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  1. Bjørn Grinde (2014). Which Evolutionary Process, and Where Do We Want to Go? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):425-426.
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  2. Bjørn Grinde (2013). The Evolutionary Rationale for Consciousness. Biological Theory 7 (3):227-236.
    To answer the question of why we have consciousness, I propose the following evolutionary trajectory leading to this feature: Nervous systems appeared for the purpose of orchestrating behavior. As a rule of thumb the challenges facing an animal concern either approach or avoidance. These two options were originally hard-wired as reflexes. Improvements in adaptability of response came with an expansion of the computational aspect of the system and a concomitant shift from simple reflexes to instinctual behavior, learning, and eventually, feelings. (...)
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  3. Bjørn Grinde (2011). God in the Hands of Future Science. World Futures 66 (5):351-362.
    There is reasonable evidence suggesting that humans have an innate tendency toward being religious. Consequently, religion is unlikely to disappear; the question then is how this feature will impact on future society. Three scenarios are discussed: One, science will dominate; two, religion will dominate; and three, the present conflict between the two is resolved. The latter scenario may happen through a realization that religion has the potential for doing more good than bad, in terms of individual quality of life and (...)
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  4. Bjørn Grinde (2005). Darwinian Happiness: Can the Evolutionary Perspective on Well-Being Help Us Improve Society? World Futures 61 (4):317 – 329.
    The concept of Darwinian Happiness was coined to help people take advantage of knowledge on how evolution has shaped the brain; as processes within this organ are the main contributors to well-being. Fortuitously, the concept has implications that may prove beneficial for society: Compassionate behavior offers more in terms of Darwinian Happiness than malicious behavior; and the probability of obtaining sustainable development may be improved by pointing out that consumption beyond sustenance is not important for well-being. It is difficult to (...)
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