1998). A Theological Challenge: Coordinating Biological, Social, and Religious Visions of Humanity. Zygon 33 (4):571-597.score: 96.0
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  48. Laura Nader (ed.) (1996). Naked Science: Anthropological Inquiry Into Boundaries, Power, and Knowledge. Routledge.score: 93.0
    Naked Science is about contested domains and includes different science cultures: physics, molecular biology, primatology, immunology, ecology, medical environmental, mathematical and navigational domains. While the volume rests on the assumption that science is not autonomous, the book is distinguished by its global perspective. Examining knowledge systems within a planetary frame forces thinking about boundaries that silence or affect knowledge-building. Consideration of ethnoscience and technoscience research within a common framework is overdue for raising questions about deeply held beliefs and assumptions (...)
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  49. Evelyn Fox Keller & Helen E. Longino (eds.) (1996). Feminism and Science. Oxford University Press.score: 93.0
    (Series copy) The new Oxford Readings in Feminism series maps the dramatic influence of feminist theory on every branch of academic knowledge. Offering feminist perspectives on disciplines from history to science, each book assembles the most important articles written on its field in the last ten to fifteen years. Old stereotypes are challenged and traditional attitudes upset in these lively-- and sometimes controversial--volumes, all of which are edited by feminists prominent in their particular field. Comprehensive, accessible, and intellectually daring, the (...)
     
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  50. Michael Ruse (2012). The Philosophy of Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press.score: 93.0
    1. Evolutionary biology -- 2. Human evolution -- 3. Real science? Good science? -- 4. Progress -- 5. Knowledge -- 6. Morality -- 7. Sex, orientation, and race -- 8. From eugenics to medicine.
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