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Profile: Bryan Norton (University of Cologne)
  1.  136 DLs
    Christopher M. Raymond, Gerald G. Singh, Karina Benessaiah, Joanna R. Bernhardt, Jordan Levine, Harry Nelson, Nancy J. Turner, Bryan Norton, Jordan Tam & Kai Ma Chan (2013). Ecosystem Services and Beyond. BioScience 63 (7):536-546.
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  2.  95 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1984). Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism. Environmental Ethics 6 (2):131-148.
    The assumption that environmental ethics must be nonanthropocentric in order to be adequate is mistaken. There are two forms of anthropocentrism, weak and strong, and weak anthropocentrism is adequate to support an environmental ethic. Environmental ethics is, however, distinctive vis-a-vis standard British and American ethical systems because, in order to be adequate, it must be nonindividualistic.Environmental ethics involves decisions on two levels, one kind of which differs from usual decisions affecting individual fairness while the other does not. The latter, called (...)
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  3.  86 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2008). Beyond Positivist Ecology: Toward an Integrated Ecological Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):581-592.
    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an “ecological ethic” indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of “reflexive” ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for (...)
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  4.  66 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1994). Ecology and Prophecy for the New Millennium. BioScience 44 (1):37-39.
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  5.  50 DLs
    Bryan Norton, Paul B. Thompson, David Schmidtz, Elizabeth Willott & Mark Sagoff (2006). Mark Sagoff 's Price, Principle, and the Environment: Two Comments. Ethics, Place and Environment 9 (3):337 – 372.
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  6.  41 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2007). The Past and Future of Environmental Ethics/Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):134-136.
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  7.  39 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1991). Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. Oxford University Press.
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  8.  33 DLs
    Robert Frodeman, Dale Jamieson, J. Baird Callicott, Stephen M. Gardiner, Lori Gruen, Irene J. Klaver, Eugene Hargrove, Ben A. Minteer, Bryan Norton, Clare Palmer, Holmes Rolston, Ricardo Rozzi, James P. Sterba, William M. Throop & Victoria Davion (2007). Commentary on the Future of Environmental Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):117 - 150.
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  9.  28 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1982). Environmental Ethics and the Rights of Future Generations. Environmental Ethics 4 (4):319-337.
    Do appeals to rights and/or interests of the members of future generations provide an adequate basis for an environmental ethic? Assuming that rights and interests are, semantically, individualistic concepts, I present an argument following Derek Parfit which shows that a policy of depletion may harm no existing individuals, present or future. Although this argument has, initially, an air of paradox, I showthat the argument has two intuitive analogues-the problem ofgenerating a morally justified and environmentally sound population policy and the problem (...)
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  10.  24 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton & Bruce Hannon (1997). Environmental Values: A Place-Based Approach. Environmental Ethics 19 (3):227-245.
    Several recent authors have recommended that “sense of place” should become an important concept in our evaluation of environmental policies. In this paper, we explore aspects of this concept, arguing that it may provide the basis for a new, “place-based” approach to environmental values. This approach is based on an empirical hypothesis that place orientation is a feature of all people’s experience of their environment. We argue that place orientation requires, in addition to a home perspective, a sense of the (...)
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  11.  24 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1993). Should Environmentalists Be Organicists? Topoi 12 (1):21-30.
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  12.  23 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2007). A Reply to My Critics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (4):387-405.
    Critics of my book, Sustainability, have raised many objections which are addressed. In general, I emphasize that the book is an integrative work; it must be long and complex beause it attempts a comprehensive treatment of problems of communication, of evaluation, and of management action in environmental discourse. I explain that I depend upon the pragmatists and on work in the pragmatics of language because the current language of environmental policy discourse is inadequate to allow deliberative processes that can reach (...)
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  13.  21 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1995). Why I Am Not a Nonanthropocentrist: Callicott and the Failure of Monistic Inherentism. Environmental Ethics 17 (4):341-358.
    I contrast two roles for environmental philosophers—“applied philosophy” and “practical philosophy”—and show that the strategy of applied philosophy encourages an axiological and monistic approach to theory building. I argue that the mission of applied philosophy, and the monistic theory defended by J. Baird Callicott, in particular, tends to separate philosophers and their problems from real management issues because applied philosophers and moral monists insist that theoretical exploration occurs independent of, and prior to, applications in particular situations. This separation of theory (...)
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  14.  21 DLs
    Bryan Norton (1976). Is Counterpart Theory Inadequate? Journal of Philosophical Logic 5 (1):79 - 89.
    Counterpart theorists need not posit the counterpart relation in addition to the identity relations as an Additional relation relating objects across possible worlds. Identity can be viewed as a relation applicable to individuals within possible worlds, while the counterpart relation replaces identity in translations of ordinary utterances which correlate individuals in different possible worlds and, hence, in all modal utterances. CT is, in other words, a theory of modal discourse — it proposes a way of understanding all modal predications. As (...)
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  15.  20 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1992). Epistemology and Environmental Values. The Monist 75 (2):208-226.
  16.  17 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1986). Conservation and Preservation. Environmental Ethics 8 (3):195-220.
    Philosophers have paid little attention to the distinction between conservation and preservation, apparently because they have accepted John Passmore’s suggestion that conservationism is an expression of anthropocentric motives and that “true” preservationism is an expression of nonanthropocentric motives. Philosophers have therefore concentrated their efforts on this distinction in motives. This reduction,however, is insensitive to important nuances of environmentalist objectives: there are a wide variety of human reasons for preserving natural ecosystems and wild species. Preservationist policies represent a concem to protect (...)
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  17.  13 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2007). Politics and Epistemology: Inclusion and Controversy in Adaptive Management Processes. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):299-306.
    Kevin Elliott has argued that I defend two “conceptions” of adaptive management processes in my book, Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management, calling the conceptions “political” and “metaphysical,” respectively. Elliott claims that I must choose between them. Elliott has not sufficiently explained how he proceeds from the claim that I provide two separable arguments for my adaptive management process to his conclusion that I have two conceptions of this process. Once this confusion is clarified, it becomes clear that adapting (...)
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  18.  13 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2012). The Ways of Wickedness: Analyzing Messiness with Messy Tools. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):447-465.
    The revelatory paper, “Dilemmas in the General Theory of Planning,” by Rittel and Webber (Policy Sci 4:155–169, 1973 ) has had great impact because it provides one example of an emergent consensus across many disciplines. Many “problems,” as addressed in real-world situations, involve elements that exceed the complexity of any known or hoped-for model, or are “wicked.” Many who encounter this work for the first time find that their concept of wicked problems aptly describes many environmental disputes. For those frustrated (...)
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  19.  12 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2001). John Foster, Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics, and the Environment:Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics, and the Environment. Ethics 111 (3):630-632.
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  20.  12 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1980). De Re Modality, Generic Essences, and Science. Philosophia 9 (2):167-186.
    I have taken the traditional problem of the seeming interdependence of identity concepts and essentialistic concepts and the attendant difficulties with circularity as a starting point in my consideration of recent attempts to provide accounts ofde re essences. Having distinguished between theories of individual and generic essences, I have shown how a linguistic device based upon a new approach to referring expressions has, perhaps, provided some advance in the understanding of individualde re essences. I have argued that, however efficacious these (...)
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  21.  11 DLs
    Kenneth S. Friedman, Donald Gotterbarn, M. Glouberman, Bryan G. Norton, David S. Schwarz & Walter P. Van Stigt (1979). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Philosophia 9 (1):805-813.
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  22.  11 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1991). Thoreau's Insect Analogies: Or Why Environmentalists Hate Mainstream Economists. Environmental Ethics 13 (3):235-251.
    Thoreau believed that we can learn how to live by observing nature, a view that appeals to modem environmentalists. This doctrine is exemplified in Thoreau’s use of insect analogies to illustrate how humans, like butterflies, can be transformed from the “larval” stage, which relates to the physical world through consumption, to a “perfect” state in which consumption is less important, and in which freedom and contemplation are the ends of life. This transformational idea rests upon a theory of dynamic dualism (...)
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  23.  10 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1982). Environmental Ethics and Nonhuman Rights. Environmental Ethics 4 (1):17-36.
    If environmentalists are to combat effectively the continuing environmental decay resulting from more and more intense human exploitation of nature, they need a plausible and coherent rationale for preserving sensitive areas and other species. This need is illustrated by reference to two examples of controversies concerning large public projects in wilderness areas. Analyses of costs and benefits to presently existing human beings and the utilitarian theory which supports such theories are inadequate to provide such a rationale, as other writers have (...)
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  24.  10 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2013). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. BioScience 63 (5):404-405.
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  25.  9 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1977). On the Metatheoretical Nature of Carnap's Philosophy. Philosophy of Science 44 (1):65-85.
    Rudolf Carnap defended two quite different critiques of traditional philosophy: in addition to the much discussed verifiability criterion, he also proposed a critique based upon "formalizability." Formalizability rests upon the principle of tolerance plus an acceptance of a linguistic methodology. Standard interpreters of Carnap (e.g., [7] and [8]) assume that the principle of tolerance (and, hence, formalizability) gains its argumentative support from verificationism. Carnap, in fact, kept the two critiques separate and independent. Indeed, verificationism is even, in spirit, inconsistent with (...)
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  26.  9 DLs
    Bryan Norton (1976). On Defining ‘Ontology’. Metaphilosophy 7 (2):102–115.
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  27.  9 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1987). Respect for Nature. Environmental Ethics 9 (3):261-267.
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  28.  8 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1991). J. Baird Callicott: In Defense of the Land Ethic. Environmental Ethics 13 (2):181-186.
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  29.  8 DLs
    Gary W. Luck, Kai Ma Chan, Uta Eser, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Bettina Matzdorf, Bryan Norton & Marion B. Potschin (2012). Ethical Considerations in On-Ground Applications of the Ecosystem Services Concept. BioScience 62 (12):1020-1029.
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  30.  7 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1997). Convergence and Contextualism: Some Clarifications and a Reply to Steverson. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):87-100.
    The convergence hypothesis asserts that, if one takes the full range of human values—present and future—into account, one will choose a set of policies that can also be accepted by an advocate of a consistent and reasonable nonanthropocentrism. Brian Steverson has attacked this hypothesis from a surprising direction. He attributes to deep ecologists the position that nonhuman nature has intrinsic value, interprets this position to mean that no species could ever be allowed to go extinct, and proceeds to show that (...)
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  31.  7 DLs
    Bryan Norton (1992). Sustainability, Human Welfare, and Ecosystem Health. Environmental Values 1 (2):97 - 111.
    Two types of sustainability definitions are contrasted. 'Social scientific' definitions, such as that of the Brundtland Commission, treat sustainability as a relationship between present and future welfare of persons. These definitions differ from 'ecological' ones which explicitly require protection of ecological processes as a condition on sustainability. 'Scientific contextualism' does not follow mainstream economists in their efforts to express all effects as interchangeable units of individual welfare; it rather strives to express sensitivity to different types and scales of impacts that (...)
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  32.  6 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1994). Economists' Preferences and the Preferences of Economists. Environmental Values 3 (4):311 - 332.
    Economists, who adopt the principle of consumer sovereignty, treat preferences as unquestioned for the purposes of their analysis. They also represent preferences for future outcomes as having value in the present. It is shown that these two characteristics of neoclassical modelling rest on similar reasoning and are essential to achieve high aggregatability of preferences and values. But the meaning and broader implications of these characteristics vary according to the arguments given to support these methodological choices. The resulting ambiguities raise questions (...)
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  33.  6 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2011). What Leopold Learned From Darwin and Hadley: Comment on Callicott Et Al. Environmental Values 20 (1):7 - 16.
    This comment explains why the claims of Callicott et al. in their paper 'Was Aldo Leopold a Pragmatist?' (Environmental Values 18 (2009): 453—486) are incorrect. The arguments they make are shown to be based upon several misunderstandings. In addition, important contributions by Aldo Leopold to the philosophy of conservation are missed.
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  34.  6 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2008). Politics and Epistemology. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):299-306.
    Kevin Elliott has argued that I defend two “conceptions” of adaptive management processes in my book, Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management, calling the conceptions “political” and “metaphysical,” respectively. Elliott claims that I must choose between them. Elliott has not sufficiently explained how he proceeds from the claim that I provide two separable arguments for my adaptive management process to his conclusion that I have two conceptions of this process. Once this confusion is clarified, it becomes clear that adapting (...)
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  35.  6 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2008). Convergence, Noninstrumental Value and the Semantics of 'Love': Comment on McShane. Environmental Values 17 (1):5 - 14.
    Katie McShane, while accepting my 'convergence hypothesis' (the view that anthropocentrists and nonanthropocentrists will tend to propose similar policies), argues that nonanthropocentrism is nevertheless superior because it allows conservationists to have a deeper emotional commitment to natural objects than can anthropocentrists. I question this reasoning on two bases. First, McShane assumes a philosophically tendentious distinction between intrinsic and instrumental value – a distinction that presupposes a dualistic worldview. Second, I question why McShane believes anthropocentrists – weak anthropocentrists, that is – (...)
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  36.  5 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2011). Modeling Sustainability in Economics and Ecology. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland 11--363.
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  37.  5 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1996). Conserving Natural Value. Environmental Ethics 18 (2):209-214.
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  38.  5 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2013). Environmental Philosophy: A Fresh Perspective. BioScience 63 (5).
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  39.  5 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2005). Price, Principle, and the Environment. Environmental Ethics 27 (3):319-322.
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  40.  4 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1999). Pragmatism, Adaptive Management, and Sustainability. Environmental Values 8 (4):451 - 466.
    The pragmatic conception of truth, anticipated by Henry David Thoreau and developed by C.S. Peirce and subsequent pragmatists, is proposed as a useful analogy for characterising 'sustainability.' Peirce's definitions of 'truth' provides an attractive approach to sustainability because (a) it re-focuses discussions of truth and objectivity from a search for 'correspondence' to an 'external world' (the 'conform' approach) to a more forward-looking ('transform') approach; and (b) it emphasises the crucial role of an evolving, questioning community in the conduct of inquiry. (...)
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  41.  4 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2005). Sustainability : A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management. University of Chicago Press.
    Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-226-595 19-6 (cloth : alk. paper) . A . 1. Environmental policy. 2. Environmental management — Decision making. 3. Interdisciplinary research. 4. Communication in science. 5. Sustainable ...
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  42.  3 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2006). Seeing Clearly Now. BioScience 56 (7):622-623.
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  43.  3 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1990). The Preservation of Species: The Value of Biological Diversity. Behavior and Philosophy 18 (1):69-71.
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  44.  3 DLs
    Bryan Norton (1995). Objectivity, Intrinsicality and Sustainability: Comment on Nelson's 'Health and Disease as "Thick" Concepts in Ecosystemic Contexts'. Environmental Values 4 (4):323 - 332.
    Ecosystem health, as James Nelson argues, must be understood as having both descriptive and normative content; it is in this sense a 'morally thick' concept. The health analogy refers (a) at the similarities between conservation ecology and medicine or plant pathology as normative sciences, and (b) to the ability of ecosystems to 'heal' themselves in the face of disturbances. Nelson, however, goes beyond these two aspects and argues that judgements of illness in ecosystems only support moral obligations to protect them (...)
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  45.  2 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (2000). Clearing the Way for a Life-Centered Ethic for Business. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 2:159-165.
    I agree with much of Freeman and Reichart’s paper; so, by way of comment, I will simply supplement his argument in two ways. First, agreeing with their conclusion that we can, and should, re-direct business toward environmental protection without embracing a nonanthropocentric ethic, I will show that the pre-occupation of recent and contemporary environmental ethics with the anthropocentrism/non-anthropocentrism debate is avoidable. It rests on a misinterpretation of possible moral responses to the arrogance with which Western science, technology, and culture has (...)
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  46.  1 DLs
    Bryan Norton (1999). Ecology and Opportunity: Intergenerational Equity and Sustainable Options. In Andrew Dobson (ed.), Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice. OUP Oxford 118--150.
     
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  47.  1 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1996). Moral Naturalism and Adaptive Management. Hastings Center Report 26 (6):24-26.
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  48.  1 DLs
    Spencer Abraham, Ray Anderson, Nik Ansell, St Thomas Aquinas, St Francis of Assisi, William Baxter, Philip J. Bentley, Joachim Blatter, Murray Bookchin, Maya Brennan, Majora Carter, Carl Cohen, Deane Curtin, Herman Daly, David DeGrazia, Bill Devall, Calvin DeWitt, David Ehrenfeld, Paul, Anne Ehrlich, Robert Elliot, Stuart Ewen, Nuria Fernandez, Stephen Gardiner, Ramachandra Guha, Garrett Hardin, Eugene Hargrove, John Hasse, Po-Keung Ip, Ralf Isenmann, Kauser Jahan, Marianne B. Karsh, Andrew Kernohan, Marti Kheel, Kenneth Kraft, Aldo Leopold, Miriam MacGillis, Juan Martinez-Alier, Ed McGaa, Katie McShane, Roberto Mechoso, Arne Naess, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Michael Nelson, Bryan Norton, Philip Nyhus, John O'Neil, Stephen Pacala, Ernest Partridge, Erv Peterson, Tom Regan, Holmes Rolston Iii, Lily-Marlene Russow, Mark Sagoff, Kristin Schrader-Frechette, Erroll Schweizer, George Sessions, Vandana Shiva, Peter Singer, Stephen Socolow, Paul Steidlmeier, Richard Sylvan, Bron Taylor & Paul Taylor (2009). Earthcare: An Anthology in Environmental Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Earthcare: Readings and Cases in Environmental Ethics presents a diverse collection of writings from a variety of authors on environmental ethics, environmental science, and the environmental movement overall. Exploring a broad range of world views, religions and philosophies, David W. Clowney and Patricia Mosto bring together insightful thoughts on the ethical issues arising in various areas of environmental concern.
     
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  49.  1 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton (1985). Ecological Ethics and Politics. Environmental Ethics 7 (1):71-74.
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  50.  1 DLs
    Bryan G. Norton & Anne C. Steinemann (2001). Environmental Values and Adaptive Management. Environmental Values 10 (4):473 - 506.
    The trend in environmental management toward more adaptive, community-based, and holistic approaches will require new approaches to environmental valuation. In this paper, we offer a new valuation approach, one that embodies the core principles of adaptive management, which is experimental, multi-scalar, and place-based. In addition, we use hierarchy theory to incorporate spatial and temporal variability of natural systems into a multi-scalar management model. Our approach results in the consideration of multiple values within community-based ecosystem management, rather than an attempt to (...)
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