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Profile: Brad Hooker (University of Reading)
  1. Brad Hooker (2015). The Elements of Well-Being. Journal of Practical Ethics 3 (1):15-35.
    This essay contends that the constitutive elements of well-being are plural, partly objective, and separable. The essay argues that these elements are pleasure, friendship, significant achievement, important knowledge, and autonomy, but not either the appreciation of beauty or the living of a morally good life. The essay goes on to attack the view that elements of well-being must be combined in order for well-being to be enhanced. The final section argues against the view that, because anything important to say about (...)
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  2. Brad Hooker (2000). Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-Consequentialist Theory of Morality. Oxford University Press.
    What are the appropriate criteria for assessing a theory of morality? In this enlightening work, Brad Hooker begins by answering this question. He then argues for a rule-consequentialist theory which, in part, asserts that acts should be assessed morally in terms of impartially justified rules. In the end, he considers the implications of rule-consequentialism for several current controversies in practical ethics, making this clearly written, engaging book the best overall statement of this approach to ethics.
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  3. Brad Hooker (2014). "Utilitarianism and Fairness". In Cambridge Companion to Utilitarianism. 251-271.
  4.  13
    Brad Hooker, Wrongness, Evolutionary Debunking, Public Rules.
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  5.  70
    Brad Hooker & Margaret Olivia Little (eds.) (2000). Moral Particularism. Oxford University Press.
    A timely and penetrating investigation, this book seeks to transform moral philosophy. In the face of continuing disagreement about which general moral principles are correct, there has been a resurgence of interest in the idea that correct moral judgements can be only about particular cases. This view--moral particularism --forecasts a revolution in ordinary moral practice that has until now consisted largely of appeals to general moral principles. Moral particularism also opposes the primary aim of most contemporary normative moral theory that (...)
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  6. Brad Hooker (2014). Must Kantian Contractualism and Rule-Consequentialism Converge? Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 4:34-52.
    Derek Parfit’s On What Matters endorses Kantian Contractualism, the normative theory that everyone ought to follow the rules that everyone could rationally will that everyone accept. This paper explores Parfit’s argument that Kantian Contractualism converges with Rule Consequentialism. A pivotal concept in Parfit’s argument is the concept of impartiality, which he seems to equate agent-neutrality. This paper argues that equating impartiality and agent-neutrality is insufficient, since some agent-neutral considerations are silly and some are not impartial. Perhaps more importantly, there is (...)
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  7. Brad Hooker (1990). Rule-Consequentialism. Mind 99 (393):67-77.
    The theory of morality we can call full rule - consequentialism selects rules solely in terms of the goodness of their consequences and then claims that these rules determine which kinds of acts are morally wrong. George Berkeley was arguably the first rule -consequentialist. He wrote, “In framing the general laws of nature, it is granted we must be entirely guided by the public good of mankind, but not in the ordinary moral actions of our lives. … The rule is (...)
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  8. Brad Hooker & Margaret Olivia Little (eds.) (2000). Moral Generalities Revisited. Clarendon Press.
     
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  9. Brad Hooker (1996). Does Moral Virtue Constitute a Benefit to the Agent? In Roger Crisp (ed.), How Should one Live? Oxford University Press
    Theories of individual well‐being fall into three main categories: hedonism, the desire‐fulfilment theory, and the list theory (which maintains that there are some things that can benefit a person without increasing the person's pleasure or desire‐fulfilment). The paper briefly explains the answers that hedonism and the desire‐fulfilment theory give to the question of whether being virtuous constitutes a benefit to the agent. Most of the paper is about the list theory's answer.
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  10. Brad Hooker & Margaret Olivia Little (eds.) (2000). Moral Particularism. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Moral Particularism is a timely and penetrating investigation of a theoretical approach that seeks to transform moral philosophy. In the face of continuing disagreement about which general moral principles are correct, there has been a resurgence of interest in the view that the moral language cannot -- and need not -- be backed by any such generalizations. This view, moral particularism, presages a revolution in contemporary moral theory, which has consisted largely of attempts to show that either one general principle (...)
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  11. Philip Stratton-Lake & Brad Hooker (2006). Scanlon Versus Moore on Goodness. In Terry Horgan & Mark Timmons (eds.), Metaethics After Moore. Oxford University Press 149.
  12. Brad Hooker (1987). Williams' Argument Against External Reasons. Analysis 47 (1):42 - 44.
  13. Brad Hooker (2014). Cambridge Companion to Utilitarianism.
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  14. Brad Hooker & Guy Fletcher (2008). Variable Versus Fixed-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):344–352.
    Fixed-rate versions of rule-consequentialism and rule-utilitarianism evaluate rules in terms of the expected net value of one particular level of social acceptance, but one far enough below 100% social acceptance to make salient the complexities created by partial compliance. Variable-rate versions of rule-consequentialism and rule-utilitarianism instead evaluate rules in terms of their expected net value at all different levels of social acceptance. Brad Hooker has advocated a fixed-rate version. Michael Ridge has argued that the variable-rate version is better. The debate (...)
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  15. Brad Hooker (2005). Fairness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (4):329 - 352.
    The main body of this paper assesses a leading recent theory of fairness, a theory put forward by John Broome. I discuss Broome's theory partly because of its prominence and partly because I think it points us in the right direction, even if it takes some missteps. In the course of discussing Broome's theory, I aim to cast light on the relation of fairness to consistency, equality, impartiality, desert, rights, and agreements. Indeed, before I start assessing Broome's theory, I discuss (...)
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  16. Brad Hooker (2002). The Collapse of Virtue Ethics. Utilitas 14 (1):22.
    Virtue ethics is normally taken to be an alternative to consequentialist and Kantian moral theories. I shall discuss what I think is the most interesting version of virtue ethics – Rosalind Hursthouse's. I shall then argue that her version is inadequate in ways that suggest revision in the direction of a kind of rule-consequentialism.
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  17.  2
    Brad Hooker, On E.E. Constance Jones's Article 'Practical Dualism'.
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  18.  86
    James Griffin, Roger Crisp & Brad Hooker (eds.) (2000). Well-Being and Morality: Essays in Honour of James Griffin. Oxford University Press.
    An international line-up of fourteen distinguished philosophers presents new essays in honor of James Griffin, White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at Oxford University. The essays take up topics relating to well-being and morality, prominent themes in contemporary ethics and particularly in Griffin's work. Griffin himself provides replies to these essays, offering a fascinating development of his own thinking on these topics.
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  19.  21
    Brad Hooker & Bart Streumer (2004). Procedural and Substantive Practical Rationality. In Piers Rawling & Alfred R. Mele (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press 57--74.
    This chapter surveys the debate between philosophers who claim that all practical rationality is procedural and philosophers who claim that some practical rationality is substantive.
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  20.  84
    Brad Hooker (1994). Is Rule-Consequentialism a Rubber Duck? Analysis 54 (2):92 - 97.
    Some things aren't what their names suggest. This is true of rubber ducks, stool pigeons, clay pigeons, hot dogs, and clothes horses. Frances Howard-Snyder's "Rule Consequentialism is a Rubber Duck" ("APQ", 30 (1993) 271-78) argues that the answer is Yes. Howard-Snyder thinks rule-consequentialism is a form of deontology, not a form of consequentialism. This thought is understandable: many recent definitions of consequentialism are such as to invite it. Thinking rule-consequentialism inferior to act-consequentialism, many philosophers, when discussing consequentialism, have had act-consequentialism (...)
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  21. R. G. Frey, Brad Hooker, F. M. Kamm, Thomas E. Hill Jr, Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, David McNaughton, Jan Narveson, Michael Slote, Alison M. Jaggar & William R. Schroeder (2000). Normative Ethics. In Hugh LaFollette - (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Blackwell Publishers
     
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  22.  57
    Brad Hooker (1996). Ross-Style Pluralism Versus Rule-Consequentialism. Mind 105 (420):531-552.
    This paper employs (and defends where needed) a familiar four-part methodology for assessing moral theories. This methodology makes the most popular kind of moral pluralism--here called Ross-style pluralism--look extremely attractive. The paper contends, however, that, if rule-consequentialism's implications match our considered moral convictions as well as Ross-style pluralism's implications do, the methodology makes rule-consequentialism look even more attractive than Ross-style pluralism. The paper then attacks two arguments recently put forward in defence of Ross-style pluralism. One of these arguments is that (...)
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  23.  16
    Brad Hooker (2005). The Golden Rule. Think 4 (10):25-29.
    Should you always do unto others as you would have them do unto you? Brad Hooker investigates a seemingly plausible-looking moral principle: the Golden Rule.
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  24. Brad Hooker (2008). Moral Particularism and the Real World. In Mark Norris Lance, Matjaž Potrč & Vojko Strahovnik (eds.), Challenging Moral Particularism. Routledge 12--30.
    The term ‘moral particularism’ has been used to refer to different doctrines. The main body of this paper begins by identifying the most important doctrines associated with the term, at least as the term is used by Jonathan Dancy, on whose work I will focus. I then discuss whether holism in the theory of reasons supports moral particularism, and I call into question the thesis that particular judgements have epistemological priority over general principles. Dancy’s recent book Ethics without Principles (Dancy (...)
     
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  25.  28
    Brad Hooker (2005). Reply to Arneson and McIntyre. Philosophical Issues 15 (1):264–281.
    Richard Arneson and Alison McIntyre have done me a great honor by reading my book Ideal Code, Real World so carefully.1 In addition, they have done me a great kindness by reading it sympathetically. Nevertheless, they each find the book ultimately unconvincing, though in very different ways. But the cause of their dissatisfaction with the book is not mistaken interpretation. They have interpreted the book accurately, and they have advanced penetrating criticisms of it. One group of their criticisms definitely draw (...)
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  26. Brad Hooker (2002). Review: Singer and His Critics. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (441):122-126.
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  27.  29
    David Bakhurst, Margaret Olivia Little & Brad Hooker (eds.) (2013). Thinking About Reasons: Themes From the Philosophy of Jonathan Dancy. Oxford University Press.
    Thinking about Reasons collects fourteen new essays on ethics and the philosophy of action, inspired by the work of Jonathan Dancy—one of his generation's most influential moral philosophers.
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  28.  12
    Brad Hooker (2007). Just Deserts? The Philosophers' Magazine 39:20-25.
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  29.  28
    Brad Hooker (2003). Comments: Dancy on How Reasons Are Related to Oughts. Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (Supplement):114-120.
  30.  65
    Brad Hooker, The Demandingness Objection.
    This paper’s first section invokes a relevant meta-ethical principle about what a moral theory needs in order to be plausible and superior to its rivals. In subsequent sections, I try to pinpoint exactly what the demandingness objection has been taken to be. I try to explain how the demandingness objection developed in reaction to impartial act-consequentialism’s requirement of beneficence toward strangers. In zeroing in on the demandingness objection, I distinguish it from other, more or less closely related, objections. In particular, (...)
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  31.  57
    Brad Hooker (2010). Publicity in Morality: A Reply to Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer. Ratio 23 (1):111-117.
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  32. Brad Hooker (2010). When is Impartiality Morally Appropriate? In Brian Feltham & John Cottingham (eds.), Partiality and Impartiality: Morality, Special Relationships, and the Wider World. OUP Oxford
    With respect to morality, the term ‘impartiality’ is used to refer to quite different things. My paper will focus on three: 1. Impartial application of good (first-order) moral rules 2. Impartial benevolence as the direct guide to decisions about what to do 3. Impartial assessment of (first-order) moral rules What are the relations among these three? Suppose there was just one good (first-order) moral rule, namely, that one should choose whatever one thinks will maximize aggregate good. If there were just (...)
     
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  33.  90
    Brad Hooker (2001). Cudworth and Quinn. Analysis 61 (4):333–335.
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  34. Brad Hooker (2012). Theory Vs Anti-Theory. In Ulrika Heuer Gerald Lang (ed.), Luck, Value, and Commitment: Themes from the Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Oxford University Press
    Bernard Williams influentially attacked ethical theory. This paper assesses arguments for the ‘anti-theory’ position in ethics, including mainly arguments put forward by Williams but also arguments put forward by others. The paper begins by discussing what is supposed to be theory in ethics and what ethical intuitions are taken to be by those involved in the theory versus anti-theory debate. Then the paper responds to the objections that ethical theory is mistaken to prize principles, mistaken to prize rationalism, mistaken to (...)
     
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  35.  1
    Brad Hooker, Acts or Rules? The Fine Tuning of Utilitarianism.
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  36.  1
    Brad Hooker, Must Kantian Contractualism and Rule-Consequentialism Converge?
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  37.  1
    Brad Hooker, The Elements of Well-Being.
    This essay contends that the constitutive elements of well-being are plural, partly objective, and separable. The essay argues that these elements are pleasure, friendship, significant achievement, important knowledge, and autonomy, but not either the appreciation of beauty or the living of a morally good life. The essay goes on to attack the view that elements of well-being must be combined in order for well-being to be enhanced. The final section argues against the view that, because anything important to say about (...)
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  38.  47
    Brad Hooker (2000). Sidgwick and Common–Sense Morality. Utilitas 12 (3):347.
    This paper begins by celebrating Sidgwick's Methods of Ethics. It then discusses Sidgwick's moral epistemology and in particular the coherentist element introduced by his argument from common-sense morality to utilitarianism. The paper moves on to a discussion of how common-sense morality seems more appealing if its principles are formulated as picking out pro tanto considerations rather than all-things-considered demands. Thefinal section of the paper considers the question of which version of utilitarianism follows from Sidgwick's arguments.
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  39.  32
    Brad Hooker (1991). Mark Overvold's Contribution to Philosophy. Journal of Philosophical Research 16:333-344.
    The prevailing theory of self-interest (personal utility or individual welfare) holds that one’s Iife goes well to the extent that one’s desires are fulfilled. In a couple of seminal papers, Overvold raised a devastating objection to this theory---namely that the theory (added to commonsensical beliefs about the nature of action) makes self-sacrifice logically impossible. He then proposed an appealing revision of the prevailing theory, one which provided adequate logical space for self-sacrifice. And he analyzed his revised theory’s implications for the (...)
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  40.  48
    Brad Hooker (2003). Contractualism, Spare Wheel, Aggregation. In Matt Matravers (ed.), Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy. Frank Cass 53-76.
    This essay explores the reasons for thinking that Scanlon's contractualist principle serves merely as a ?spare wheel?, an element that spins along nicely but bears no real weight, because it presupposes too much of what it should be explaning. The ambitions and scope of Scanlon's contractualism are discussed, as is Scanlon's thesis that contracualism will assess candidate moral principles individually rather than as sets. The final third of the paper critizes Scanlon's account of fairness and his approach to cases where (...)
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  41.  75
    Brad Hooker (2007). Rule-Consequentialism and Internal Consistency: A Reply to Card. Utilitas 19 (4):514-519.
    Rule-consequentialism has been accused of either collapsing into act-consequentialism or being internally inconsistent. I have tried to develop a form of rule-consequentialism without these flaws. In this June's issue of Utilitas, Robert Card argued that I have failed. Here I assess his arguments.
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  42. Brad Hooker, Promises and Rule-Consequentialism.
    The duty to keep promises has many aspects associated with deontological moral theories. The duty to keep promises is non-welfarist, in that the obligation to keep a promise need not be conditional on there being a net benefit from keeping the promise—indeed need not be conditional on there being at least someone who would benefit from its being kept. The duty to keep promises is more closely connected to autonomy than directly to welfare: agents have moral powers to give themselves (...)
     
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  43. Brad Hooker (2003). Scanlon's Contractualism, the Spare Wheel Objection, and Aggregation'. In Matt Matravers (ed.), Scanlon and Contractualism. Frank Cass
     
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  44.  36
    Brad Hooker (1998). Rule-Consequentialism and Obligations Toward the Needy. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79 (1):19–33.
    Most of us believe morality requires us to help the desperately needy. But most of us also believe morality doesn't require us to make enormous sacrifices in order to help people who have no special connection with us. Such self-sacrifice is of course praiseworthy, but it isn't morally mandatory. Rule-consequentialism might seem to offer a plausible grounding for such beliefs. Tim Mulgan has recently argued in _Analysis and _Pacific Philosophical Quarterly that rule-consequentialism cannot do so. This paper replies to Mulgan's (...)
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  45.  42
    Brad Hooker (2010). On What Matters. The Philosophers' Magazine 50 (50):66-67.
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  46.  56
    Brad Hooker (1991). Rule-Consequentialism and Demandingness: A Reply to Carson. Mind 100 (2):269-276.
    This paper replies to Carson's attacks on an earlier paper of Hooker's. Carson argued that rule-consequentialism--the theory that an act is morally right if and only if it is allowed by the set of rules and corresponding virtues the having of which by everyone would bring about the best consequences considered impartially--can and does require the comfortably off to make enormous sacrifices in order to help the needy. Hooker defends rule-consequentialism against Carson's arguments.
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  47.  22
    Garrett Cullity, Brad Hooker & Tim Mulgan (2011). Intuitions and the Demands of Consequentialism. Utilitas 23 (1).
  48.  47
    Brad Hooker (2003). The Demands of Consequentialism, by Tim Mulgan. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001, 313 Pp. + VI, ??35, $49.95 (Hbk). ISBN 0-1-825093-. [REVIEW] Philosophy 78 (2):289-307.
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  49.  33
    Brad Hooker (2011). Morality and the Good Life. The Philosophers' Magazine 53 (53):91-95.
    Being moral sometimes handicaps decent people in their pursuit of worthwhile goals. This is especially likely to happen when those with power in society have badly mistaken ideas about what morality requires. A good person might not last long in a bad society.
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  50.  38
    Brad Hooker (1991). Brink, Kagan, Utilitarianism and Self-Sacrifice. Utilitas 3 (2):263.
    Act-utilitarianism claims that one is required to do nothing less than what makes the largest contribution to overall utility. Critics of this moral theory commonly charge that it is unreasonably demanding. Shelly Kagan and David Brink, however, have recently defended act-utilitarianism against this charge. Kagan argues that act-utilitarianism is right, and its critics wrong, about how demanding morality is. In contrast, Brink argues that, once we have the correct objective account of welfare and once we accept that act-utilitarianism is a (...)
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