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Bryan G. Norton [49]Bryan Norton [12]
  1. Robert Frodeman, Dale Jamieson, J. Baird Callicott, Stephen M. Gardiner, Lori Gruen, Irene J. Klaver, Eugene Hargrove, Ben A. Minteer & Bryan Norton (forthcoming). Commentary on the Future of Environmental Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment.
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  2. Bryan G. Norton (forthcoming). Envircnrr. Or. Iii! Efrics. Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence.
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  3. Bryan G. Norton (2013). Environmental Philosophy: A Fresh Perspective. BioScience 63 (5).
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  4. Bryan G. Norton (2013). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. BioScience 63 (5):404-405.
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  5. Christopher M. Raymond, Gerald G. Singh, Karina Benessaiah, Joanna R. Bernhardt, Jordan Levine, Harry Nelson, Nancy J. Turner, Bryan Norton, Jordan Tam & Kai Ma Chan (2013). Ecosystem Services and Beyond. BioScience 63 (7):536-546.
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  6. Gary W. Luck, Kai Ma Chan, Uta Eser, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Bettina Matzdorf, Bryan Norton & Marion B. Potschin (2012). Ethical Considerations in On-Ground Applications of the Ecosystem Services Concept. BioScience 62 (12):1020-1029.
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  7. Bryan G. Norton (2012). The Ways of Wickedness: Analyzing Messiness with Messy Tools. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):447-465.
    The revelatory paper, “Dilemmas in the General Theory of Planning,” by Rittel and Webber (Policy Sci 4:155–169, 1973 ) has had great impact because it provides one example of an emergent consensus across many disciplines. Many “problems,” as addressed in real-world situations, involve elements that exceed the complexity of any known or hoped-for model, or are “wicked.” Many who encounter this work for the first time find that their concept of wicked problems aptly describes many environmental disputes. For those frustrated (...)
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  8. Bryan G. Norton (2011). Modeling Sustainability in Economics and Ecology. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. 11--363.
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  9. Bryan G. Norton (2011). What Leopold Learned From Darwin and Hadley: Comment on Callicott Et Al. Environmental Values 20 (1):7 - 16.
    This comment explains why the claims of Callicott et al. in their paper 'Was Aldo Leopold a Pragmatist?' (Environmental Values 18 (2009): 453—486) are incorrect. The arguments they make are shown to be based upon several misunderstandings. In addition, important contributions by Aldo Leopold to the philosophy of conservation are missed.
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  10. Spencer Abraham, Ray Anderson, Nik Ansell, St Thomas Aquinas, St Francis of Assisi, William Baxter, Philip J. Bentley, Joachim Blatter, Murray Bookchin, Maya Brennan, Majora Carter, Carl Cohen, Deane Curtin, Herman Daly, David DeGrazia, Bill Devall, Calvin DeWitt, David Ehrenfeld, Paul, Anne Ehrlich, Robert Elliot, Stuart Ewen, Nuria Fernandez, Stephen Gardiner, Ramachandra Guha, Garrett Hardin, Eugene Hargrove, John Hasse, Po-Keung Ip, Ralf Isenmann, Kauser Jahan, Marianne B. Karsh, Andrew Kernohan, Marti Kheel, Kenneth Kraft, Aldo Leopold, Miriam MacGillis, Juan Martinez-Alier, Ed McGaa, Katie McShane, Roberto Mechoso, Arne Naess, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Michael Nelson, Bryan Norton, Philip Nyhus, John O'Neil, Stephen Pacala, Ernest Partridge, Erv Peterson, Tom Regan, Holmes Rolston Iii, Lily-Marlene Russow, Mark Sagoff, Kristin Schrader-Frechette, Erroll Schweizer, George Sessions, Vandana Shiva, Peter Singer, Stephen Socolow, Paul Steidlmeier, Richard Sylvan, Bron Taylor & Paul Taylor (2009). Earthcare: An Anthology in Environmental Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  11. Bryan G. Norton (2009). Convergence and Contextualism: Some Clarifications and a Reply to Steverson. In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Temple University Press.
     
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  12. Bryan G. Norton (2009). Convergence and Divergence: The Convergence Hypothesis Twenty Years Later. In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Temple University Press.
     
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  13. Bryan G. Norton (2008). Beyond Positivist Ecology: Toward an Integrated Ecological Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):581-592.
    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an “ecological ethic” indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of “reflexive” ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for (...)
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  14. Bryan G. Norton (2008). Convergence, Noninstrumental Value and the Semantics of 'Love': Comment on McShane. Environmental Values 17 (1):5 - 14.
    Katie McShane, while accepting my 'convergence hypothesis' (the view that anthropocentrists and nonanthropocentrists will tend to propose similar policies), argues that nonanthropocentrism is nevertheless superior because it allows conservationists to have a deeper emotional commitment to natural objects than can anthropocentrists. I question this reasoning on two bases. First, McShane assumes a philosophically tendentious distinction between intrinsic and instrumental value – a distinction that presupposes a dualistic worldview. Second, I question why McShane believes anthropocentrists – weak anthropocentrists, that is – (...)
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  15. Bryan G. Norton (2008). "Environmental Values": An Appreciation. [REVIEW] Environmental Values 17 (2):303 - 306.
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  16. Bryan G. Norton (2008). Politics and Epistemology. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):299-306.
    Kevin Elliott has argued that I defend two “conceptions” of adaptive management processes in my book, Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management, calling the conceptions “political” and “metaphysical,” respectively. Elliott claims that I must choose between them. Elliott has not sufficiently explained how he proceeds from the claim that I provide two separable arguments for my adaptive management process to his conclusion that I have two conceptions of this process. Once this confusion is clarified, it becomes clear that adapting (...)
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  17. Robert Frodeman, Dale Jamieson, J. Baird Callicott, Stephen M. Gardiner, Lori Gruen, Irene J. Klaver, Eugene Hargrove, Ben A. Minteer, Bryan Norton, Clare Palmer, Holmes Rolston, Ricardo Rozzi, James P. Sterba, William M. Throop & Victoria Davion (2007). Commentary on the Future of Environmental Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):117 - 150.
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  18. Bryan G. Norton (2007). A Reply to My Critics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (4):387-405.
    Critics of my book, Sustainability, have raised many objections which are addressed. In general, I emphasize that the book is an integrative work; it must be long and complex beause it attempts a comprehensive treatment of problems of communication, of evaluation, and of management action in environmental discourse. I explain that I depend upon the pragmatists and on work in the pragmatics of language because the current language of environmental policy discourse is inadequate to allow deliberative processes that can reach (...)
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  19. Bryan G. Norton (2007). Politics and Epistemology: Inclusion and Controversy in Adaptive Management Processes. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):299-306.
    Kevin Elliott has argued that I defend two “conceptions” of adaptive management processes in my book, Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management, calling the conceptions “political” and “metaphysical,” respectively. Elliott claims that I must choose between them. Elliott has not sufficiently explained how he proceeds from the claim that I provide two separable arguments for my adaptive management process to his conclusion that I have two conceptions of this process. Once this confusion is clarified, it becomes clear that adapting (...)
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  20. Bryan G. Norton (2007). The Past and Future of Environmental Ethics/Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):134-136.
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  21. Bryan G. Norton (2006). Seeing Clearly Now. BioScience 56 (7):622-623.
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  22. Bryan Norton, Paul B. Thompson, David Schmidtz, Elizabeth Willott & Mark Sagoff (2006). Mark Sagoff 's Price, Principle, and the Environment: Two Comments. Ethics, Place and Environment 9 (3):337 – 372.
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  23. Bryan G. Norton (2005). Price, Principle, and the Environment. Environmental Ethics 27 (3):319-322.
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  24. Bryan G. Norton (2005). Sustainability : A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management. University of Chicago Press.
    Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-226-595 19-6 (cloth : alk. paper) . A . 1. Environmental policy. 2. Environmental management — Decision making. 3. Interdisciplinary research. 4. Communication in science. 5. Sustainable ...
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  25. Bryan G. Norton (2003). Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of Conservation Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    This book examines from a multidisciplinary viewpoint the question of what we mean - what we should mean - by setting sustainability as a goal for environmental management. The author, trained as a philosopher of science and language, explores ways to break down the disciplinary barriers to communication and deliberation about environment policy, and to integrate science and evaluations into a more comprehensive environmental policy. Choosing sustainability as the keystone concept of environmental policy, the author explores what we can learn (...)
     
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  26. Wilson Carey McWilliams, Bob Pepperman Taylor, Bryan G. Norton, Robyn Eckersley, Joe Bowersox, J. Baird Callicott, Catriona Sandilands, John Barry, Andrew Light, Peter S. Wenz, Luis A. Vivanco, Tim Hayward, John O'Neill, Robert Paehlke, Timothy W. Luke, Robert Gottlieb & Charles T. Rubin (2002). Democracy and the Claims of Nature: Critical Perspectives for a New Century. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  27. Bryan G. Norton (2001). John Foster, Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics, and the Environment:Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics, and the Environment. Ethics 111 (3):630-632.
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  28. Bryan G. Norton & Anne C. Steinemann (2001). Environmental Values and Adaptive Management. Environmental Values 10 (4):473 - 506.
    The trend in environmental management toward more adaptive, community-based, and holistic approaches will require new approaches to environmental valuation. In this paper, we offer a new valuation approach, one that embodies the core principles of adaptive management, which is experimental, multi-scalar, and place-based. In addition, we use hierarchy theory to incorporate spatial and temporal variability of natural systems into a multi-scalar management model. Our approach results in the consideration of multiple values within community-based ecosystem management, rather than an attempt to (...)
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  29. Bryan G. Norton (2000). Clearing the Way for a Life-Centered Ethic for Business. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 2:159-165.
    I agree with much of Freeman and Reichart’s paper; so, by way of comment, I will simply supplement his argument in two ways. First, agreeing with their conclusion that we can, and should, re-direct business toward environmental protection without embracing a nonanthropocentric ethic, I will show that the pre-occupation of recent and contemporary environmental ethics with the anthropocentrism/non-anthropocentrism debate is avoidable. It rests on a misinterpretation of possible moral responses to the arrogance with which Western science, technology, and culture has (...)
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  30. Peder Anker, Per Ariansen, Alfred J. Ayer, Murray Bookchin, Baird Callicott, John Clark, Bill Devall, Fons Elders, Paul Feyerabend, Warwick Fox, William C. French, Harold Glasser, Ramachandra Guha, Patsy Hallen, Stephan Harding, Andrew Mclaughlin, Ivar Mysterud, Arne Naess, Bryan Norton, Val Plumwood, Peter Reed, Kirkpatrick Sale, Ariel Salleh, Karen Warren, Richard A. Watson, Jon Wetlesen & Michael E. Zimmerman (1999). Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  31. Bryan Norton (1999). Ecology and Opportunity: Intergenerational Equity and Sustainable Options. In Andrew Dobson (ed.), Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice. Oup Oxford. 118--150.
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  32. Bryan G. Norton (1999). Pragmatism, Adaptive Management, and Sustainability. Environmental Values 8 (4):451 - 466.
    The pragmatic conception of truth, anticipated by Henry David Thoreau and developed by C.S. Peirce and subsequent pragmatists, is proposed as a useful analogy for characterising 'sustainability.' Peirce's definitions of 'truth' provides an attractive approach to sustainability because (a) it re-focuses discussions of truth and objectivity from a search for 'correspondence' to an 'external world' (the 'conform' approach) to a more forward-looking ('transform') approach; and (b) it emphasises the crucial role of an evolving, questioning community in the conduct of inquiry. (...)
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  33. Philip Brey, Lee Caragata, James Dickinson, David Glidden, Sara Gottlieb, Bruce Hannon, Ian Howard, Jeff Malpas, Katya Mandoki, Jonathan Maskit, Bryan G. Norton, Roger Paden, David Roberts, Holmes Rolston Iii, Izhak Schnell, Jonathon M. Smith, David Wasserman & Mick Womersley (1998). Philosophy and Geography Iii: Philosophies of Place. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  34. Bryan G. Norton (1997). Convergence and Contextualism: Some Clarifications and a Reply to Steverson. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):87-100.
    The convergence hypothesis asserts that, if one takes the full range of human values—present and future—into account, one will choose a set of policies that can also be accepted by an advocate of a consistent and reasonable nonanthropocentrism. Brian Steverson has attacked this hypothesis from a surprising direction. He attributes to deep ecologists the position that nonhuman nature has intrinsic value, interprets this position to mean that no species could ever be allowed to go extinct, and proceeds to show that (...)
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  35. Bryan G. Norton & Bruce Hannon (1997). Environmental Values: A Place-Based Approach. Environmental Ethics 19 (3):227-245.
    Several recent authors have recommended that “sense of place” should become an important concept in our evaluation of environmental policies. In this paper, we explore aspects of this concept, arguing that it may provide the basis for a new, “place-based” approach to environmental values. This approach is based on an empirical hypothesis that place orientation is a feature of all people’s experience of their environment. We argue that place orientation requires, in addition to a home perspective, a sense of the (...)
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  36. Bryan G. Norton (1996). Conserving Natural Value. Environmental Ethics 18 (2):209-214.
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  37. Bryan G. Norton (1996). Moral Naturalism and Adaptive Management. Hastings Center Report 26 (6):24-26.
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  38. Bryan Norton (1995). Objectivity, Intrinsicality and Sustainability: Comment on Nelson's 'Health and Disease as "Thick" Concepts in Ecosystemic Contexts'. Environmental Values 4 (4):323 - 332.
    Ecosystem health, as James Nelson argues, must be understood as having both descriptive and normative content; it is in this sense a 'morally thick' concept. The health analogy refers (a) at the similarities between conservation ecology and medicine or plant pathology as normative sciences, and (b) to the ability of ecosystems to 'heal' themselves in the face of disturbances. Nelson, however, goes beyond these two aspects and argues that judgements of illness in ecosystems only support moral obligations to protect them (...)
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  39. Bryan G. Norton (1995). Why I Am Not a Nonanthropocentrist: Callicott and the Failure of Monistic Inherentism. Environmental Ethics 17 (4):341-358.
    I contrast two roles for environmental philosophers—“applied philosophy” and “practical philosophy”—and show that the strategy of applied philosophy encourages an axiological and monistic approach to theory building. I argue that the mission of applied philosophy, and the monistic theory defended by J. Baird Callicott, in particular, tends to separate philosophers and their problems from real management issues because applied philosophers and moral monists insist that theoretical exploration occurs independent of, and prior to, applications in particular situations. This separation of theory (...)
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  40. Bryan G. Norton (1994). Ecology and Prophecy for the New Millennium Beginning Again: People and Nature in the New Millennium David Ehrenfeld. BioScience 44 (1):37-39.
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  41. Bryan G. Norton (1994). Ecology and Prophecy for the New Millennium. BioScience 44 (1):37-39.
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  42. Bryan G. Norton (1994). Economists' Preferences and the Preferences of Economists. Environmental Values 3 (4):311 - 332.
    Economists, who adopt the principle of consumer sovereignty, treat preferences as unquestioned for the purposes of their analysis. They also represent preferences for future outcomes as having value in the present. It is shown that these two characteristics of neoclassical modelling rest on similar reasoning and are essential to achieve high aggregatability of preferences and values. But the meaning and broader implications of these characteristics vary according to the arguments given to support these methodological choices. The resulting ambiguities raise questions (...)
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  43. Bryan G. Norton (1993). Should Environmentalists Be Organicists? Topoi 12 (1):21-30.
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  44. Bryan Norton (1992). Sustainability, Human Welfare, and Ecosystem Health. Environmental Values 1 (2):97 - 111.
    Two types of sustainability definitions are contrasted. 'Social scientific' definitions, such as that of the Brundtland Commission, treat sustainability as a relationship between present and future welfare of persons. These definitions differ from 'ecological' ones which explicitly require protection of ecological processes as a condition on sustainability. 'Scientific contextualism' does not follow mainstream economists in their efforts to express all effects as interchangeable units of individual welfare; it rather strives to express sensitivity to different types and scales of impacts that (...)
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  45. Bryan G. Norton (1992). Epistemology and Environmental Values. The Monist 75 (2):208-226.
  46. Bryan G. Norton (1991). J. Baird Callicott: In Defense of the Land Ethic. Environmental Ethics 13 (2):181-186.
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  47. Bryan G. Norton (1991). Thoreau's Insect Analogies: Or Why Environmentalists Hate Mainstream Economists. Environmental Ethics 13 (3):235-251.
    Thoreau believed that we can learn how to live by observing nature, a view that appeals to modem environmentalists. This doctrine is exemplified in Thoreau’s use of insect analogies to illustrate how humans, like butterflies, can be transformed from the “larval” stage, which relates to the physical world through consumption, to a “perfect” state in which consumption is less important, and in which freedom and contemplation are the ends of life. This transformational idea rests upon a theory of dynamic dualism (...)
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  48. Bryan G. Norton (1991). Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. Oxford University Press.
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  49. Bryan G. Norton (1987). Respect for Nature. Environmental Ethics 9 (3):261-267.
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  50. Bryan G. Norton (1986). Conservation and Preservation. Environmental Ethics 8 (3):195-220.
    Philosophers have paid little attention to the distinction between conservation and preservation, apparently because they have accepted John Passmore’s suggestion that conservationism is an expression of anthropocentric motives and that “true” preservationism is an expression of nonanthropocentric motives. Philosophers have therefore concentrated their efforts on this distinction in motives. This reduction,however, is insensitive to important nuances of environmentalist objectives: there are a wide variety of human reasons for preserving natural ecosystems and wild species. Preservationist policies represent a concem to protect (...)
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