Search results for 'Brain Stem' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Robert P. Vertes & Kathleen E. Eastman (2000). The Case Against Memory Consolidation in Rem Sleep. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):867-876.score: 96.0
    We present evidence disputing the hypothesis that memories are processed or consolidated in REM sleep. A review of REM deprivation (REMD) studies in animals shows these reports to be about equally divided in showing that REMD does, or does not, disrupt learning/memory. The studies supporting a relationship between REM sleep and memory have been strongly criticized for the confounding effects of very stressful REM deprivation techniques. The three major classes of antidepressant drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and (...)
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  2. R. DiSilvestro (2008). A Qualified Endorsement of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Based on Two Widely Shared Beliefs About the Brain-Diseased Patients Such Research Might Benefit. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (7):563-567.score: 96.0
    Are there persuasive approaches to embryonic stem cell (ESC) research that appeal, not just to those fellow-citizens in one’s own ideological camp, nor just to those undecided citizens in the middle, but to those citizens on the other side of the issue? I believe that there are such arguments and in this short paper I try to develop one of them. In particular, I argue that certain beliefs shared by some proponents and some opponents of ESC research—beliefs about the (...)
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  3. Sigmund Hsiao (1990). Convergence of Autonomic Afferents at Brain Stem Neurons: Stomach Reflex and Food Intake. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):305-306.score: 96.0
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  4. Z. Elazar (1986). Reciprocal Interactions in the Brain Stem, REM Sleep, and the Generation of Generalized Convulsions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):403.score: 96.0
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  5. H. Gastaut (1954). The Brain Stem and Cerebral Electrogenesis in Relation to Consciousness. In J. F. Delafresnaye (ed.), Brain Mechanisms and Consciousness. Blackwell.score: 96.0
  6. G. Moruzzi (1954). The Physiological Properties of the Brain Stem Reticular System. In J. F. Delafresnaye (ed.), Brain Mechanisms and Consciousness. Blackwell. 21--53.score: 96.0
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  7. Jaak Panksepp (1982). Anxiety Viewed From the Upper Brain Stem: Though Panic and Fear Yield Trepidation, Should Both Be Called Anxiety? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):495.score: 96.0
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  8. C. Cobb (1955). Awareness, Attention, and Physiology of the Brain Stem. In P. Hoch & J. Zubin (eds.), Experimental Psychopathology. Grune & Stratton.score: 90.0
  9. S. Galbraith (1984). ABC of Brain Stem Death. Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (2):94-95.score: 90.0
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  10. Alexander Ritter, Marcel Franz, Caroline Dietrich, Wolfgang H. R. Miltner & Thomas Weiss (2013). Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 90.0
  11. Colwyn Trevarthen (1974). Functional Relations of Disconnected Hemispheres with the Brain Stem, and with Each Other: Monkey and Man. In Marcel Kinsbourne & W. Smith (eds.), Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Charles C. 187--207.score: 90.0
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  12. J. A. Hobson, R. Lydic & H. A. Baghdoyan (1986). Evolving Concepts of Sleep Cycle Generation: From Brain Centers to Neuronal Populations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):371.score: 84.0
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  13. Theo Mantamadiotis, Nikos Papalexis & Sebastian Dworkin (2012). CREB Signalling in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells: Recent Developments and the Implications for Brain Tumour Biology. Bioessays 34 (4):293-300.score: 84.0
  14. Darry K. Miles & Steven G. Kernie (2006). Activation of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells After Brain Injury. In Susana Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, L. M. Martinez, J.-M. Alonso & P. U. Tse (eds.), Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier Science. 157--187.score: 78.0
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  15. Jocelyn Grunwell, Judy Illes & Katrina Karkazis (2009). Advancing Neuroregenerative Medicine: A Call for Expanded Collaboration Between Scientists and Ethicists. Neuroethics 2 (1):13-20.score: 72.0
    To date, ethics discussions about stem cell research overwhelmingly have centered on the morality and acceptability of using human embryonic stem cells. Governments in many jurisdictions have now answered these “first-level questions” and many have now begun to address ethical issues related to the donation of cells, gametes, or embryos for research. In this commentary, we move beyond these ethical concerns to discuss new themes that scientists on the forefront of NRM development anticipate, providing a preliminary framework for (...)
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  16. Thomas N. Seyfried (2001). Perspectives on Brain Tumor Formation Involving Macrophages, Glia, and Neural Stem. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 44 (2):263-282.score: 72.0
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  17. Kai Chen Chang, Cheng Wang & Hongyan Wang (2012). Balancing Self‐Renewal and Differentiation by Asymmetric Division: Insights From Brain Tumor Suppressors in Drosophila Neural Stem Cells. Bioessays 34 (4):301-310.score: 72.0
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  18. Rebecca Stewart & Stefan Przyborski (2002). Non‐Neural Adult Stem Cells: Tools for Brain Repair? Bioessays 24 (8):708-713.score: 72.0
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  19. J. Parvizi & Antonio R. Damasio (2001). Consciousness and the Brainstem. Cognition 79 (1):135-59.score: 60.0
  20. J. Allan Hobson (2002). Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First-Person Account. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):377-390.score: 60.0
  21. Mark W. Mahowald (2004). Commentary on Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First Person Account by J. Allan Hobson. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):134-137.score: 60.0
  22. E. T. Bartlett (1995). Differences Between Death and Dying. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):270-276.score: 60.0
    With so much attention being paid to the development and refinement of appropriate criteria and tests for death, little attention has been given to the broader conceptual issues having to do with its definition or with the relation of a definition to its criterion. The task of selecting the correct criterion is, however, virtually impossible without proper attention to the broader conceptual setting in which the definition operates as the key feature. All of the issues I will discuss arise because (...)
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  23. Mark Greene, Kathryn Schill, Shoji Takahashi, Alison Bateman-House, Tom Beauchamp, Hilary Bok, Dorothy Cheney, Joseph Coyle, Terrence Deacon, Daniel Dennett, Peter Donovan, Owen Flanagan, Steven Goldman, Henry Greely, Lee Martin & Earl Miller (2005). Moral Issues of Human-Non-Human Primate Neural Grafting. Science 309 (5733):385-386.score: 60.0
    The scientific, ethical, and policy issues raised by research involving the engraftment of human neural stem cells into the brains of nonhuman primates are explored by an interdisciplinary working group in this Policy Forum. The authors consider the possibility that this research might alter the cognitive capacities of recipient great apes and monkeys, with potential significance for their moral status.
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  24. Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor (2009). Brain Death, States of Impaired Consciousness, and Physician-Assisted Death for End-of-Life Organ Donation and Transplantation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):409-421.score: 60.0
    In 1968, the Harvard criteria equated irreversible coma and apnea (i.e., brain death) with human death and later, the Uniform Determination of Death Act was enacted permitting organ procurement from heart-beating donors. Since then, clinical studies have defined a spectrum of states of impaired consciousness in human beings: coma, akinetic mutism (locked-in syndrome), minimally conscious state, vegetative state and brain death. In this article, we argue against the validity of the Harvard criteria for equating brain death with (...)
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  25. Douglas F. Watt (2002). Commentary on Professor Hobson's First-Person Account of a Lateral Medullary Stroke (CVA): Affirmative Action for the Brainstem in Consciousness Studies? Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):391-395.score: 60.0
  26. Bill Faw (2000). Consciousness, Motivation, and Emotion: Biopsychological Reflections. In Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (eds.), The Caldron of Consciousness: Motivation, Affect and Self-Organization- an Anthology. Advances in Consciousness Research. John Benjamins. 55-90.score: 60.0
  27. Mark Solms (2000). Dreaming and Rem Sleep Are Controlled by Different Brain Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):843-850.score: 54.0
    The paradigmatic assumption that REM sleep is the physiological equivalent of dreaming is in need of fundamental revision. A mounting body of evidence suggests that dreaming and REM sleep are dissociable states, and that dreaming is controlled by forebrain mechanisms. Recent neuropsychological, radiological, and pharmacological findings suggest that the cholinergic brain stem mechanisms that control the REM state can only generate the psychological phenomena of dreaming through the mediation of a second, probably dopaminergic, forebrain mechanism. The latter mechanism (...)
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  28. Iain Brassington (2012). What's Wrong with the Brain Drain (?). Developing World Bioethics 12 (3):113-120.score: 54.0
    One of the characteristics of the relationship between the developed and developing worlds is the ‘brain drain’– the phenomenon by which expertise moves towards richer countries, thereby condemning poorer countries to continued comparative and absolute poverty. It is tempting to see the phenomenon as a moral problem in its own right, such that there is a moral imperative to end it, that is separate from (and additional to) any moral imperative to relieve the burden of poverty. However, it is (...)
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  29. Dieter Birnbacher (2009). Neuroethics and Stem Cell Transplantation. Medicine Studies 1 (1):67-76.score: 54.0
    Is there anything special about the ethical problems of intracerebral stem-cell transplantation and other forms of cell or tissue transplantation in the brain that provides neuroethics with a distinctive normative profile, setting it apart from other branches of medical ethics? This is examined with reference to some of the ethical problems associated with interventions in the brain such as potential changes in personal identity and potential changes in personality. It is argued that these problems are not sufficiently (...)
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  30. Patrik N. Juslin & Daniel Västfjäll (2008). Emotional Responses to Music: The Need to Consider Underlying Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):559-575.score: 48.0
    Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the mechanism for emotion induction, a (...)
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  31. Julia Reeve (1989). Brain Life and Brain Death – the Anencephalic as an Explanatory Example. A Contribution to Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):5-23.score: 48.0
    The current debate regarding the suitability of anencephalics as organ donors is due primarily to misunderstandings. The anatomical and neurophysiological literature shows that the anencephalic lacks a cerebrum because of the failure of neuralplate fusion. However, even the incomplete function of an atrophic brain stem is currently accepted at law in most if not all countries as sufficient for brain life: which is to say, cessation of breathing is currently required in order to make the diagnosis of (...)
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  32. Aasim I. Padela, Ahsan Arozullah & Ebrahim Moosa (2013). Brain Death in Islamic Ethico-Legal Deliberation: Challenges for Applied Islamic Bioethics. Bioethics 27 (3):132-139.score: 48.0
    Since the 1980s, Islamic scholars and medical experts have used the tools of Islamic law to formulate ethico-legal opinions on brain death. These assessments have varied in their determinations and remain controversial. Some juridical councils such as the Organization of Islamic Conferences' Islamic Fiqh Academy (OIC-IFA) equate brain death with cardiopulmonary death, while others such as the Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences (IOMS) analogize brain death to an intermediate state between life and death. Still other councils have (...)
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  33. Josie Fisher (1999). Re-Examining Death: Against a Higher Brain Criterion. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):473-476.score: 48.0
    While there is increasing pressure on scarce health care resources, advances in medical science have blurred the boundary between life and death. Individuals can survive for decades without consciousness and individuals whose whole brains are dead can be supported for extended periods. One suggested response is to redefine death, justifying a higher brain criterion for death. This argument fails because it conflates two distinct notions about the demise of human beings--the one, biological and the other, ontological. Death is a (...)
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  34. Nicholas Wade, Ethicists Offer Advice for Testing Human Brain Cells in Primates.score: 48.0
    If stem cells ever show promise in treating diseases of the human brain, any potential therapy would need to be tested in animals. But putting human brain stem cells into monkeys or apes could raise awkward ethical dilemmas, like the possibility of generating a humanlike mind in a chimpanzee's body.
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  35. Samira Lakhal & Matthew Ja Wood (2011). Exosome Nanotechnology: An Emerging Paradigm Shift in Drug Delivery. Bioessays 33 (10):737-741.score: 48.0
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  36. F. K. Beller & J. Reeve (1989). Brain Life and Brain Death - The Anencephalic as an Explanatory Example. A Contribution to Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):5-23.score: 48.0
    The current debate regarding the suitability of anencephalics as organ donors is due primarily to misunderstandings. The anatomical and neurophysiological literature shows that the anencephalic lacks a cerebrum because of the failure of neuralplate fusion. However, even the incomplete function of an atrophic brain stem is currently accepted at law in most if not all countries as sufficient for brain life: which is to say, cessation of breathing is currently required in order to make the diagnosis of (...)
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  37. Phillip Karpowicz, Cynthia B. Cohen & Derek J. Van der Kooy (2005). Developing Human-Nonhuman Chimeras in Human Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues and Boundaries. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (2):107-134.score: 42.0
    : The transplantation of adult human neural stem cells into prenatal non-humans offers an avenue for studying human neural cell development without direct use of human embryos. However, such experiments raise significant ethical concerns about mixing human and nonhuman materials in ways that could result in the development of human-nonhuman chimeras. This paper examines four arguments against such research, the moral taboo, species integrity, "unnaturalness," and human dignity arguments, and finds the last plausible. It argues that the transfer of (...)
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  38. Jens Benninghoff, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Harald Hampel & Angelo Luigi Vescovi (2008). The Problem of Being a Paradigm: The Emergence of Neural Stem Cells as Example for “Kuhnian” Revolution in Biology or Misconception of the Scientific Community? Poiesis and Praxis 6 (1-2):3-11.score: 42.0
    In a thought experiment we want to test how the emergence of adult neural stem cells could constitute an example for a scientific revolution in the sense of Thomas Kuhn. In his major work, The structure of scientific revolutions, 3rd edn, University of Chicago Press, Chicago (Kuhn 1996), the philosopher of science, Thomas Kuhn, states that scientific progress is not a cumulative process, but new theories appear by a rather revolutionary sequence of events. Kuhn built his theory on landmark (...)
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  39. John D. Loike Moshe Tendler (2008). Reconstituting a Human Brain in Animals: A Jewish Perspective on Human Sanctity. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (4):pp. 347-367.score: 42.0
    The potential use of stem cells in the treatment of a variety of human diseases has been a major driving force for embryonic stem cell research. Another productive area of research has been the use of human stem cells to reconstitute human organ systems in animals in an attempt to create new animal models for human diseases. However, the possibility of transplanting human embryonic brain cells or precursor brain cells into an animal fetus presents numerous (...)
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  40. Enrico Facco & Christian Agrillo (2012). Near-Death-Like Experiences Without Life-Threatening Conditions or Brain Disorders: A Hypothesis From a Case Report. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 42.0
    Near-death experiences (NDEs) are profound psychic experiences commonly occurring in life-threatening conditions. They include feeling a sense of peace, of seeing a bright light, encountering deceased relatives or religious figures, and of transcending space and time. To explain them, it has been suggested that they stem from brain disorders and/or psychological reactions to approaching death, a sort of wishful thinking in response to the perceived threat. This is a report on a case with most of the features typical (...)
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  41. Bjorn Merker (2007). Consciousness Without a Cerbral Cortex: A Challenge for Neuroscience and Medicine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):63-81.score: 36.0
    A broad range of evidence regarding the functional organization of the vertebrate brain – spanning from comparative neurology to experimental psychology and neurophysiology to clinical data – is reviewed for its bearing on conceptions of the neural organization of consciousness. A novel principle relating target selection, action selection, and motivation to one another, as a means to optimize integration for action in real time, is introduced. With its help, the principal macrosystems of the vertebrate brain can be seen (...)
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  42. Carroll Izard (2007). Levels of Emotion and Levels of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):96-98.score: 36.0
    Merker makes a strong case for the upper brain stem as being the neural home of primary or phenomenal consciousness. Though less emphasized, he makes an equally strong and empirically supported argument for the critical role of the mesodiencephalon in basic emotion processes. His evidence and argument on the functions of brainstem systems in primary consciousness and basic emotion processes present a strong challenge to prevailing assumptions about the primacy of cognition in emotion-cognition-behavior relations. (Published Online May 1 (...)
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  43. Frederic Gilbert, Alexander R. Harris & Robert M. I. Kapsa (2012). Efficacy Testing as a Primary Purpose of Phase 1 Clinical Trials: Is It Applicable to First-in-Human Bionics and Optogenetics Trials? AJOB Neuroscience 3 (2):20-22.score: 36.0
    In her article, Pascale Hess raises the issue of whether her proposed model may be extrapolated and applied to clinical research fields other than stem cell-based interventions in the brain (SCBI-B) (Hess 2012). Broadly summarized, Hess’s model suggests prioritizing efficacy over safety in phase 1 trials involving irreversible interventions in the brain, when clinical criteria meet the appropriate population suffering from “degenerative brain diseases” (Hess 2012). Although there is a need to reconsider the traditional phase 1 (...)
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  44. Laura Yenisa Cabrera Trujillo & Sabrina Engel-Glatter (forthcoming). Human–Animal Chimera: A Neuro Driven Discussion? Comparison of Three Leading European Research Countries. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-23.score: 36.0
    Research with human–animal chimera raises a number of ethical concerns, especially when neural stem cells are transplanted into the brains of non-human primates (NHPs). Besides animal welfare concerns and ethical issues associated with the use of embryonic stem cells, the research is also regarded as controversial from the standpoint of NHPs developing cognitive or behavioural capabilities that are regarded as “unique” to humans. However, scientists are urging to test new therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases in primate models as (...)
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  45. Bernard J. Baars, Why It Must Be Consciousness - for Real!score: 30.0
    1.1 Bilateral damage to the thalamus abolishes waking consciousness. The critical site of this damage is believed to be a relatively small cluster of neurons, about the size of a pencil eraser on either side of the brain's midline, called the Intra-Laminar Nuclei (ILN) because they are located inside the white layers (laminae) that divide the two thalami into their major groupings of nuclei. The fact that bilateral damage to the ILNs abolishes consciousness is very unusual. There is no (...)
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  46. Axel Cleeremans & Tiago V. Maia (2005). Consciousness: Converging Insights From Connectionist Modeling and Neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (8):397-404.score: 30.0
    Over the past decade, many findings in cognitive about the contents of consciousness: we will not address neuroscience have resulted in the view that selective what might be called the ‘enabling factors’ for conscious- attention, working memory and cognitive control ness (e.g. appropriate neuromodulation from the brain- stem, etc.). involve competition between widely distributed rep-.
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  47. Denise Dudzinski (2001). The Diving Bell Meets the Butterfly: Identity Lost Andre-Membered. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (1):33-46.score: 30.0
    Jean Dominique Bauby, former editor of Elle, suffereda stroke to his brain stem that left him with locked-in syndrome. Subsequently, through blinking his left eye, he writes his memoirof this experience, The Diving Bell and the Butterfly. Thispaper explores the meaning of embodiment, especially as one'sbody bears upon one's personal identity. It explores the variouschallenges and threats to selfhood that result from Bauby'sexperience and recounts how Bauby rises to the challenge throughhis memory and imagination.
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  48. M. Moskopp Kurthen, Linke D. & Reuter D. B. (1991). The Locked-in Syndrome and the Behaviorist Epistemology of Other Minds. Theoretical Medicine 12 (March):69-79.score: 30.0
    In this paper, the problem of correct ascriptions of consciousness to patients in neurological intensive care medicine is explored as a special case of the general philosophical other minds problem. It is argued that although clinical ascriptions of consciousness and coma are mostly based on behavioral evidence, a behaviorist epistemology of other minds is not likely to succeed. To illustrate this, the so-called total locked-in syndrome, in which preserved consciousness is combined with a total loss of motor abilities due to (...)
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  49. John Sarnecki (2008). Content and Contagion in Yawning. Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):721 – 737.score: 30.0
    Yawning has a well documented contagious effect: viewing or hearing a yawn—as well as talking or thinking about yawns—causes human subjects to yawn. While comparative ethological and neurological accounts suggest that yawning is a function of primitive biological structures in the brain stem, these analyses do not account for infectious yawning caused by representational and semantic states. Investigating the relationship between perceptual and cognitive avenues of yawn induction affords a unique opportunity to examine how higher level cognitive faculties (...)
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  50. Hans-Martin Sass (1992). Criteria for Death: Self-Determination and Public Policy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):445-454.score: 30.0
    in Western cultures in regard to post-mortem organ donation and the termination of care for patients meeting these strict criteria. But they are of minimal use in Asian cultures and in the ethics of caring for the persistent vegetative patient. This paper introduces a formula for a global Uniform Determination of Death statute, based on the ‘entire brain including brain stem’ criteria as a default position, but allowing competent adults by means of advance directives to choose other (...)
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