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  1. Bruce Bridgeman (2013). Applications of Predictive Control in Neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):208.
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  2. Bruce Bridgeman (2010). Neural Reuse Implies Distributed Coding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):269-270.
    Both distributed coding, with its implication of neural reuse, and more specialized function have been recognized since the beginning of brain science. A controversy over imageless thought threw introspection into disrepute as a scientific method, making more objective methods dominate. It is known in information science that one element, such as a bit in a computer, can participate in coding many independent states; in this commentary, an example is given.
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  3. Bruce Bridgeman (2008). The Role of Motor-Sensory Feedback in the Evolution of Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):132-133.
    Seemingly small changes in brain organization can have revolutionary consequences for function. An example is evolution's application of the primate action-planning mechanism to the management of communicative sequences. When feedback from utterances reaches the brain again through a mechanism that evolved to monitor action sequences, it makes another pass through the brain, amplifying the human power of thinking.
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  4. Bruce Bridgeman (2007). One-Generation Lamarckism: The Role of Environment in Genetic Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4):367-368.
    Environment can provide information used in development – information that can appear to be genetically given and that was previously assumed to be so. Examples include growth of the eye until it achieves good focus, and structuring of receptive fields in the visual cortex by environmental information. The process can be called one-generation Lamarckism because information acquired from the environment is used to structure the organism and because the capacity to acquire this information is inherited.
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  5. Bruce Bridgeman (2006). It is Not Evolutionary Models, but Models in General That Social Science Needs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):351-352.
    Mathematical models are potentially as useful for culture as for evolution, but cultural models must have different designs from genetic models. Social sciences must borrow from biology the idea of modeling, rather than the structure of models, because copying the product is fundamentally different from copying the design. Transfer of most cultural information from brains to artificial media increases the differences between cultural and biological information. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  6. Bruce Bridgeman (2005). Action Planning Supplements Mirror Systems in Language Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):129-130.
    Mirror systems must be supplemented by a planning capability to allow language to evolve. A capability for creating, storing, and executing plans for sequences of actions, having evolved in primates, was applied to sequences of communicatory acts. Language could exploit this already-existing capability. Further steps in language evolution may parallel steps seen in the development of modern children.
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  7. Bruce Bridgeman (2005). Hyperbolas and Hyperbole: The Free Will Problem Remains. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):652-653.
    Hyperbolic theories have the fatal flaw that because of their vertical asymptote they predict irresistible choice of immediate rewards, regardless of future contingencies. They work only for simple situations. Theories incorporating intermediate unconscious choices are more flexible, but are neither exponential nor hyperbolic in their predictions. They don't solve the free will paradox, which may be just a consistent illusion.
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  8. Bruce Bridgeman (2004). Defining Visuomotor Dissociations and an Application to the Oculomotor System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):27-28.
    The perception/planning–control conception has a direct predecessor in a cognitive/sensorimotor scheme, where the cognitive branch includes Glover's perception and planning functions. The sensorimotor branch corresponds to Glover's control function. The cognitive/sensorimotor scheme, like the perception/planning–control scheme, differentiates between motor planning and direct motor control, which is inaccessible to awareness or to long-term memory.
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  9. Bruce Bridgeman (2004). Violations of Sensorimotor Theories of Visual Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):904-905.
    Although the sensorimotor account is a significant step forward, it cannot explain experiences of entoptic phenomena that violate normal sensorimotor contingencies but nonetheless are perceived as visual. Nervous system structure limits how they can be interpreted. Neurophysiology, combined with a sensorimotor theory, can account for space constancy by denying the existence of permanent representations of states that must be corrected or updated.
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  10. Bruce Bridgeman, Naoyuki Osaka, Stephen E. Robbins, Peter D. Sparks & Ee Krieckhaus (2004). Commentary On: A Sensorimotor Account of Vision and Visual Consciousness. Authors' Reply. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):904-908.
     
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  11. Bruce Bridgeman (2003). Grammar Originates in Action Planning, Not in Cognitive and Sensorimotor Visual Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):287-287.
    While the PREDICATE(x) structure requires close coordination of subject and predicate, both represented in consciousness, the cognitive (ventral), and sensorimotor (dorsal) pathways operate in parallel. Sensorimotor information is unconscious and can contradict cognitive spatial information. A more likely origin of linguistic grammar lies in the mammalian action planning process. Neurological machinery evolved for planning of action sequences becomes applied to planning communicatory sequences.
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  12. Bruce Bridgeman (2002). Artifacts and Cognition: Evolution or Cultural Progress? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):403-403.
    Lack of symmetry of stone tools does not require that hominids making asymmetric tools are incapable of doing better. By analogy, differences between stone tools of early humans and modern technology arose without genetic change. A conservative assumption is that symmetry of stone artifacts may have arisen simply because symmetrical tools work better when used for striking and chopping rather than scraping.
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  13. Bruce Bridgeman (2002). The Grand Illusion and Petit Illusions: Interactions of Perception and Sensory Coding. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5-6):29-34.
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  14. Bruce Bridgeman (2000). Interactions Between Vision for Perception and Vision for Behavior. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.
     
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  15. Bruce Bridgeman (2000). Neuroanatomy and Function in Two Visual Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):535-536.
    Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology are insufficient to specify function. Modeling is essential to elucidate function, but psychophysics is also required. An example is the cognitive and sensorimotor branches of the visual system: anatomy shows direct cross talk between the branches. Psychophysics in normal humans shows links from cognitive to sensorimotor, but the reverse link is excluded by visual illusions affecting the cognitive system but not the sensorimotor system.
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  16. Bruce Bridgeman (1999). Implicit and Explicit Representations of Visual Space. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):759-760.
    The visual system captures a unique contrast between implicit and explicit representation where the same event (location of a visible object) is coded in both ways in parallel. A method of differentiating the two representations is described using an illusion that affects only the explicit representation. Consistent with predictions, implicit information is available only from targets presently visible, but, surprisingly, a two-alternative decision does not disturb the implicit representation.
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  17. Bruce Bridgeman (1998). Cortical Models and the Neurological Gap. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (2):157-158.
  18. Bruce Bridgeman (1998). The Dynamical Model is a Perceptron. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):631-632.
    Van Gelder's example of a dynamical model is a Perceptron. The similarity of dynamical models and Perceptrons in turn exemplifies the close relationship between dynamical and algorithmic models. Both are models, not literal descriptions of brains. The brain states of standard modeling are better conceived as processes in the dynamical sense, but algorithmic models remain useful.
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  19. Bruce Bridgeman & V. Huemer (1998). A Spatially Oriented Decision Does Not Induce Consciousness in a Motor Task. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):454-464.
    Visual information follows at least two branches in the human nervous system, following a common input stage: a cognitive ''what'' branch governs perception and experience, while a sensorimotor ''how'' branch handles visually guided behavior though its outputs are unconscious. The sensorimotor system is probed with an isomorphic task, requiring a 1:1 relationship between target position and motor response. The cognitive system, in contrast, is probed with a forced qualitative decision, expressed verbally, about the location of a target. Normally, the cognitive (...)
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  20. Bruce Bridgeman (1997). Attention Shuts Out Irrelevant Stimuli. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):769-769.
    Express saccade experiments imply that attention shifts take time. We extend this result with new experiments on manual reaction times. Reaction to a cued target is always slower than reaction to an uncued control, even when the cue is correct, if control trials are blocked to prevent interference from cued trials. Attention functions not to speed response, but to prevent responses at irrelevant locations.
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  21. Bruce Bridgeman, A. H. C. Van der Heijden & Boris M. Velichkovsky (1996). Relationship of Saccadic Suppression to Space Constancy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):553-554.
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  22. Bruce Bridgeman & Jean Blouin (1994). Extending Reference Signal Theory to Rapid Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):315.
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  23. Bruce Bridgeman, A. H. C. Van der Heijden & Boris M. Velichkovsky (1994). A Theory of Visual Stability Across Saccadic Eye Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):247.
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  24. Bruce Bridgeman, A. H. C. Van der Heijden & Boris M. Velichkovsky (1994). How Our World Remains Stable Despite Disturbing Influences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):282.
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  25. A. H. C. Van der Heijden & Bruce Bridgeman (1994). Action and Attention. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):225.
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  26. Bruce Bridgeman (1993). Spatial and Cognitive Vision Differentiate at Low Levels, but Not in Language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):240.
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  27. Bruce Bridgeman & Margarita Azmitia (1993). Mimetic Culture and Modern Sports: A Synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):751.
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  28. Bruce Bridgeman (1992). Consciousness and Memory. Psycoloquy.
    Rosenthal makes assertions about what can and cannot happen without being conscious. Although his distinctions are informative, they do not substitute for data. We have little precise information that differentiates the immediate feeling of awareness, such as that possible for Korsakoff patients, from the later episodic memory of conscious experience. Appeals to introspection are useful starting points, but they are clearly are not to be trusted in this context. Rosenthal also asks why conscious thinking would be more efficacious than thinking (...)
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  29. Bruce Bridgeman (1992). Conscious Vs Unconscious Processes: The Case of Vision. Theory and Psychology 2:73-88.
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  30. Bruce Bridgeman (1992). On the Evolution of Consciousness and Language. Psycoloquy 3 (15).
    Psychology can be based on plans, internally held images of achievement that organize the stimulus-response links of traditional psychology. The hierarchical structure of plans must be produced, held, assigned priorities, and monitored. Consciousness is the operation of the plan-executing mechanism, enabling behavior to be driven by plans rather than immediate environmental contingencies. The mechanism unpacks a single internally held idea into a series of actions. New in this paper is the proposal that language uses this mechanism for communication, unpacking an (...)
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  31. Bruce Bridgeman (1992). Taking Distributed Coding Seriously. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (4):717-717.
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  32. Bruce Bridgeman (1992). What is Consciousness for, Anyway? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):206-207.
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  33. Bruce Bridgeman (1991). Two Kinds of Models, Many Kinds of Souls: Shallice on Neuropsychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):440-441.
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  34. Bruce Bridgeman (1990). Intention Itself Will Disappear When its Mechanisms Are Known. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):598-599.
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  35. Bruce Bridgeman (1990). What Connectionists Learn: Comparisons of Model and Neural Nets. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (3):491-492.
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  36. Bruce Bridgeman (1989). Modeling Separate Processing Pathways for Spatial and Object Vision. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):398.
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  37. Bruce Bridgeman (1989). Skeletal and Oculomotor Control Systems Compared. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (2):212.
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  38. Bruce Bridgeman (1987). Is the Dual-Route Theory Possible in Phonetically Regular Languages? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (2):331.
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  39. Bruce Bridgeman (1986). Relations Between the Physiology of Attention and the Physiology of Consciousness. Psychological Research 48:259-266.
  40. Bruce Bridgeman (1986). Theories of Visual Masking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):25.
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  41. Bruce Bridgeman (1985). Free Will and the Functions of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):540.
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  42. Bruce Bridgeman (1983). Independent Evidence for Neural Systems Mediating Blindsight. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):450.
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  43. Bruce Bridgeman (1983). Isomorphism is Where You Find It. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (4):658.
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  44. Bruce Bridgeman & Melanie Mayer (1983). Failure to Integrate Visual Information From Successive Fixations. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (4):285-286.
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  45. Bruce Bridgeman & Melanie Mayer (1983). Iconic Storage and Saccadic Eye Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (1):16.
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  46. Bruce Bridgeman (1980). Brains + Programs = Minds. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):427.
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  47. Bruce Bridgeman (1980). Direct Perception and a Call for Primary Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):382.
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  48. Bruce Bridgeman (1979). Adaptation and the Two-Visual-Systems Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):64-65.
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  49. Bruce Bridgeman (1979). Events and Processes in Neural Stimulus Coding: Some Limitations and an Applicaton to Metacontrast. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):257-258.
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  50. Bruce Bridgeman (1979). Neurologizing Mental Imagery: The Physiological Optics of the Mind's Eye. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):550.
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