Search results for 'Body, Human' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  71
    Mark Johnson (2007). The Meaning of the Body: Aesthetics of Human Understanding. University of Chicago Press.
    The belief that the mind and the body are separate and that the mind is the source of all meaning has been a part of Western culture for centuries. Both philosophers and scientists have questioned this dualism, but their efforts have rarely converged. Many philosophers continue to rely on disembodied models of human thought, while scientists tend to reduce the complex process of thinking to a merely physical phenomenon. In The Meaning of the Body , Mark Johnson continues his (...)
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  2. V. Slaughter, M. Heron & S. Sim (2002). Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy. Cognition 85 (3):71-81.
    Two studies investigated the development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. In Study 1, infants of 12,15 and 18 months were tested in a standard preferential looking experiment, in which they were shown paired line drawings of typical and scrambled bodies. Results indicated that the 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for the scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes, while the younger infants did not show differential responding. In Study 2, 12- and 18-month-olds were tested with (...)
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  3.  12
    Jean Bethke Elshtain & J. Timothy Cloyd (eds.) (1995). Politics and the Human Body: Assault on Dignity. Vanderbilt University Press.
    Who or what determines the right to die? Do advancing reproductive technologies change reproductive rights? What forces influence cultural standards of beauty? How do discipline, punishment, and torture reflect our attitudes about the human body? In this challenging new book, Jean Bethke Elshtain, a nationally recognized scholar in political science and philosophy, and J. Timothy Cloyd, a strong new voice in social and political science, have assembled a collection of thought-provoking essays on these issues written by some of the (...)
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  4.  22
    Stefanie Rembold (2014). Human Enhancement’? It’s All About ‘Body Modification’! Why We Should Replace the Term ‘Human Enhancement’ with ‘Body Modification’. NanoEthics 8 (3):307-315.
    The current use of the term ‘Human Enhancement’ implies that it is a modern, new phenomenon in which, for the first time in history, humans are able to break through their god or nature-given bodily limits thanks to the application of new technologies. The debate about the legitimation of ‘HE’, the selection of methods permitted, and the scope and purpose of these modern enhancement technologies has been dominated by ethical considerations, and has highlighted problems with the definition of the (...)
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  5.  35
    Alexandra George (2004). Is `Property' Necessary? On Owning the Human Body and its Parts. Res Publica 10 (1):15-42.
    Courts usually treat control over human bodies and body parts as a property issue and find that people do not have property rights in themselves. This contradicts the liberal philosophical principle that people should be able to perform any self-regarding actions that do not cause harm to others. The philosophical inconsistencies under pinning the legal treatment of body parts arguably stem from a misplaced judicial preoccupation with‘ property ’. A better approach would be to hold a policy inquiry into (...)
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  6.  12
    Michel Feher, Ramona Naddaff & Nadia Tazi (1991). Fragments for a History of the Human Body. Philosophy East and West 41 (2):276-278.
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  7.  16
    David W. Meyers (1990). The Human Body and the Law. Stanford University Press.
    Mother and Fetus: Rights in Conflict A. INTRODUCTION After fertilization of the female egg (ovum) with male sperm the resulting zygote may implant ...
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  8. Samuel Todes (1990). The Human Body as Material Subject of the World. Garland Pub..
  9.  12
    David W. Meyers (2006). The Human Body and the Law: A Medico-Legal Study. Aldine Transaction.
    Thus, Meyers provides a valuable account, not only of current medical attitudes, but also of relevant case and statute law as it stands at present.
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  10. H. ten Have, Jos V. M. Welie & Stuart F. Spicker (1998). Ownership of the Human Body Philosophical Considerations on the Use of the Human Body and its Parts in Healthcare.
     
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  11. Douglas C. Long (1964). The Philosophical Concept of a Human Body. Philosophical Review 73 (July):321-337.
    I argue in this paper that philosophers have not clearly introduced the concept of a body in terms of which the problem of other minds and its solutions have been traditionally stated; that one can raise fatal objections to attempts to introduce this concept; and that the particular form of the problem of other minds which is stated in terms of the concept is confused and requires no solution. The concept of a "body" which may or may not be the (...)
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  12.  10
    Jack Baker (2011). Review of Jonathan CK Wells's The Evolutionary Biology of Human Body Fatness: Thrift and Control (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010). [REVIEW] Human Nature 22 (4):439-443.
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  13.  9
    Y. Michael Barilan (2005). The Story of the Body and the Story of the Person: Towards an Ethics of Representing Human Bodies and Body-Parts. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (2):193-205.
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  14.  3
    Franklin C. Shontz & Ronald D. McNish (1972). The Human Body as Stimulus Object: Estimates of Distances Between Body Landmarks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (1):20.
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  15.  4
    Kienhow Goh (2015). Fichte on the Human Body as an Instrument of Perception. History of Philosophy Quarterly 32 (1):37-56.
    This paper considers what Fichte's conception of the human body as an instrument of perception entails for his radical principle of the primacy of practice. According to Fichte, perception is a function of what he calls the "articulation" of the human body, as opposed to its "organization." I first provide an interpretation of his theory of the human-bodily articulation by arguing that he construes it as a product of culture as well as nature. On this basis, I (...)
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  16.  5
    Bárbara Nascimento Duarte (2014). Entangled Agencies: New Individual Practices of Human-Technology Hybridism Through Body Hacking. NanoEthics 8 (3):275-285.
    This essay develops its idiosyncrasy by concentrating primarily on the trend of body hacking. The practitioners, self-defined as body hackers, self-made cyborgs or grinders, work in different ways to develop functional and physiological modifications through the contributions of technology. Their goal is to develop by themselves an empirically man-technique fusion. These dynamic “scientific” subcultures are producing astonishing innovations. From pocket-sized kits that sample human DNA, microchip implants that keep tabs on our internal organs, blood sugar levels or moods, and (...)
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  17.  7
    Erich Ritter & Raid Amin (2012). Effect of Human Body Position on the Swimming Behavior of Bull Sharks, Carcharhinus Leucas. Society and Animals 20 (3):225-235.
    This study tested whether human body orientation can influence the behavior of bull sharks by examining sharks’ approach distances from a person positioned vertically or horizontally in the water. Results showed that bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, kept a significantly greater distance when the test subject was standing in chest-deep water with his head above water versus lying on the ocean floor. Furthermore, larger bull sharks in the immediate area withdrew when the subject entered the water.
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  18.  5
    Raid Amin & Erich Ritter (2012). Effect of Human Body Position on the Swimming Behavior of Bull Sharks, Carcharhinus Leucas. Society and Animals 20 (3):225-235.
    This study tested whether human body orientation can influence the behavior of bull sharks by examining sharks’ approach distances from a person positioned vertically or horizontally in the water. Results showed that bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, kept a significantly greater distance when the test subject was standing in chest-deep water with his head above water versus lying on the ocean floor. Furthermore, larger bull sharks in the immediate area withdrew when the subject entered the water.
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  19.  2
    Renato Alves de Oliveira (2013). A relação entre o corpo e a alma do ser humano na teologia cristã: uma aproximação histórica e contemporânea. (The relation between body and soul of human being in Christian Theology: A historical and contemporary approach). Horizonte 11 (31):1081-1105.
    A relação entre o corpo e a alma do ser humano na teologia cristã: uma aproximação histórica e contemporânea. (The relation between body and soul of human being in Christian Theology: A historical and contemporary approach) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n31p1081 O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar como se deu, no plano histórico, e se dá, atualmente, na contemporaneidade, as relações entre o corpo e a alma, no âmbito da antropologia cristã. Historicamente, primeiro se constatou a existência do corpo e da (...)
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  20. Shawn Loht (forthcoming). On the Concept of the Human Body in Heraclitus. Proceedings of the Southeast Philosophy Congress.
    Explores how the fragments of Heraclitus might yield an implicit understanding of the human body in distinction to the soul. In the history of scholarship on Heraclitus, soul is a much better understood concept, whereas it is normally assumed that Heraclitus, along with other figures of early Greek thought, shows only the most limited comprehension of the human being in terms of bodily form or substance. In this work I sketch some different ways in which Heraclitus’ accounts of (...)
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  21. Louise Barrett (2011). Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds. Princeton University Press.
    When a chimpanzee stockpiles rocks as weapons or when a frog sends out mating calls, we might easily assume these animals know their own motivations--that they use the same psychological mechanisms that we do. But as Beyond the Brain indicates, this is a dangerous assumption because animals have different evolutionary trajectories, ecological niches, and physical attributes. How do these differences influence animal thinking and behavior? Removing our human-centered spectacles, Louise Barrett investigates the mind and brain and offers an alternative (...)
     
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  22. Thomas Hobbes & Mary Whiton Calkins (1989). Metaphysical Writings Elements of Philosophy Concerning Body , Human Nature , Leviathan.
     
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  23.  9
    C. Lenk & K. Beier (2012). Is the Commercialisation of Human Tissue and Body Material Forbidden in the Countries of the European Union? Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (6):342-346.
    The human body and its parts are widely perceived as matters beyond commercial usage. This belief is codified in several national and European documents. This so-called ‘no-property rule’ is held to be the default position across the countries of the European Union. However, a closer look at the most pertinent national and European documents, and also current practices in the field, reveals a gradual model of commercialisation of human tissue. In particular, we will argue that the ban on (...)
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  24. Kevin Corcoran (ed.) (2001). Soul, Body, and Survival: Essays on the Metaphysics of Human Persons. Cornell University Press.
    This collection brings together cutting-edge research on the metaphysics of human nature and soul-body dualism.Kevin Corcoran's collection, Soul, Body, and ...
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  25.  4
    Walter Glannon (2011). Brain, Body, and Mind: Neuroethics with a Human Face. Oxford University Press.
    This book is a discussion of the most timely and contentious issues in the two branches of neuroethics: the neuroscience of ethics; and the ethics of neuroscience. Drawing upon recent work in psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery, it develops a phenomenologically inspired theory of neuroscience to explain the brain-mind relation. The idea that the mind is shaped not just by the brain but also by the body and how the human subject interacts with the environment has significant implications for free (...)
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  26.  26
    Radhika Rao (2007). Genes and Spleens: Property, Contract, or Privacy Rights in the Human Body? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (3):371-382.
    This article compares three frameworks for legal regulation of the human body. Property law systematically favors those who use the body to create commercial products. Yet contract and privacy rights cannot compete with the property paradigm, which alone affords a complete bundle of rights enforceable against the whole world. In the face of researchers' property rights, the theoretical freedom to contract and the meager interest in privacy leave those who supply body parts vulnerable to exploitation.
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  27. Mirko Farina (forthcoming). Beyond the Brain - How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.
    Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds is an eye-opening and thought- provoking book that sets out a much-needed contribution to the study of the relationship between animals, cognition and the environment. The volume provides remarkable new insights into how to understand animal (including human) behavior, raises interesting questions about the role of environmental affordances in the emergence of complex cognitive processes and provides the reader with a refreshing break from the wearisome excess (...)
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  28.  25
    Mark Schweda & Silke Schicktanz (2009). The "Spare Parts Person"? Conceptions of the Human Body and Their Implications for Public Attitudes Towards Organ Donation and Organ Sale. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4 (1):4-.
    BackgroundThe increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of (...)
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  29.  6
    Matthew R. Longo & Andrea Serino (2012). Tool Use Induces Complex and Flexible Plasticity of Human Body Representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):229 - 230.
    Plasticity of body representation fundamentally underpins human tool use. Recent studies have demonstrated remarkably complex plasticity of body representation in humans, showing that such plasticity (1) occurs flexibly across multiple time scales and (2) involves multiple body representations responding differently to tool use. Such findings reveal remarkable sophistication of body plasticity in humans, suggesting that Vaesen may overestimate the similarity of such mechanisms in humans and non-human primates.
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  30.  13
    Filip Karfík (2012). The Constitution of the Human Body in Plato's Timaeus. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):167-181.
    The author emphasizes the fact that the largest part of Plato’s Timaeus deals with human nature and offers a detailed account of the constitution of the human body. He then lists the parallels and the differences between the constitution of the world body and the human body. The central part of the paper deals with Plato’s explanation of the persistence of the human body within a bodily environment which causes its dissolution. The author pays a special (...)
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  31.  34
    Ludwig Siep (2003). Normative Aspects of the Human Body. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (2):171 – 185.
    In cultural history the human body has been the object of a great variety of opposing valuations, ranging from "imago dei" to "the devil's tool". At present, the body is commonly regarded as a mere means to fulfill the wishes of its "owner". According to these wishes it can be technically improved in an unlimited way. Against this view the text argues for a conception of the human body as a valuable "common heritage". The "normal" human body (...)
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  32.  57
    Thérèse-Anne Druart (2000). The Human Soul's Individuation and its Survival After the Body's Death: Avicenna on the Causal Relation Between Body and Soul. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 10 (2):259-273.
    As for Avicenna the human soul is a complete substance which does\nnot inhere in the body nor is imprinted in it, asserting its survival\nafter the death of the body seems easy. Yet, he needs the body to\nexplain its individuation. The paper analyzes Avicenna's arguments\nin the De anima sections, V, 3 and 4, of the Shifa' in order to explore\nthe exact causal relation there is between the human soul and its\nbody and confronts these arguments with relevant passages in the\nMetaphysics. (...)
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  33.  78
    Loane Skene (2007). Legal Rights in Human Bodies, Body Parts and Tissue. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (2):129-133.
    This paper outlines the current common law principles that protect people’s interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissue without conferring the rights of full legal ownership. It does not include the recent statutory amendments in jurisdictions such as New South Wales and the United Kingdom. It argues that at common law, people do not own their own bodies or excised bodily material. People can authorise the removal of their bodily material and its use, either during life or after (...)
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  34.  40
    Hillel Steiner (2004). The Right to Trade in Human Body Parts. In Jonathan Seglow (ed.), Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy. F. Cass Publishers 187-193.
    This essay challenges the coherence of arguments brought in support of prohibiting the sale of human body parts. Considerations of neither social utility nor individual rights nor avoidance of exploitation seem sufficient to ground such a prohibition. Indeed, they may be sufficient to invalidate it.
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  35.  41
    Gerrit K. Kimsma & Evert van Leeuwen (2005). The Human Body as Field of Conflict Between Discourses. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (6):559-574.
    The approach to AIDS as a disease and a threat for social discrimination is used as an example to illustrate a conceptual thesis. This thesis is a claim that concerns what we call a medical issue or not, what is medicalised or needs to be demedicalised. In the friction between medicalisation and demedicalisation as discursive strategies the latter approach can only be effected through the employment of discourses or discursive strategies other than medicine, such as those of the law and (...)
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  36.  13
    Ellen Stansell (2010). Suturing the Body Corporate (Divine and Human) in the Brahmanic Traditions. Sophia 49 (2):237-259.
    In this discussion, we ponder the discourse about the ‘body of the Divine’ in the Indian tradition. Beginning with the Vedas, we survey the major eras and thinkers of that tradition, considering various notions of the Supreme Divine Being it produced. For each, we ask: is the Divine embodied? If so, then in what way? What is the nature of the body of the Divine, and what is its relationship to human bodies? What is the value of the body (...)
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  37.  13
    Barry Smith (2004). Bodily Systems and the Spatial-Functional Structure of the Human Body. Studies in Health and Technology Informatics 102:39–63.
    The human body is a system made of systems. The body is divided into bodily systems proper, such as the endocrine and circulatory systems, which are subdivided into many sub-systems at a variety of levels, whereby all systems and subsystems engage in massive causal interaction with each other and with their surrounding environments. Here we offer an explicit definition of bodily system and provide a framework for understanding their causal interactions. Medical sciences provide at best informal accounts of basic (...)
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  38.  5
    L. Hunt (2004). The 18th-Century Body and the Origins of Human Rights. Diogenes 51 (3):41-56.
    Recent historical work on changing perceptions of the human body has been influenced by Michel Foucault’s contention that the self of western individualism was created by new regimes of disciplining the body. A different approach is taken here, one that focuses on how individual bodies came to be viewed as separate and inviolable, that is, as autonomous. The separateness and inviolability of bodies can be traced in the histories of bodily practices as different as portraiture and legal torture. After (...)
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  39.  17
    Silke Schicktanz (2007). Why the Way We Consider the Body Matters – Reflections on Four Bioethical Perspectives on the Human Body. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):30.
    Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy.
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  40.  20
    Barry Smith, Igor Papakin & Katherine Munn (2003). Bodily Systems and the Modular Structure of the Human Body. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (Lecture Notes on Artificial Intelligence 2780) 9:86-90.
    Medical science conceives the human body as a system comprised of many subsystems at a variety of levels. At the highest level are bodily systems proper, such as the endocrine system, which are central to our understanding of human anatomy, and play a key role in diagnosis and in dynamic modeling as well as in medical pedagogy and computer visualization. But there is no explicit definition of what a bodily system is; such informality is acceptable in documentation created (...)
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  41.  7
    Filip Karfík (2012). The Constitution of the Human Body in Plato's Timaeus. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):167-181.
    The author emphasizes the fact that the largest part of Plato’s Timaeus deals with human nature and offers a detailed account of the constitution of the human body. He then lists the parallels and the differences between the constitution of the world body and the human body. The central part of the paper deals with Plato’s explanation of the persistence of the human body within a bodily environment which causes its dissolution. The author pays a special (...)
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  42.  20
    Filip Karfík (2012). The Constitution of the Human Body in Plato's Timaeus. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):167-181.
    The author emphasizes the fact that the largest part of Plato’s Timaeus deals with human nature and offers a detailed account of the constitution of the human body. He then lists the parallels and the differences between the constitution of the world body and the human body. The central part of the paper deals with Plato’s explanation of the persistence of the human body within a bodily environment which causes its dissolution. The author pays a special (...)
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  43.  7
    Filip Karfík (2012). The Constitution of the Human Body in Plato's Timaeus. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):167-181.
    The author emphasizes the fact that the largest part of Plato’s Timaeus deals with human nature and offers a detailed account of the constitution of the human body. He then lists the parallels and the differences between the constitution of the world body and the human body. The central part of the paper deals with Plato’s explanation of the persistence of the human body within a bodily environment which causes its dissolution. The author pays a special (...)
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  44.  6
    Filip Karfík (2012). The Constitution of the Human Body in Plato's Timaeus. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):167-181.
    The author emphasizes the fact that the largest part of Plato’s Timaeus deals with human nature and offers a detailed account of the constitution of the human body. He then lists the parallels and the differences between the constitution of the world body and the human body. The central part of the paper deals with Plato’s explanation of the persistence of the human body within a bodily environment which causes its dissolution. The author pays a special (...)
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  45.  10
    Salahaddin Khalilov (2008). The Specificity of Human Body. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 42:91-96.
    A human being is the carrier of two different ideas, and there is no direct relation between them. One of these ideas refers to the body. The body itself is a system genetically coded and programmed in advance. On the other hand, one part of the body – the brain – appears to be the carrier of another idea that reflects the whole Universe – the Cosmos. Due to the function human (concretely, brain) is Microcosm, regarded as epitomizing (...)
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  46.  24
    P. H. Reardon (2000). The Commerce of Human Body Parts: An Eastern Orthodox Response. Christian Bioethics 6 (2):205-213.
    The Orthodox Church teaches that the bodies of those in Christ are to be regarded as sanctified by the hearing of the Word and faithful participation in the Sacraments, most particularly the Holy Eucharist; because of the indwelling Holy Spirit the consecrated bodies of Christians do not belong to them but to Christ; with respect to the indwelling Holy Spirit there is no difference between the bodies of Christians before and after death; whether before or after death, the Christian body (...)
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  47.  13
    J. Pila (2014). Intellectual Property Rights and Detached Human Body Parts. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (1):27-32.
    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic (...)
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  48.  6
    V. Gluchman (2012). On the Human Body in Igor Kiss's Humanized Deontology. Christian Bioethics 18 (3):312-324.
    The basis for the analysis is the approach of Christian ethics toward the issue of the human body and sexuality. Based on the views of some present-day Christian, especially Protestant, ethicists, the author points out the effort to establish this area in contemporary Christian theology and ethics, which is, for instance, represented by the theology of sexuality and Christian sexual ethics. Consequently, the author pays attention to the opinions of the significant Slovak Lutheran theologian and ethicist Igor Kišš and (...)
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  49.  5
    Eugene Olin Myers (1999). Human Development as Transcendence of the Animal Body and the Child-Animal Association in Psychological Thought. Society and Animals 7 (2):121-140.
    This paper explores the association of children and animals as an element in Western culture's symbolic universe. Three historical discourses found in the West associate animality with immaturity and growing up with the transcendence of this condition. The discourses differ in how they describe and evaluate the original animal-like condition of the child versus the socialized end product. All, however, tend to distinguish sharply between the human and the nonhuman. This paper explores expressions of this tendency in developmental theories (...)
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  50.  13
    Marie Fox & Jean McHale (2000). Regulating Human Body Parts and Products. Health Care Analysis 8 (2):83-85.
    This special volume of Health Care Analysis is dedicated to a consideration of the status of body parts and products and the roleof law in regulating them. We argue that such a discussion is timely giventhe conflation of technological and academic concerns posed by thecomplex legal framework within which these issues are currentlyaddressed and in the light of debates such as those regardingthe storage of children's organs addressed by inquiries atAlder Hay and Bristol, United Kingdom. The contributors addressspecific legal problems (...)
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