Search results for 'Biology, Experimental' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  55
    Marcel Weber (2005). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    Exploring central philosophical issues concerning scientific research in modern experimental biology, this book clarifies the strategies, concepts, reasoning, approaches, tools, models and experimental systems deployed by researchers. It also integrates recent developments in historical scholarship, in particular, the New Experimentalism, making this work of interest to philosophers and historians of science as well as to biological researchers.
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  2. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). The Nature of Evolutionary Biology: At the Borderlands Between Historical and Experimental Science. In Kostas Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer
    The scientific status of evolutionary theory seems to be more or less perennially under question. I am not referring here (just) to the silliness of young Earth creation- ism (Pigliucci 2002; Boudry and Braeckman 2010), or even of the barely more intel- lectually sophisticated so-called Intelligent Design theory (Recker 2010; Brigandt this volume), but rather to discussions among scientists and philosophers of science concerning the epistemic status of evolutionary theory (Sober 2010). As we shall see in what follows, this debate (...)
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  3.  66
    Marcel Weber (2002). Incommensurability and Theory Comparison in Experimental Biology. Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):155-169.
    Incommensurability of scientific theories, as conceived by Thomas Kuhnand Paul Feyerabend, is thought to be a major or even insurmountable obstacletothe empirical comparison of these theories. I examine this problem in light ofaconcrete case from the history of experimental biology, namely the oxidativephosphorylation controversy in biochemistry (ca. 1961-1977). After a briefhistorical exposition, I show that the two main competing theories which werethe subject of the ox-phos controversy instantiate some of the characteristicfeatures of incommensurable theories, namely translation failure,non-corresponding predictions, and (...)
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  4.  82
    Ingo Brigandt (2006). Philosophical Issues in Experimental Biology. Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):423–435.
    Review essay of The Philosophy of Experimental Biology by Marcel Weber (Cambridge University Press, 2005).
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  5. Marcel Weber (2014). Experimental Modeling in Biology: In Vivo Representation and Stand-Ins As Modeling Strategies. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):756-769.
    Experimental modeling in biology involves the use of living organisms (not necessarily so-called "model organisms") in order to model or simulate biological processes. I argue here that experimental modeling is a bona fide form of scientific modeling that plays an epistemic role that is distinct from that of ordinary biological experiments. What distinguishes them from ordinary experiments is that they use what I call "in vivo representations" where one kind of causal process is used to stand in for (...)
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  6.  1
    T. A. Hall (1994). Extremely Micro Analysis. X‐Ray Microanalysis In Biology: Experimental Techniques and Applications (;1993). Edited by D. C. SIGEE, A. J. MORGAN, A. T. SUMNER And A. WARLEY. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Xiv + 337 Pp. £50.00/$89.95. ISBN 0‐521‐41530‐6. [REVIEW] Bioessays 16 (2):150-150.
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  7. D. C. Sigee, A. J. Morgan, A. T. Sumner, A. Warley & T. A. Hall (1994). X-Ray Microanalysis in Biology: Experimental Techniques and Applications. Bioessays 16 (2):149.
     
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  8. Robert N. Brandon (1997). Does Biology Have Laws? The Experimental Evidence. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):457.
    In this paper I argue that we can best make sense of the practice of experimental evolutionary biology if we see it as investigating contingent, rather than lawlike, regularities. This understanding is contrasted with the experimental practice of certain areas of physics. However, this presents a problem for those who accept the Logical Positivist conception of law and its essential role in scientific explanation. I address this problem by arguing that the contingent regularities of evolutionary biology have a (...)
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  9.  89
    Hans-Jorg Rheinberger (1997). Experimental Complexity in Biology: Some Epistemological and Historical Remarks. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):254.
    My paper draws on examples from molecular biology, the details of which I have developed elsewhere (Rheinberger 1992, 1993, 1995, 1997). Here, I can give only a brief outline of my argument. Reduction of complexity is a prerequisite for experimental research. To make sense of the universe of living beings, the modern biologist is bound to divide his world into fragments in which parameters can be defined, quantities measured, qualities identified. Such is the nature of any "experimental system." (...)
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  10.  20
    Francisco Javier Serrano-Bosquet & Gustavo Caponi (2014). Warren Weaver and the experimental Biology Program of the Rockefeller Foundation. Scientiae Studia 12 (1):137-167.
    El objetivo de este trabajo es poner al descubierto los principales valores cognitivos y epistemológicos desde los que Warren Weaver puso en marcha el Programa de Biología Experimental, un programa que llevado a cabo desde la presidencia de la división de ciencias naturales de la Fundación Rockefeller, marcó y condicionó en buena medida el posterior desarrollo de la investigación biológica. Para tal fin se mostrará, en primer lugar, cómo fue la llegada de Weaver a la Fundación Rockefeller, así como (...)
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  11. Marcel Weber (2010). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    Philosophy of Experimental Biology explores some central philosophical issues concerning scientific research in experimental biology, including genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and microbiology. It seeks to make sense of the explanatory strategies, concepts, ways of reasoning, approaches to discovery and problem solving, tools, models and experimental systems deployed by scientific life science researchers and also integrates developments in historical scholarship, in particular the New Experimentalism. It concludes that historical explanations of scientific change that are based (...)
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  12.  3
    Marcel Weber (2002). Theory Testing in Experimental Biology: The Chemiosmotic Mechanism of ATP Synthesis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (1):29-52.
    Historians of biology have argued that much of the dynamics of experimental disciplines such as genetics or molecular biology can be understood from studying experimental systems and model organisms alone . Such accounts contrast sharply with more traditional philosophies of science which viewed scientific research essentially as a process of inventing and testing theories. I present a case from the history of biochemistry which can be viewed from both the experimental systems perspective and from the methodology of (...)
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  13.  44
    Melinda Fagan, Experimental Standards: Evaluating Success in Stem Cell Biology.
    This paper aims to bring the epistemic dimensions of stem cell experiments out of the background, and show that they can be critically evaluated. After introducing some basic concepts of stem cell biology, I set out the current “gold standard” for experimental success in that field (§2). I then trace the origin of this standard to a 1988 controversy over blood stem cells (§3). Understanding the outcome of this controversy requires attention to the details of experimental techniques, the (...)
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  14.  12
    Jacob Stegenga (2009). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Erkenntnis 71 (3):431-436.
    Philosophers have committed sins while studying science, it is said – philosophy of science focused on physics to the detriment of biology, reconstructed idealizations of scientific episodes rather than attending to historical details, and focused on theories and concepts to the detriment of experiments. Recent generations of philosophers of science have tried to atone for these sins, and by the 1980s the exculpation was in full swing. Marcel Weber’s Philosophy of Experimental Biology is a zenith mea culpa for philosophy (...)
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  15.  9
    J. D. Stemwedel (2007). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Philosophical Review 116 (1):139-141.
    Review\n\n"This bookas lucid, comprehensive presentation will enlighten both\nstudents and academicians in philosophy, biology, and science history,\nas well as scientists in other disciplines, while stimulating further\ndiscussion and analytical treatments." CHOICE May 2005 \n\n\n"Weber's overall approach is compelling; his book's focus on philosophical\nsignificance to be found in details of experimental biology is a\nwelcome addition to the philosophy of biology and to the philosophy\nof science more generally." - Jonathan Kaplan, Oregon State University\n\n\nProduct Description\n\nExploring central philosophical issues concerning scientific research\nin modern experimental (...)
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  16. Marcel Weber (2006). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    Philosophy of Experimental Biology explores some central philosophical issues concerning scientific research in experimental biology, including genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and microbiology. It seeks to make sense of the explanatory strategies, concepts, ways of reasoning, approaches to discovery and problem solving, tools, models and experimental systems deployed by scientific life science researchers and also integrates developments in historical scholarship, in particular the New Experimentalism. It concludes that historical explanations of scientific change that are based (...)
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  17. Marcel Weber (2009). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    Philosophy of Experimental Biology explores some central philosophical issues concerning scientific research in experimental biology, including genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and microbiology. It seeks to make sense of the explanatory strategies, concepts, ways of reasoning, approaches to discovery and problem solving, tools, models and experimental systems deployed by scientific life science researchers and also integrates developments in historical scholarship, in particular the New Experimentalism. It concludes that historical explanations of scientific change that are based (...)
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  18.  10
    Michel Morange (2012). From Experimental Systems to Evolutionary Biology: An Impossible Journey? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):27-32.
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  19. C. J. Barnard (2011). Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, Experimental Design and Presentation in Practical Work and Research Projects. Pearson.
  20.  49
    Karola Stotz (2009). Experimental Philosophy of Biology: Notes From the Field. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):233-237.
    I use a recent 'experimental philosophy' study of the concept of the gene conducted by myself and collaborators to discuss the broader epistemological framework within which that research was conducted, and to reflect on the relationship between science, history and philosophy of science, and society.
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  21.  9
    Nils Roll-Hansen (1976). Critical Teleology: Immanuel Kant and Claude Bernard on the Limitations of Experimental Biology. Journal of the History of Biology 9 (1):59 - 91.
  22.  6
    Jason Scott Robert (2007). Philosophy of Experimental Biology (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 50 (1):158-160.
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  23. H. A. Krebs (1963). On Cancer and Hormones—Essays in Experimental Biology Contributors: E. Boyland, Sir Stanford Cade, Thomas L. Dao, Frank Dickens, Sir Charles Dodds, W. U. Gardner, Alexander Haddow, George Hevesy, Clarence V. Hodges, Dwight J. Ingle, Herbert I. Jacobson, Elwood V. Jensen, Herman M. Kalckar, Eugene P. Kennedy, Albert L. Lehninger, Alexander Lipschutz, Thaddeus Mann, Reed M. Nesbit, Peyton Rous, William Wallace Scott and Horst K. A. Schirmer, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Paul Talalay, Donald F. Tapley, C. W. Verme. [REVIEW] Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6 (3):383-385.
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  24. Marcel Weber (2007). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Cambridge Studies in Philosophy and Biology. Philosophical Review 116 (1):139-141.
  25.  40
    N. Rashevsky (1938). The Relation of Mathematical Biophysics to Experimental Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 4 (2):133-153.
    Nach einer allgemeinen Diskussion des Zusammenhanges zwischen theoretischer und experimenteller Forschung, wird in Hinblick auf die vom Verfasser entwickelten physikalisch-mathematischen Grundlagen der Biologie, eine Reihe von Einzelproblemen betrachtet. Es wird an Hand von Kurvenmaterial gezeigt wie weit die mathematisch vorausgesagten Beziehungen mit den experimentellen Befunden übereinstimmen. Folgende Fragen werden besprochen: Zellatmung, Zellgrössen, deren Abhängigkeit von Stoffwechsel, Zellteilung, Protoplasmaströmungen, Nervenerregung, psychophysische Gesetze, Reaktion auf geometrische Gestalten.Après une mise au point générale de la relation entre les sciences théoriques et expérimentales, diverses questions (...)
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  26.  8
    Edward Manier (1969). The Experimental Method in Biology. Synthese 20 (2):185 - 205.
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  27.  6
    Francis Heylighen (1999). Paul S. Agutter Was Reader in Cell Biology at Napier University in Edinburgh, and His Main Experimental Interest is in the Transport of Molecules Between the Nuclear and the Cytoplasm. His Most Recent Book, The Meaning of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport, Co-Authored with Philip Taylor, Was Published in 1996 by RG Landes Company. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4:107-109.
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  28.  3
    David Boersema (2006). Review of “Embryology, Epigenesis, and Evolution” and “Philosophy of Experimental Biology”. [REVIEW] Essays in Philosophy 7 (1):1.
  29.  13
    G. Albrecht-Buehler (1976). Numerical Evaluation of the Validity of Experimental Proofs in Biology. Synthese 33 (1):283 - 312.
    This paper suggests a method to calculate a degree of validity for the proof of a statement which is derived from empirical statements by means of logic conclusions. The empirical statements are assumed not to be completely valid or their validity to be doubtful. The suggested rules are consistent with two-valued logic, yield decreasing validities with increasing number of applications of modus ponens and obey the law of the excluded middle. The actual calculation of validity values, the relation of the (...)
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  30.  3
    Jacob Stegenga (2009). Marcel Weber: Philosophy of Experimental Biology. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 71 (3):431-436.
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  31.  2
    Lindley Darden (2006). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 97:198-199.
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  32. Jonathan Kaplan (2005). Marcel Weber, Philosophy of Experimental Biology Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 25 (6):447-449.
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  33.  6
    William A. Rottschaefer (2008). Biological and Physicochemical Explanations in Experimental Biology. Biological Theory 3 (4):380-390.
  34.  2
    Henning Schmidgen (2006). The Uncertainty of Philosophical Experiments. Rezension Von: Marcel Weber," The Philosophy of Experimental Biology", Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Biological Theory 1 (4):434-435.
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  35.  2
    Robert L. Perlman (2005). Review of Marcel Weber, Philosophy of Experimental Biology. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (2).
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  36.  1
    Henning Schmidgen (2006). The Uncertainty of Philosophical Experiments: Philosophy of Experimental Biology Marcel Weber Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2005 (358 Pp; $75.00 Hbk; ISBN 0521829453). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (4):434-435.
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  37.  1
    Victor A. Chepurnov, David G. Mann, Peter von Dassow, Pieter Vanormelingen, Jeroen Gillard, Dirk Inzé, Koen Sabbe & Wim Vyverman (2008). In Search of New Tractable Diatoms for Experimental Biology. Bioessays 30 (7):692-702.
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  38. Julian F. Burke (1991). Sticky Technique.In Situ Hybridisation: Application to Developmental Biology and Medicine. Edited by N. Harris and D. G. Wilkinson. Cambridge University Press: Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 40. 288pp. $59.50, £35. [REVIEW] Bioessays 13 (12):692-692.
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  39. Jonathan Kaplan (2005). Marcel Weber, Philosophy of Experimental Biology. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 25:447-449.
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  40. Nils Roll-Hansen (1979). Reductionism in Biological Research: Reflections on Some Historical Case Studies in Experimental Biology. In Jan Bärmark (ed.), Perspectives in Metascience. Kungl. Vetenskaps- Och Vitterhets-Samhället 2--157.
     
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  41. Roger W. Russell (1951). The Comparative Method in the Study of Behaviour. "Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, No. IV, Physiological Mechanisms in Animal Behaviour": Essay. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 2 ([5/8]):251.
     
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  42. J. A. Thomson (1919). The new biology. First Part: The web of life, animal behavior, experimental study of development. Scientia 13 (26):113.
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  43. Marcel Weber (2002). Theory Testing in Experimental Biology: The Chemiosmotic Mechanism of ATP Synthesis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33 (1):29-52.
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  44.  6
    Jérôme Pierrel (2012). An RNA Phage Lab: MS2 in Walter Fiers' Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Ghent, From Genetic Code to Gene and Genome, 1963-1976. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (1):109 - 138.
    The importance of viruses as model organisms is well-established in molecular biology and Max Delbrück's phage group set standards in the DNA phage field. In this paper, I argue that RNA phages, discovered in the 1960s, were also instrumental in the making of molecular biology. As part of experimental systems, RNA phages stood for messenger RNA (mRNA), genes and genome. RNA was thought to mediate information transfers between DNA and proteins. Furthermore, RNA was more manageable at the bench than (...)
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  45.  32
    Mark B. Adams (2000). Last Judgment: The Visionary Biology of J. B. S. Haldane. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):457 - 491.
    This paper seeks to reinterpret the life and work of J. B. S. Haldane by focusing on an illuminating but largely ignored essay he published in 1927, "The Last Judgment" -- the sequel to his better known work, "Daedalus" (1924). This astonishing essay expresses a vision of the human future over the next 40,000,000 years, one that revises and updates Wellsian futurism with the long range implications of the "new biology" for human destiny. That vision served as a kind of (...)
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  46. James Maxwell Little (1961). An Introduction to the Experimental Method. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co..
     
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  47.  44
    Michel Morange (2010). How Evolutionary Biology Presently Pervades Cell and Molecular Biology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):113 - 120.
    The increasing place of evolutionary scenarios in functional biology is one of the major indicators of the present encounter between evolutionary biology and functional biology (such as physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology), the two branches of biology which remained separated throughout the twentieth century. Evolutionary scenarios were not absent from functional biology, but their places were limited, and they did not generate research programs. I compare two examples of these past scenarios with two present-day ones. At least three characteristics distinguish (...)
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  48.  20
    Laurent Loison (2011). French Roots of French Neo-Lamarckisms, 1879-1985. Journal of the History of Biology 44 (4):713 - 744.
    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo) Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured (...)
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  49.  76
    Alejandro Garcia-Rivera, Mark Graves & Carl Neumann (2009). Beauty in the Living World. Zygon 44 (2):243-263.
    Almost all admit that there is beauty in the natural world. Many suspect that such beauty is more than an adornment of nature. Few in our contemporary world suggest that this beauty is an empirical principle of the natural world itself and instead relegate beauty to the eye and mind of the beholder. Guided by theological and scientific insight, the authors propose that such exclusion is no longer tenable, at least in the data of modern biology and in our view (...)
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  50. Richard Creath & Jane Maienschein (eds.) (2000). Biology and Epistemology. Cambridge University Press.
    This set of original essays by some of the best names in philosophy of science explores a range of diverse issues in the intersection of biology and epistemology. It asks whether the study of life requires a special biological approach to knowledge and concludes that it does not. The studies, taken together, help to develop and deepen our understanding of how biology works and what counts as warranted knowledge and as legitimate approaches to the study of life. The first section (...)
     
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