Search results for 'Biomedical Research' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kiarash Aramesh (2014). A Brief History of Biomedical Research Ethics in Iran: Conflict of Paradigms. Developing World Bioethics 14 (2).score: 240.0
    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete reliance (...)
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  2. Malhar N. Kumar (2008). A Review of the Types of Scientific Misconduct in Biomedical Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (3):211-228.score: 240.0
    Biomedical research has increased in magnitude over the last two decades. Increasing number of researchers has led to increase in competition for scarce resources. Researchers have often tried to take the shortest route to success which may involve performing fraudulent research. Science suffers from unethical research as much time, effort and cost is involved in exposing fraud and setting the standards right. It is better for all students of science to be aware of the methods used (...)
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  3. Christopher Tollefsen (2008). Biomedical Research and Beyond: Expanding the Ethics of Inquiry. Routledge.score: 240.0
    Biomedical Research and Beyond: Expanding the Ethics of Inquiry investigates the ethics of biomedical and scientific inquiry, including embryonic research, animal research, genetic enhancement, and fairness in research in the developing world. Core concerns of biomedical and scientific research ethics are then shown also to be key in humanistic areas of inquiry. Biomedical Research and Beyond concludes with a discussion of the virtues that all inquirers, scientific, medical, and humanistic, should (...)
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  4. David B. Resnik (2003). Exploitation in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.score: 240.0
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot (...)
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  5. Thomas H. Murray & Josephine Johnston (eds.) (2010). Trust and Integrity in Biomedical Research: The Case of Financial Conflicts of Interest. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 240.0
    This volume assesses the ethical, quantitative, and qualitative questions posed by the current financing of biomedical research.
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  6. Robert C. Jones & Ray Greek (2014). A Review of the Institute of Medicine's Analysis of Using Chimpanzees in Biomedical Research. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):481-504.score: 240.0
    We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine’s 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that (...)
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  7. Judge Christian Byk (2002). Conflicts of Interests and Access to Information Resulting From Biomedical Research: An International Legal Perspective. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):287-290.score: 240.0
    Recently adopted international texts have given a new focus on conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research. They confirmed ethical review committees as a central point to guarantee individual rights and the effective application of ethical principles. Therefore specific attention should be paid in giving such committees all the facilities necessary to keep them independent and qualified.
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  8. Daniel Steiner (1996). Competing Interests: The Need to Control Conflict of Interests in Biomedical Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):457-468.score: 240.0
    Individual and institutional conflict of interests in biomedical research have becomes matters of increasing concern in recent years. In the United States, the growth in relationships — sponsored research agreements, consultancies, memberships on boards, licensing agreements, and equity ownership — between for-profit corporations and research universities and their scientists has made the problem of conflicts, particularly financial conflicts, more acute. Conflicts can interfere with or compromise important principles and obligations of researchers and their institutions, e.g., adherence (...)
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  9. Emma Keuleyan (2010). Liberty to Decide on Dual Use Biomedical Research: An Acknowledged Necessity. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):43-58.score: 240.0
    Humanity entered the twenty-first century with revolutionary achievements in biomedical research. At the same time multiple “dual-use” results have been published. The battle against infectious diseases is meeting new challenges, with newly emerging and re-emerging infections. Both natural disaster epidemics, such as SARS, avian influenza, haemorrhagic fevers, XDR and MDR tuberculosis and many others, and the possibility of intentional mis-use, such as letters containing anthrax spores in USA, 2001, have raised awareness of the real threats. Many great men, (...)
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  10. David B. Resnick (1999). Privatized Biomedical Research, Public Fears, and the Hazards of Government Regulation: Lessons From Stem Cell Research. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 7 (3):273-287.score: 240.0
    This paper discusses the hazards of regulating controversial biomedical research in light of the emergence of powerful, multi-national biotechnology corporations. Prohibitions on the use of government funds can simply force controversial research into the private sphere, and unilateral or multilateral research bans can simply encourage multi-national companies to conduct research in countries that lack restrictive laws. Thus, a net effect of government regulation is that research migrates from the public to the private sphere. Because (...)
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  11. Jean-Paul Gaudillière (2006). Normal Pathways: Controlling Isotopes and Building Biomedical Research in Postwar France. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):737 - 764.score: 240.0
    During the late 1940s and 1950s, radioisotopes became important resources for biological and medical research. This article explores the strategies used by French researchers to get access to this material, either from the local Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) or from suppliers in the United States or United Kingdom. It focuses on two aspects of this process: the transatlantic circulation of both isotopes and associated instrumentation; the regulation of use and access by the administrative bodies governing research in France. (...)
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  12. Julian Reiss (2010). In Favour of a Millian Proposal to Reform Biomedical Research. Synthese 177 (3):427 - 447.score: 240.0
    One way to make philosophy of science more socially relevant is to attend to specific scientific practises that affect society to a great extent. One such practise is biomedical research. This paper looks at contemporary U.S. biomedical research in particular and argues that it suffers from important epistemic, moral and socioeconomic failings. It then discusses and criticises existing approaches to improve on the status quo, most prominently by Thomas Pogge (a political philosopher), Joseph Stiglitz (a Nobel-prize (...)
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  13. M. B. Weyden (2007). The ICMJE and URM: Providing Independent Advice for the Conduct of Biomedical Research and Publication. Mens Sana Monographs 5 (1):15.score: 240.0
    _The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is a working group of editors of selected medical journals that meets annually. Founded in Vancouver, Canada, in 1978, it currently consists of 11 member journals and a representative of the US National Library of Medicine. The major purpose of the Committee is to address and provide guidance for the conduct and publishing of biomedical research and the ethical tenets underpinning these activities. This advice is detailed in the Committee's _ (...)
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  14. Pēteris Zilgalvis (2002). The Council of Europe's Instruments on Biomedical Research: How is Conflict of Interest Addressed? [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):277-281.score: 240.0
    Conflict of interest is an issue that has been put in the spotlight by the commercial application of the new biomedical technologies. This paper presents the approach of the Council of Europe and the binding legal instruments to deal with this problem. The main focus is on the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, and its draft additional Protocol on Biomedical Research.
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  15. L. McHenry (2008). Biomedical Research and Corporate Interests: A Question of Academic Freedom. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):146.score: 240.0
    _The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of (...)
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  16. Sir David Weatherall (2003). Problems for Biomedical Research at the Academia-Industrial Interface. Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (1):43-48.score: 216.0
    Throughout much of the world, universities have driven towards industrial partnerships. This collaboration, which, in the biochemical field at least, has to continue if potential benefits for patients are to be realised, has brought with it a number of problems. These include the neglect of long-term research in favour of short-term projects, the curtailing of free dissemination of research information within university departments and the biasing of results of clinical trials by the financial interests of the investigators.It is (...)
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  17. James V. Lavery (ed.) (2007). Ethical Issues in International Biomedical Research: A Casebook. Oxford University Press.score: 210.0
    No other volume has this scope. Students in bioethics, public and international health, and ethics will find this book particularly useful.
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  18. Dannie di Tillio-gonzalez & Ruth L. Fischbach (2008). Harmonizing Regulations for Biomedical Research: A Critical Analysis of the Us and Venezuelan Systems. Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):167-177.score: 210.0
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  19. Antonio Casado da Rocha & José Antonio Seoane (2008). Alternative Consent Models for Biobanks: The New Spanish Law on Biomedical Research. Bioethics 22 (8):440-447.score: 210.0
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  20. Pēteris Zilgalvis (2004). Placebo Use in Council of Europe Biomedical Research Instruments. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):15-22.score: 210.0
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  21. Baruch A. Brody (1998). The Ethics of Biomedical Research: An International Perspective. Oxford University Press.score: 192.0
    A broad critical review of national policies on biomedical research - human, epidemiologic, clinical trials, genetic, reproductive, etc.
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  22. R. R. Kishore (2006). Biomedical Research and Mining of the Poor: The Need for Their Exclusion. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):175-183.score: 192.0
    Almost all ethical guidelines and legislative policies concerning biomedical research involving human subjects contain provisions about relevance of research for the participating populations, informed consent, adequate care for research induced injuries and several other safeguards but the poor continue to suffer. Globalization has further aggravated poor people’s vulnerability by exposing them to international markets. Since the developing countries are abode of higher population of the poor they have become the unholy mines of this human ore for (...)
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  23. David B. Resnik (2012). Limits on Risks for Healthy Volunteers in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (2):137-149.score: 192.0
    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the (...)
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  24. Susan Eastwood, Pamela Derish, Evangeline Leash & Stephen Ordway (1996). Ethical Issues in Biomedical Research: Perceptions and Practices of Postdoctoral Research Fellows Responding to a Survey. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (1):89-114.score: 192.0
    We surveyed 1005 postdoctoral fellows by questionnaire about ethical matters related to biomedical research and publishing; 33% responded. About 18% of respondents said they had taken a course in research ethics, and about 31% said they had had a course that devoted some time to research ethics. A substantial majority stated willingness to grant other investigators, except competitors, access to their data before publication and to share research materials. Respondents’ opinions about contributions justifying authorship of (...)
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  25. Merryn Ekberg (2012). Reassessing the Role of the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee. Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (4):335-352.score: 186.0
    The role of the Research Ethics Committee (REC) in the design, conduct and dissemination of scientific research is still evolving and many important questions remain unanswered. Hence, the aim of this paper is to address some of the uncertainty that exists around the role and responsibilities of RECs and to discuss some of the controversy that exists over the criteria that RECs should follow when evaluating a research proposal. The discussion is organised around five of the major (...)
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  26. Catherine M. Klein (2007). Creation and Use of Transgenic Animals in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research. Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):7-26.score: 186.0
    The creation of transgenic animals has application in the following areas of pharmaceutical and biomedical research: the production of biopharmaceuticals for human use; the production of organs for xenotransplantation; and the generation of animal models for human genetic diseases. Nuclear transfer technology offers a more precise and efficient way of performing genetic modification and creating transgenic animals than the more traditional method of pronuclear microinjection. This paper will review nuclear transfer as ameans of producing transgenic animals; introduce advantages (...)
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  27. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín & Kristen Intemann (2011). Feminist Resources for Biomedical Research: Lessons From the HPV Vaccines. Hypatia 26 (1):79-101.score: 180.0
    Several feminist philosophers of science have argued that social and political values are compatible with, and may even enhance, scientific objectivity. A variety of normative recommendations have emerged regarding how to identify, manage, and critically evaluate social values in science. In particular, several feminist theorists have argued that scientific communities ought to: 1) include researchers with diverse experiences, interests, and values, with equal opportunity and authority to scrutinize research; 2) investigate or “study up” scientific phenomena from the perspectives, interests, (...)
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  28. John P. Gluck & Steven R. Kubacki (1991). Animals in Biomedical Research: The Undermining Effect of the Rhetoric of the Besieged. Ethics and Behavior 1 (3):157 – 173.score: 180.0
    It is correctly asserted that the intensity of the current debate over the use of animals in biomedical research is unprecedented. The extent of expressed animosity and distrust has stunned many researchers. In response, researchers have tended to take a strategic defensive posture, which involves the assertion of several abstract positions that serve to obstruct resolution of the debate. Those abstractions include the notions that the animal protection movement is trivial and purely anti-intellectual in scope, that all science (...)
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  29. Annette Rid & David Wendler (2011). A Framework for Risk-Benefit Evaluations in Biomedical Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (2):141-179.score: 180.0
    One of the key ethical requirements for biomedical research is that it have an acceptable risk-benefit profile (Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady 2000). The International Conference of Harmonization guidelines mandate that clinical trials should be initiated and continued only if “the anticipated benefits justify the risks” (1996). Guidelines from the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences state that biomedical research is acceptable only if the “potential benefits and risks are reasonably balanced” (2002). U.S. federal regulations require (...)
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  30. Inmaculada de Melo-martín & Kristen Intemann (2011). Feminist Resources for Biomedical Research: Lessons From the HPV Vaccines. Hypatia 26 (1):79 - 101.score: 180.0
    Several feminist philosophers of science have argued that social and political values are compatible with, and may even enhance, scientific objectivity. A variety of normative recommendations have emerged regarding how to identify, manage, and critically evaluate social values in science. In particular, several feminist theorists have argued that scientific communities ought to: 1) include researchers with diverse experiences, interests, and values, with equal opportunity and authority to scrutinize research; 2) investigate or "study up" scientific phenomena from the perspectives, interests, (...)
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  31. R. Macklin (2010). Intertwining Biomedical Research and Public Health in HIV Microbicide Research. Public Health Ethics 3 (3):199-209.score: 180.0
    Finding an effective microbicide that could substantially lower women’s risk of acquiring HIV infection is an ethical imperative. Women and girls continue to be disproportionally affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethics guidelines for conducting preventive HIV microbicide trials call for steps that intertwine biomedical research and public health. Ethical considerations include adequate studies of the safety of microbicides, the use of placebo controls in future trials once a microbicide is shown to be effective, whether leftover microbicide from (...)
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  32. Richard R. Sharp & Morris W. Foster (2007). Grappling with Groups: Protecting Collective Interests in Biomedical Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (4):321 – 337.score: 180.0
    Strategies for protecting historically disadvantaged groups have been extensively debated in the context of genetic variation research, making this a useful starting point in examining the protection of social groups from harm resulting from biomedical research. We analyze research practices developed in response to concerns about the involvement of indigenous communities in studies of genetic variation and consider their potential application in other contexts. We highlight several conceptual ambiguities and practical challenges associated with the protection of (...)
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  33. Pauline E. Osamor & Nancy Kass (2012). Decision-Making and Motivation to Participate in Biomedical Research in Southwest Nigeria. Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):87-95.score: 180.0
    Motivations and decision-making styles that influence participation in biomedical research vary across study types, cultures, and countries. While there is a small amount of literature on informed consent in non-western cultures, few studies have examined how participants make the decision to join research. This study was designed to identify the factors motivating people to participate in biomedical research in a traditional Nigerian community, assess the degree to which participants involve others in the decision-making process, and (...)
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  34. Philip Kitcher (2009). Biomedical Research, Neglected Diseases, and Well-Ordered Science. Theoria 24 (3):263-282.score: 180.0
    In this paper we make a proposal for reforming biomedical research that is aimed to align research more closely with the so-called fair-share principle according to which the proportions of global resources assigned to different diseases should agree with the ratios of human suffering associated with those diseases.
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  35. Antonio Casado Rochdaa & José Antonio Seoane (2008). Alternative Consent Models for Biobanks: The New Spanish Law on Biomedical Research. Bioethics 22 (8):440-447.score: 180.0
    This article provides an overview of recent contributions to the debate on the ethical use of previously collected biobank samples, as well as a country report about how this issue has been regulated in Spain by means of the new Biomedical Research Act, enacted in the summer of 2007. By contrasting the Spanish legal situation with the wider discourse of international bioethics, we identify and discuss a general trend moving from the traditional requirements of informed consent towards new (...)
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  36. Christiane Auray-Blais & Johane Patenaude (2006). A Biobank Management Model Applicable to Biomedical Research. BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-9.score: 180.0
    Background The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs), especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the study, the greatest fear being the lack of participant protection and uncontrolled use of biological samples or related genetic data. The risks of discrimination and stigmatization are (...)
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  37. Charles Weijer & E. J. Emanuel, Protecting Communities in Biomedical Research.score: 180.0
    Although for the last 50 years, ethicists dealing with human experimentation have focused primarily on the need to protect individual research subjects and vulnerable groups, biomedical research, especially in genetics, now requires the establishment of standards for the protection of communities. We have developed such a strategy, based on five steps. (i) Identification of community characteristics relevant to the biomedical research setting, (ii) delineation of a typology of different types of communities using these characteristics, (iii) (...)
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  38. Janet L. Brody, David G. Scherer, Robert D. Annett & Melody Pearson-Bish (2003). Voluntary Assent in Biomedical Research with Adolescents: A Comparison of Parent and Adolescent Views. Ethics and Behavior 13 (1):79 – 95.score: 180.0
    An informed consent and voluntary assent in biomedical research with adolescents is contingent on a variety of factors, including adolescent and parent perceptions of research risk, benefit, and decision-making autonomy. Thirty-seven adolescents with asthma and their parents evaluated a high or low aversion form of a pediatric asthma research vignette and provided an enrollment decision; their perceptions of family influence over the participation decision; and evaluations of risk, aversion, benefit, and burden of study procedures. Adolescents and (...)
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  39. E. Christensen (2012). The Re-Emergence of the Liberal-Communitarian Debate in Bioethics: Exercising Self-Determination and Participation in Biomedical Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (3):255-276.score: 180.0
    Biomedical research has brought to the fore the issue of which rights and duties we have to each other and society. Several scholars have advocated reframing the notion of participation, arguing that we have a moral duty to participate in research from which we all benefit. However, less attention has been paid to how we justify and defend the concept of self-determination and what the implications are in a biomedical setting. The author discusses the value and (...)
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  40. Matthew Weed (2004). Ethics, Regulation, and Biomedical Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (4):361-368.score: 180.0
    : Controversy has surrounded the institutions that facilitate discussion and regulation of American biomedical research for years. Recent challenges to the legitimacy of the President's Council on Bioethics have been focused on stem cell research. These arguments represent an opportunity to reconsider the legislation under which stem cell research is regulated, as well as to consider preexisting bodies like the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and National Bioethics Advisory Commission. This paper proposes a Federal Life Sciences Policy (...)
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  41. Dannie Di Tillio-Gonzalez Ruth L. Fischbach (2008). Harmonizing Regulations for Biomedical Research: A Critical Analysis of the Us and Venezuelan Systems. Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):167-177.score: 180.0
    This article aims to compare the national legal systems that regulate biomedical research in an industrialized country (United States) and a developing country (Venezuela). A new international order is emerging in which Europe, Japan and the United States (US) are revising common guidelines and harmonizing standards. In this article, we analyze – as an example – the US system. This system is controlled by a federal agency structured to regulate research funded by the federal government uniformly, either (...)
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  42. Josephine Johnston (2010). Financial Conflicts of Interest in Biomedical Research. In Thomas H. Murray & Josephine Johnston (eds.), Trust and Integrity in Biomedical Research: The Case of Financial Conflicts of Interest. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1.score: 180.0
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  43. E. Lamas, M. Ferrer, A. Molina, R. Salinas, A. Hevia, A. Bota, D. Feinholz, M. Fuchs, R. Schramm, J. -C. Tealdi & S. Zorrilla (2010). A Comparative Analysis of Biomedical Research Ethics Regulation Systems in Europe and Latin America with Regard to the Protection of Human Subjects. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):750-753.score: 180.0
    The European project European and Latin American Systems of Ethics Regulation of Biomedical Research Project (EULABOR) has carried out the first comparative analysis of ethics regulation systems for biomedical research in seven countries in Europe and Latin America, evaluating their roles in the protection of human subjects. We developed a conceptual and methodological framework defining ‘ethics regulation system for biomedical research’ as a set of actors, institutions, codes and laws involved in overseeing the ethics (...)
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  44. M. Quigley (2007). Non-Human Primates: The Appropriate Subjects of Biomedical Research? Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (11):655-658.score: 180.0
    Following the publication of the Weatherall report on the use of non-human primates in research, this paper reflects on how to provide appropriate and ethical models for research beneficial to humankind. Two of the main justifications for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research are analysed. These are the “least-harm/greatest-good” argument and the “capacity” argument. This paper argues that these are equally applicable when considering whether humans are appropriate subjects of biomedical research.
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  45. Julian Reiss & Philip Kitcher (2010). Biomedical Research, Neglected Diseases, and Well-Ordered Science. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 24 (3):263-282.score: 180.0
    In this paper we make a proposal for reforming biomedical research that is aimed to align re-search more closely with the so-called fair-share principle according to which the proportions of global resources as-signed to different diseases should agree with the ratios of human suffering associated with those diseases.
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  46. Nicolas Rasmussen (2002). Of `Small Men', Big Science and Bigger Business: The Second World War and Biomedical Research in the United States. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (2):115-146.score: 180.0
    The Second World War is commonly said to have ushered in theera of `big science' in the United States. However, at least inpractically-oriented biomedical research, the American governmentadopted modes of sponsorship that were commonplace between scientistsand industry before the war. Furthermore, many life scientistsleading wartime projects were already familiar with industrialcollaboration. This essay argues that the new federal regimes introduced in the late 1940s and 1950s were more important than wartime experience in shaping the character of biomedical (...)
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  47. Christian Byk (2002). Conflicts of Interests and Access to Information Resulting From Biomedical Research: An International Legal Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):287-290.score: 180.0
    Recently adopted international texts have given a new focus on conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research. They confirmed ethical review committees as a central point to guarantee individual rights and the effective application of ethical principles. Therefore specific attention should be paid in giving such committees all the facilities necessary to keep them independent and qualified.
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  48. Gary Edmond (2008). Judging the Scientific and Medical Literature: Some Legal Implications of Changes to Biomedical Research and Publication. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 28 (3):523-561.score: 180.0
    Over the last two decades judges (and regulators) in all common law jurisdictions have increased their reliance on published medical and scientific literature. During the same period biomedical research has undergone fundamental and unprecedented change. This article explores some of the changes to the location, organization and funding of biomedical research in order to assess their implications for liability and proof. Focusing on peer review and publication, along with reforms promoted by the editors of some of (...)
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  49. William M. Sage (2010). Some Principles Require Principals : Why Banning 'Conflicts of Interest' Won't Solve Incentive Problems in Biomedical Research. In Thomas H. Murray & Josephine Johnston (eds.), Trust and Integrity in Biomedical Research: The Case of Financial Conflicts of Interest. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 180.0
     
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  50. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1995). Two Models of Models in Biomedical Research. Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):141-160.score: 176.0
    Biomedical researchers claim there is significant biomedical information about humans which can be discovered only through experiments on intact animal systems (AMA p. 2). Although epidemiological studies, computer simulations, clinical investigation, and cell and tissue cultures have become important weapons in the biomedical scientists' arsenal, these are primarily "adjuncts to the use of animals in research" (Sigma Xi p. 76). Controlled laboratory experiments are the core of the scientific enterprise. Biomedical researchers claim these should be (...)
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