Search results for 'Bouchard Frédéric' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Frédéric Bouchard & Philippe Huneman (eds.) (2013). From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press.score: 540.0
    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature’s paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together—as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis—new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the (...)
     
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  2. Frédéric Bouchard (2008). Causal Processes, Fitness, and the Differential Persistence of Lineages. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):560-570.score: 360.0
    Ecological fitness has been suggested to provide a unifying definition of fitness. However, a metric for this notion of fitness was in most cases unavailable except by proxy with differential reproductive success. In this article, I show how differential persistence of lineages can be used as a way to assess ecological fitness. This view is inspired by a better understanding of the evolution of some clonal plants, colonial organisms, and ecosystems. Differential persistence shows the limitation of an ensemblist noncausal understanding (...)
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  3. Frédéric Bouchard & Alex Rosenberg (2004). Fitness, Probability and the Principles of Natural Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):693-712.score: 300.0
    We argue that a fashionable interpretation of the theory of natural selection as a claim exclusively about populations is mistaken. The interpretation rests on adopting an analysis of fitness as a probabilistic propensity which cannot be substantiated, draws parallels with thermodynamics which are without foundations, and fails to do justice to the fundamental distinction between drift and selection. This distinction requires a notion of fitness as a pairwise comparison between individuals taken two at a time, and so vitiates the interpretation (...)
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  4. Alex Rosenberg & Frederic Bouchard (2005). Matthen and Ariew's Obituary for Fitness: Reports of its Death Have Been Greatly Exaggerated. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):343-353.score: 300.0
    Philosophers of biology have been absorbed by the problem of defining evolutionary fitness since Darwin made it central to biological explanation. The apparent problem is obvious. Define fitness as some biologists implicitly do, in terms of actual survival and reproduction, and the principle of natural selection turns into an empty tautology: those organisms which survive and reproduce in larger numbers, survive and reproduce in larger numbers. Accordingly, many writers have sought to provide a definition for ‘fitness’ which avoid this outcome. (...)
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  5. Frédéric Bouchard (2010). Symbiosis, Lateral Function Transfer and the (Many) Saplings of Life. Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):623-641.score: 300.0
    One of intuitions driving the acceptance of a neat structured tree of life is the assumption that organisms and the lineages they form have somewhat stable spatial and temporal boundaries. The phenomenon of symbiosis shows us that such ‘fixist’ assumptions does not correspond to how the natural world actually works. The implications of lateral gene transfer (LGT) have been discussed elsewhere; I wish to stress a related point. I will focus on lateral function transfer (LFT) and will argue, using examples (...)
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  6. Frédéric Bouchard (2009). Understanding Colonial Traits Using Symbiosis Research and Ecosystem Ecology. Biological Theory 4 (3):240-246.score: 300.0
    E. O. Wilson (1974: 54) describes the problem that social organisms pose: “On what bases do we distinguish the extremely modified members of an invertebrate colony from the organs of a metazoan animal?” This framing of the issue has inspired many to look more closely at how groups of organisms form and behave as emergent individuals. The possible existence of “superorganisms” test our best intuitions about what can count and act as genuine biological individuals and how we should study them. (...)
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  7. Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard, From Groups to Individuals. New Issues in Biological Individuality.score: 300.0
    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature's paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together--as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis--new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the (...)
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  8. Frédéric Bouchard (forthcoming). Ecosystem Evolution is About Variation and Persistence, Not Populations and Reproduction. Biological Theory.score: 300.0
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  9. Frédéric Bouchard (2011). Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):106-114.score: 300.0
  10. Robert Brandon, Alan Love, Paul Griffths & Frederic Bouchard, Session 4: Evolutionary Indeterminism.score: 300.0
    Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Workshop in History and Philosophy of Biology, Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, March 23-24 2001 Session 4: Evolutionary Indeterminism.
     
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  11. Frédéric Bouchard (2007). Rationalité Et Néo-Darwinisme: L'origine de la Pensée Selon de Sousa. Dialogue 46 (1):155-163.score: 300.0
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  12. Frédéric Bouchard (2013). What Is a Symbiotic Superindividual and How Do You Measure Its Fitness? In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. Mit Press. 243.score: 300.0
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  13. Frédéric Bouchard (2012). Des Fourmis Et des Hommes : Examen des Prémisses Darwiniennes Dans la Pensée de Benoît Dubreuil. Benoît Dubreuil, Human Evolution and the Origins of HierarchiesBenoît Dubreuil, Human Evolution and the Origins of Hierarchies. Philosophiques 39 (1):265-270.score: 300.0
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  14. Frédéric Bouchard (2013). How Ecosystem Evolution Strengthens the Case for Functional Pluralism. In. In Philippe Huneman (ed.), Functions: Selection and Mechanisms. Springer. 83--95.score: 300.0
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  15. Frédéric Bouchard (2006). Fitness. In J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. 310--315.score: 300.0
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  16. Bouchard Frédéric (2011). Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):106-114.score: 240.0
    Following Wallace’s suggestion, Darwin framed his theory using Spencer’s expression “survival of the fittest”. Since then, fitness occupies a significant place in the conventional understanding of Darwinism, even though the explicit meaning of the term ‘fitness’ is rarely stated. In this paper I examine some of the different roles that fitness has played in the development of the theory. Whereas the meaning of fitness was originally understood in ecological terms, it took a statistical turn in terms of reproductive success throughout (...)
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  17. Ellen Clarke, Jennifer Fewell, Andy Gardner, Matt Haber, Andrew Hamilton, Philippe Huneman & Thomas Pradeu (2013). Frédéric Bouchard Département de Philosophie, Université de Montreal & Centre interuniversitaire. In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. Mit Press. 265.score: 120.0
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  18. Denis Bouchard (1995). The Semantics of Syntax: A Minimalist Approach to Grammar. University of Chicago Press.score: 60.0
    During the last thirty years, most linguists and philosophers have assumed that meaning can be represented symbolically and that the mental processing of language involves the manipulation of symbols. Scholars have assembled strong evidence that there must be linguistic representations at several abstract levels--phonological, syntactic, and semantic--and that those representations are related by a describable system of rules. Because meaning is so complex, linguists often posit an equally complex relationship between semantic and other levels of grammar. The Semantics of Syntax (...)
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  19. Yves Bouchard (2007). The Foundationalism–Coherentism Opposition Revisited: The Case for Complementarism. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 12 (4):325-336.score: 30.0
    In this paper, I show the complementarity of foundationalism and coherentism with respect to any efficient system of beliefs by means of a distinction between two types of proposition drawn from an analogy with an axiomatic system. This distinction is based on the way a given proposition is acknowledged as true, either by declaration (F-proposition) or by preservation (C-proposition). Within such a perspective, i.e., epistemological complementarism, not only can one see how the usual opposition between foundationalism and coherentism is irrelevant, (...)
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  20. Yves Bouchard, Epistemic Closure in Context.score: 30.0
    The general principle of epistemic closure stipulates that epistemic properties are transmissible through logical means. According to this principle, an epistemic operator, say ε, should satisfy any valid scheme of inference, such as: if ε(p entails q), then ε(p) entails ε(q). The principle of epistemic closure under known entailment (ECKE), a particular instance of epistemic closure, has received a good deal of attention since the last thirty years or so. ECKE states that: if one knows that p entails q, and (...)
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  21. Elsa Bouchard (2011). Analogies du pouvoir partage:remarques sur Aristote, Politique III.11. Phronesis 56 (2):162-179.score: 30.0
  22. Guy Bouchard (1987). L'acte de Lecture: Théorie de l'Effet Esthétique Wolfgang Iser Collection Philosophie Et Langage Bruxelles: Pierre Mardaga, 1985. 405 P. [REVIEW] Dialogue 26 (01):178-.score: 30.0
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  23. Denis Bouchard & Carlota Smith (1987). Introduction. Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (4):429-431.score: 30.0
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  24. Roch Bouchard (1973). Pour une psychologie de la philosophie. Dialogue 12 (03):423-446.score: 30.0
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  25. Nancy Bouchard (2002). A Narrative Approach to Moral Experience Using Dramatic Play and Writing. Journal of Moral Education 31 (4):407-422.score: 30.0
    In this article, I propose a narrative approach to moral experience through dramatic play and writing. Inspired by the narrative approach to moral conflicts recommended by Mark B. Tappan and Lyn Mikel Brown and by the Que?bec drama programme, this approach works with multiple dimensions of the students' lives and give them a chance to benefit from their own moral experience. This approach to moral education is based on action research conducted in secondary moral education classes in Que?bec (Canada) and (...)
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  26. Yves Bouchard (1999). Le modèle tout-partie dans l'ontologie de Louis Lavelle. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3:351-378.score: 30.0
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  27. Jeanne Millet, André Bouchard & Claude Édelin (1998). Plant Succession and Tree Architecture: An Attempt at Reconciling Two Scales of Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (1).score: 30.0
    Plant succession is a phenomenon ascribed to vegetation dynamics at the scale of the plant community. The study of plant succession implies the analysis of the species involved and their relationships. Depending on the research done, the characteristics of trees have been studied according to either static, dimensional or partial approaches. We have revised the principal theories of succession, the methods of describing structure and development of tree and relationship established between tree species' attributes and their successional status. During studies (...)
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  28. Guy Bouchard (1985). Making Believe: Philosophical Reflections on Fiction C. G. Prado Contributions in Philosophy, Vol. 25 Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984. Pp. Viii, 169. [REVIEW] Dialogue 24 (03):543-.score: 30.0
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  29. Roch Bouchard (1973). Maine de Biran: une anthropologie transcendantale. Dialogue 12 (01):1-13.score: 30.0
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  30. Patrizio Frederic, Mario Di Bacco & Frank Lad (2012). Combining Expert Probabilities Using the Product of Odds. Theory and Decision 73 (4):605-619.score: 30.0
    We resolve a useful formulation of the question how a statistician can coherently incorporate the information in a consulted expert’s probability assessment for an event into a personal posterior probability assertion. Using a framework that recognises the total information available as composed of units available only to each of them along with units available to both, we show: that a sufficient statistic for all the information available to both the expert and the statistician is the product of their odds ratios (...)
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  31. Nancy Bouchard & Ronald W. Morris (2012). Ethics Education Seen Through the Lens of Habermas's Conception of Practical Reason: The Québec Education Program. Journal of Moral Education 41 (2):171-187.score: 30.0
    This paper examines the Québec Education Program (QEP), particularly the new course in ethics and religious culture (ERC), in the light of Habermas?s conception of the moral and ethical uses of practical reason. Habermas?s discursive theory of morality is used to assess the program?s understanding of what it means to be competent in moral matters. Specifically, the paper considers whether or not the program limits the exercise of practical reason to its purely pragmatic form, and the extent to which the (...)
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  32. Guy Bouchard (1977). The Logic of Fiction. Par John Woods, The Hague, Mouton, 1974. 152 Pages. [REVIEW] Dialogue 16 (04):755-757.score: 30.0
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  33. Denis Bouchard (1987). A Few Remarks on Past Participle Agreement. Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (4):449 - 474.score: 30.0
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  34. Guy Bouchard (1981). L'antimodèle Platonicien de la Nouvelle Rhétorique. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 11 (4):693 - 711.score: 30.0
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  35. Guy Bouchard (1991). Poétique du possible. Phénoménologie herméneutique de la figuration Richard Kearney Collection «Bibliothèque des Archives de philosophie», n. s., 44 Paris, Beauchesne, 1984, 282 p., 150 FF. [REVIEW] Dialogue 30 (04):631-.score: 30.0
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  36. Donald Harman Akenson, Michael D. Bailey, Michael Beaney, Daniel C. Beaver, Allan Blackstock, Gérard Bouchard & Warren Breckman (forthcoming). Albright, Daniel. Musicking Shakespeare: A Conflict of Theatres. Rochester, NY: U of Rochester P, 2007. X, 317p., Bibl., Ill., Index, $75. Berlioz's Roméo Et Juliette, Verdi's Macbeth, Purcell's The Fairy Queen, and Brit-Ten's A Midsummer Night's Dream. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Ideas.score: 30.0
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  37. Guy Bouchard (1989). Cinquante-Six Conceptions de L'Androgynie. Dialogue 28 (04):609-.score: 30.0
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  38. Guy Bouchard (1995). L'homme En Quête de Lui-Même. À Propos du Livre d'Elisabeth Badinter: XY. De l'Identité Masculine. Laval Théologique et Philosophique 51 (1):159-181.score: 30.0
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  39. Guy Bouchard (1989). L'hétéropolitique Féministe. Laval Théologique et Philosophique 45 (1):95-120.score: 30.0
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  40. Guy Bouchard (1975). Les Principales Tendances de la Sémiologie. Dialogue 14 (04):649-663.score: 30.0
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  41. Guy Bouchard (1977). Art and Human Emotions. Par Egon Weiner. Springfield, Charles C. Thomas, 1975. 90 P. Dialogue 16 (04):754-755.score: 30.0
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  42. Guy Bouchard (1987). D'un Miroir Et de Quelques Éclats Pierre Gravel Collection «Positions Philosophiques» Montréal: l'Hexagone, 1985. 177 P. Dialogue 26 (04):742-.score: 30.0
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  43. Constance Brittain Bouchard (2003). Every Valley Shall Be Exalted: The Discourse of Opposites in Twelfth-Century Thought. Cornell University Press.score: 30.0
    Scholasticism : the last shall be first -- Romance and epic : honor abandoned because of love -- Conversion : a poor man from a rich man -- Conflict resolution : he humbly delivered himself to justice -- Gender : male and female created he them.
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  44. Guy Bouchard (1982). Gilson, l'Oeuvre d'Art Et le Roman. Philosophiques 9 (2):195-221.score: 30.0
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  45. Guy Bouchard & Maria De Koninck (1994). Introduction. Philosophiques 21 (2):299-302.score: 30.0
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  46. Guy Bouchard (1980). L'a, b, c de la sémiologie : À propos de Silence, on parle : introduction à la sémiotique, par Jurgen Pesot. Philosophiques 7 (2):321-375.score: 30.0
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  47. Roch Bouchard (1985). L'idéalisme est-il spiritualiste? Philosophiques 12 (1):53-71.score: 30.0
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  48. Guy Bouchard (1994). Les femmes et la société nouvelle. Philosophiques 21 (2).score: 30.0
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  49. Guy Bouchard (1987). L'artiste Pierre Bertrand Collection Positions Philosophiques Montréal: L'Hexagone, 1985. 195 P. Dialogue 26 (01):192-.score: 30.0
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  50. Guy Bouchard (1980). Le recours à l'auditoire universel implique-t-il une pétition de principe? Philosophiques 7 (2):161-188.score: 30.0
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