Search results for 'Brain Stem' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Robert P. Vertes & Kathleen E. Eastman (2000). The Case Against Memory Consolidation in Rem Sleep. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):867-876.score: 48.0
    We present evidence disputing the hypothesis that memories are processed or consolidated in REM sleep. A review of REM deprivation (REMD) studies in animals shows these reports to be about equally divided in showing that REMD does, or does not, disrupt learning/memory. The studies supporting a relationship between REM sleep and memory have been strongly criticized for the confounding effects of very stressful REM deprivation techniques. The three major classes of antidepressant drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and (...)
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  2. R. DiSilvestro (2008). A Qualified Endorsement of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Based on Two Widely Shared Beliefs About the Brain-Diseased Patients Such Research Might Benefit. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (7):563-567.score: 48.0
    Are there persuasive approaches to embryonic stem cell (ESC) research that appeal, not just to those fellow-citizens in one’s own ideological camp, nor just to those undecided citizens in the middle, but to those citizens on the other side of the issue? I believe that there are such arguments and in this short paper I try to develop one of them. In particular, I argue that certain beliefs shared by some proponents and some opponents of ESC research—beliefs about the (...)
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  3. Z. Elazar (1986). Reciprocal Interactions in the Brain Stem, REM Sleep, and the Generation of Generalized Convulsions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):403.score: 48.0
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  4. H. Gastaut (1954). The Brain Stem and Cerebral Electrogenesis in Relation to Consciousness. In J. F. Delafresnaye (ed.), Brain Mechanisms and Consciousness. Blackwell.score: 48.0
  5. Sigmund Hsiao (1990). Convergence of Autonomic Afferents at Brain Stem Neurons: Stomach Reflex and Food Intake. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):305-306.score: 48.0
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  6. G. Moruzzi (1954). The Physiological Properties of the Brain Stem Reticular System. In J. F. Delafresnaye (ed.), Brain Mechanisms and Consciousness. Blackwell. 21--53.score: 48.0
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  7. Jaak Panksepp (1982). Anxiety Viewed From the Upper Brain Stem: Though Panic and Fear Yield Trepidation, Should Both Be Called Anxiety? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):495.score: 48.0
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  8. C. Cobb (1955). Awareness, Attention, and Physiology of the Brain Stem. In P. Hoch & J. Zubin (eds.), Experimental Psychopathology. Grune & Stratton.score: 45.0
  9. Alexander Ritter, Marcel Franz, Caroline Dietrich, Wolfgang H. R. Miltner & Thomas Weiss (2013). Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 45.0
  10. S. Galbraith (1984). ABC of Brain Stem Death. Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (2):94-95.score: 45.0
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  11. Colwyn Trevarthen (1974). Functional Relations of Disconnected Hemispheres with the Brain Stem, and with Each Other: Monkey and Man. In Marcel Kinsbourne & W. Smith (eds.), Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Charles C. 187--207.score: 45.0
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  12. J. A. Hobson, R. Lydic & H. A. Baghdoyan (1986). Evolving Concepts of Sleep Cycle Generation: From Brain Centers to Neuronal Populations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):371.score: 42.0
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  13. Theo Mantamadiotis, Nikos Papalexis & Sebastian Dworkin (2012). CREB Signalling in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells: Recent Developments and the Implications for Brain Tumour Biology. Bioessays 34 (4):293-300.score: 42.0
  14. Darry K. Miles & Steven G. Kernie (2006). Activation of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells After Brain Injury. In Susana Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, L. M. Martinez, J.-M. Alonso & P. U. Tse (eds.), Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier Science. 157--187.score: 39.0
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  15. Jocelyn Grunwell, Judy Illes & Katrina Karkazis (2009). Advancing Neuroregenerative Medicine: A Call for Expanded Collaboration Between Scientists and Ethicists. Neuroethics 2 (1):13-20.score: 36.0
    To date, ethics discussions about stem cell research overwhelmingly have centered on the morality and acceptability of using human embryonic stem cells. Governments in many jurisdictions have now answered these “first-level questions” and many have now begun to address ethical issues related to the donation of cells, gametes, or embryos for research. In this commentary, we move beyond these ethical concerns to discuss new themes that scientists on the forefront of NRM development anticipate, providing a preliminary framework for (...)
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  16. Kai Chen Chang, Cheng Wang & Hongyan Wang (2012). Balancing Self‐Renewal and Differentiation by Asymmetric Division: Insights From Brain Tumor Suppressors in Drosophila Neural Stem Cells. Bioessays 34 (4):301-310.score: 36.0
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  17. Rebecca Stewart & Stefan Przyborski (2002). Non‐Neural Adult Stem Cells: Tools for Brain Repair? Bioessays 24 (8):708-713.score: 36.0
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  18. Thomas N. Seyfried (2001). Perspectives on Brain Tumor Formation Involving Macrophages, Glia, and Neural Stem. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 44 (2):263-282.score: 36.0
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  19. J. Parvizi & Antonio R. Damasio (2001). Consciousness and the Brainstem. Cognition 79 (1):135-59.score: 30.0
  20. J. Allan Hobson (2002). Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First-Person Account. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):377-390.score: 30.0
  21. Mark W. Mahowald (2004). Commentary on Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First Person Account by J. Allan Hobson. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):134-137.score: 30.0
  22. Mark Greene, Kathryn Schill, Shoji Takahashi, Alison Bateman-House, Tom Beauchamp, Hilary Bok, Dorothy Cheney, Joseph Coyle, Terrence Deacon, Daniel Dennett, Peter Donovan, Owen Flanagan, Steven Goldman, Henry Greely, Lee Martin & Earl Miller (2005). Moral Issues of Human-Non-Human Primate Neural Grafting. Science 309 (5733):385-386.score: 30.0
    The scientific, ethical, and policy issues raised by research involving the engraftment of human neural stem cells into the brains of nonhuman primates are explored by an interdisciplinary working group in this Policy Forum. The authors consider the possibility that this research might alter the cognitive capacities of recipient great apes and monkeys, with potential significance for their moral status.
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  23. E. T. Bartlett (1995). Differences Between Death and Dying. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):270-276.score: 30.0
    With so much attention being paid to the development and refinement of appropriate criteria and tests for death, little attention has been given to the broader conceptual issues having to do with its definition or with the relation of a definition to its criterion. The task of selecting the correct criterion is, however, virtually impossible without proper attention to the broader conceptual setting in which the definition operates as the key feature. All of the issues I will discuss arise because (...)
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  24. Douglas F. Watt (2002). Commentary on Professor Hobson's First-Person Account of a Lateral Medullary Stroke (CVA): Affirmative Action for the Brainstem in Consciousness Studies? Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):391-395.score: 30.0
  25. Bill Faw (2000). Consciousness, Motivation, and Emotion: Biopsychological Reflections. In Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (eds.), The Caldron of Consciousness: Motivation, Affect and Self-Organization- an Anthology. Advances in Consciousness Research. John Benjamins. 55-90.score: 30.0
  26. Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor (2009). Brain Death, States of Impaired Consciousness, and Physician-Assisted Death for End-of-Life Organ Donation and Transplantation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):409-421.score: 30.0
    In 1968, the Harvard criteria equated irreversible coma and apnea (i.e., brain death) with human death and later, the Uniform Determination of Death Act was enacted permitting organ procurement from heart-beating donors. Since then, clinical studies have defined a spectrum of states of impaired consciousness in human beings: coma, akinetic mutism (locked-in syndrome), minimally conscious state, vegetative state and brain death. In this article, we argue against the validity of the Harvard criteria for equating brain death with (...)
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  27. Mark Solms (2000). Dreaming and Rem Sleep Are Controlled by Different Brain Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):843-850.score: 27.0
    The paradigmatic assumption that REM sleep is the physiological equivalent of dreaming is in need of fundamental revision. A mounting body of evidence suggests that dreaming and REM sleep are dissociable states, and that dreaming is controlled by forebrain mechanisms. Recent neuropsychological, radiological, and pharmacological findings suggest that the cholinergic brain stem mechanisms that control the REM state can only generate the psychological phenomena of dreaming through the mediation of a second, probably dopaminergic, forebrain mechanism. The latter mechanism (...)
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  28. Iain Brassington (2012). What's Wrong with the Brain Drain (?). Developing World Bioethics 12 (3):113-120.score: 27.0
    One of the characteristics of the relationship between the developed and developing worlds is the ‘brain drain’– the phenomenon by which expertise moves towards richer countries, thereby condemning poorer countries to continued comparative and absolute poverty. It is tempting to see the phenomenon as a moral problem in its own right, such that there is a moral imperative to end it, that is separate from (and additional to) any moral imperative to relieve the burden of poverty. However, it is (...)
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  29. Dieter Birnbacher (2009). Neuroethics and Stem Cell Transplantation. Medicine Studies 1 (1):67-76.score: 27.0
    Is there anything special about the ethical problems of intracerebral stem-cell transplantation and other forms of cell or tissue transplantation in the brain that provides neuroethics with a distinctive normative profile, setting it apart from other branches of medical ethics? This is examined with reference to some of the ethical problems associated with interventions in the brain such as potential changes in personal identity and potential changes in personality. It is argued that these problems are not sufficiently (...)
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  30. Patrik N. Juslin & Daniel Västfjäll (2008). Emotional Responses to Music: The Need to Consider Underlying Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):559-575.score: 24.0
    Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the mechanism for emotion induction, a (...)
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  31. Julia Reeve (1989). Brain Life and Brain Death – the Anencephalic as an Explanatory Example. A Contribution to Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):5-23.score: 24.0
    The current debate regarding the suitability of anencephalics as organ donors is due primarily to misunderstandings. The anatomical and neurophysiological literature shows that the anencephalic lacks a cerebrum because of the failure of neuralplate fusion. However, even the incomplete function of an atrophic brain stem is currently accepted at law in most if not all countries as sufficient for brain life: which is to say, cessation of breathing is currently required in order to make the diagnosis of (...)
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  32. Aasim I. Padela, Ahsan Arozullah & Ebrahim Moosa (2013). Brain Death in Islamic Ethico-Legal Deliberation: Challenges for Applied Islamic Bioethics. Bioethics 27 (3):132-139.score: 24.0
    Since the 1980s, Islamic scholars and medical experts have used the tools of Islamic law to formulate ethico-legal opinions on brain death. These assessments have varied in their determinations and remain controversial. Some juridical councils such as the Organization of Islamic Conferences' Islamic Fiqh Academy (OIC-IFA) equate brain death with cardiopulmonary death, while others such as the Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences (IOMS) analogize brain death to an intermediate state between life and death. Still other councils have (...)
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  33. Josie Fisher (1999). Re-Examining Death: Against a Higher Brain Criterion. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):473-476.score: 24.0
    While there is increasing pressure on scarce health care resources, advances in medical science have blurred the boundary between life and death. Individuals can survive for decades without consciousness and individuals whose whole brains are dead can be supported for extended periods. One suggested response is to redefine death, justifying a higher brain criterion for death. This argument fails because it conflates two distinct notions about the demise of human beings--the one, biological and the other, ontological. Death is a (...)
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  34. Nicholas Wade, Ethicists Offer Advice for Testing Human Brain Cells in Primates.score: 24.0
    If stem cells ever show promise in treating diseases of the human brain, any potential therapy would need to be tested in animals. But putting human brain stem cells into monkeys or apes could raise awkward ethical dilemmas, like the possibility of generating a humanlike mind in a chimpanzee's body.
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  35. F. K. Beller & J. Reeve (1989). Brain Life and Brain Death - The Anencephalic as an Explanatory Example. A Contribution to Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):5-23.score: 24.0
    The current debate regarding the suitability of anencephalics as organ donors is due primarily to misunderstandings. The anatomical and neurophysiological literature shows that the anencephalic lacks a cerebrum because of the failure of neuralplate fusion. However, even the incomplete function of an atrophic brain stem is currently accepted at law in most if not all countries as sufficient for brain life: which is to say, cessation of breathing is currently required in order to make the diagnosis of (...)
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  36. Samira Lakhal & Matthew Ja Wood (2011). Exosome Nanotechnology: An Emerging Paradigm Shift in Drug Delivery. Bioessays 33 (10):737-741.score: 24.0
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  37. William P. Bechtel (2002). Decomposing the Brain: A Long Term Pursuit. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (1):229-242.score: 21.0
    This paper defends cognitive neuroscience’s project of developing mechanistic explan- ations of cognitive processes through decomposition and localization against objections raised by William Uttal in The New Phrenology. The key issue between Uttal and researchers pursuing cognitive neuroscience is that Uttal bets against the possibility of decomposing mental operations into component elementary operations which are localized in distinct brain regions. The paper argues that it is through advancing and revising what are likely to be overly simplistic and incorrect decompositions (...)
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  38. Georg Northoff (2001). "Brain-Paradox" and "Embeddment": Do We Need a "Philosophy of the Brain"? Brain and Mind 195 (2):195-211.score: 21.0
    Present discussions in philosophy of mind focuson ontological and epistemic characteristics ofmind and on mind-brain relations. In contrast,ontological and epistemic characteristics ofthe brain have rarely been thematized. Rather,philosophy seems to rely upon an implicitdefinition of the brain as "neuronal object''and "object of recognition'': henceontologically and epistemically distinct fromthe mind, characterized as "mental subject'' and"subject of recognition''. This leads to the"brain-paradox''. This ontological and epistemicdissociation between brain and mind can beconsidered central for the problems of mind (...)
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  39. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2001). Operational Architectonics of the Human Brain Biopotential Field: Toward Solving the Mind-Brain Problem. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 2 (3):261-296.score: 21.0
    The understanding of the interrelationship between brain and mind remains far from clear. It is well established that the brain's capacity to integrate information from numerous sources forms the basis for cognitive abilities. However, the core unresolved question is how information about the "objective" physical entities of the external world can be integrated, and how unifiedand coherent mental states (or Gestalts) can be established in the internal entities of distributed neuronal systems. The present paper offers a unified methodological (...)
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  40. Ullin T. Place (2000). The Two Factor Theory of the Mind-Brain Relation. Brain and Mind 1 (1):29-43.score: 21.0
    The analysis of mental concepts suggests that the distinctionbetween the mental and the nonmental is not ontologically fundamental,and that, whereas mental processes are one and the same things as thebrain processes with which they are correlated, dispositional mentalstates depend causally on and are, thus, ''''distinct existences'''' fromthe states of the brain microstructure with which ''they'' are correlated.It is argued that this difference in the relation between an entity andits composition/underlying structure applies across the board. allstuffs and processes are the (...)
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  41. Phillip Karpowicz, Cynthia B. Cohen & Derek J. Van der Kooy (2005). Developing Human-Nonhuman Chimeras in Human Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues and Boundaries. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (2):107-134.score: 21.0
    : The transplantation of adult human neural stem cells into prenatal non-humans offers an avenue for studying human neural cell development without direct use of human embryos. However, such experiments raise significant ethical concerns about mixing human and nonhuman materials in ways that could result in the development of human-nonhuman chimeras. This paper examines four arguments against such research, the moral taboo, species integrity, "unnaturalness," and human dignity arguments, and finds the last plausible. It argues that the transfer of (...)
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  42. Edmund T. Rolls (2000). Précis of the Brain and Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):177-191.score: 21.0
    The topics treated in The brain and emotion include the definition, nature, and functions of emotion (Ch. 3); the neural bases of emotion (Ch. 4); reward, punishment, and emotion in brain design (Ch. 10); a theory of consciousness and its application to understanding emotion and pleasure (Ch. 9); and neural networks and emotion-related learning (Appendix). The approach is that emotions can be considered as states elicited by reinforcers (rewards and punishers). This approach helps with understanding the functions of (...)
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  43. Michael L. Anderson (2010). Neural Reuse: A Fundamental Organizational Principle of the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):245.score: 21.0
    An emerging class of theories concerning the functional structure of the brain takes the reuse of neural circuitry for various cognitive purposes to be a central organizational principle. According to these theories, it is quite common for neural circuits established for one purpose to be exapted (exploited, recycled, redeployed) during evolution or normal development, and be put to different uses, often without losing their original functions. Neural reuse theories thus differ from the usual understanding of the role of neural (...)
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  44. Giorgio Vallortigara & Lesley J. Rogers (2005). Survival with an Asymmetrical Brain: Advantages and Disadvantages of Cerebral Lateralization. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):575-589.score: 21.0
    Recent evidence in natural and semi-natural settings has revealed a variety of left-right perceptual asymmetries among vertebrates. These include preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as searching for food, agonistic responses, or escape from predators in animals as different as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. There are obvious disadvantages in showing such directional asymmetries because relevant stimuli may be located to the animal's left or right at random; there is no a priori association (...)
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  45. David Loye (2002). The Moral Brain. Brain and Mind 3 (1):133-150.score: 21.0
    This article probes the evolutionary origins ofmoral capacities and moral agency. From thisit develops a theory of the guidancesystem of higher mind (GSHM). The GSHM is ageneral model of intelligence whereby moralfunctioning is integrated with cognitive,affective, and conative functioning, resultingin a flow of information between eight brainlevels functioning as an evaluative unitbetween stimulus and response.The foundation of this view of morality and ofcaring behavior is Charles Darwin's theory,largely ignored until recently, of thegrounding of morality in sexual instincts whichlater expand into (...)
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  46. Péter Érdi (2000). On the 'Dynamic Brain' Metaphor. Brain and Mind 1 (1):119-145.score: 21.0
    Dynamic systems theory offers conceptual andmathematical tools for describing the performance ofneural systems at very different levels oforganization. Three aspects of the dynamic paradigmare discussed, namely neural rhythms, neural andmental development, and macroscopic brain theories andmodels.
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  47. Jonathan Kenneth Burns (2004). An Evolutionary Theory of Schizophrenia: Cortical Connectivity, Metarepresentation, and the Social Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):831-855.score: 21.0
    Schizophrenia is a worldwide, prevalent disorder with a multifactorial but highly genetic aetiology. A constant prevalence rate in the face of reduced fecundity has caused some to argue that an evolutionary advantage exists in unaffected relatives. Here, I critique this adaptationist approach, and review – and find wanting – Crow's “speciation” hypothesis. In keeping with available biological and psychological evidence, I propose an alternative theory of the origins of this disorder. Schizophrenia is a disorder of the social brain, and (...)
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  48. Robert P. O'Shea & Paul M. Corballis (2001). Binocular Rivalry Between Complex Stimuli in Split-Brain Observers. Brain and Mind 2 (1):151-160.score: 21.0
    We investigated binocular rivalry in the twocerebral hemispheres of callosotomized(split-brain) observers. We found that rivalryoccurs for complex stimuli in split-brainobservers, and that it is similar in the twohemispheres. This poses difficulties for twotheories of rivalry: (1) that rivalry occursbecause of switching of activity between thetwo hemispheres, and (2) that rivalry iscontrolled by a structure in the rightfrontoparietal cortex. Instead, similar rivalryfrom the two hemispheres is consistent with atheory that its mechanism is low in the visualsystem, at which each hemisphere (...)
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  49. John D. Loike Moshe Tendler (2008). Reconstituting a Human Brain in Animals: A Jewish Perspective on Human Sanctity. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (4):pp. 347-367.score: 21.0
    The potential use of stem cells in the treatment of a variety of human diseases has been a major driving force for embryonic stem cell research. Another productive area of research has been the use of human stem cells to reconstitute human organ systems in animals in an attempt to create new animal models for human diseases. However, the possibility of transplanting human embryonic brain cells or precursor brain cells into an animal fetus presents numerous (...)
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  50. Jens Benninghoff, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Harald Hampel & Angelo Luigi Vescovi (2008). The Problem of Being a Paradigm: The Emergence of Neural Stem Cells as Example for “Kuhnian” Revolution in Biology or Misconception of the Scientific Community? Poiesis and Praxis 6 (1-2):3-11.score: 21.0
    In a thought experiment we want to test how the emergence of adult neural stem cells could constitute an example for a scientific revolution in the sense of Thomas Kuhn. In his major work, The structure of scientific revolutions, 3rd edn, University of Chicago Press, Chicago (Kuhn 1996), the philosopher of science, Thomas Kuhn, states that scientific progress is not a cumulative process, but new theories appear by a rather revolutionary sequence of events. Kuhn built his theory on landmark (...)
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