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  1. Bryan W. Husted & José Salazar (2013). Pricing Social Externalities. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 24:94-105.
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  2. José Salazar, Bryan W. Husted & Markus Biehl (2012). Thoughts on the Evaluation of Corporate Social Performance Through Projects. Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):175-186.
    Corporate social performance (CSP) has become a widely applied concept, discussed in most large firms’ corporate reports and the academic literature alike. Unfortunately, CSP has largely been employed as a way of demonstrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) in practice, or to justify the business case for CSR in academia by relating some measure of CSP to some measure of financial performance. In this article, we discuss multiple shortcomings to these approaches. We argue that (1) CSR activities need to be managed (...)
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  3. Julio Sesma, Bryan W. Husted & Jerry Banks (2012). Measuring Corporate Social Performance. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 23:78-89.
    Corporate social performance (CSP) has been studied extensively by business and society scholars, yet most approaches to its measurement continue to be ambiguous, controversial and difficult to use (Wood, 2010). In this paper, we propose measuring CSP via the construct of stakeholder satisfaction through social media like Facebook and Twitter. We argue that the satisfaction of stakeholder expectations can be explained with organizational justice theory particularly in the exercise of voice by stakeholders when they perceive unjust behavior on the part (...)
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  4. Jonathan Doh, Bryan W. Husted, Dirk Matten & Michael Santoro (2010). Ahoy There! Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (3):481-502.
    The literatures of business ethics and international business have generally had little influence on each other. Nevertheless, the decline in the power of nation states, the emergence of non-governmental organizations, the proliferation of self-regulatory bodies, and the changing responsibilities, roles, and structure of multinational corporations make constructive engagement between these two disciplines imperative. This changing institutional landscape creates many areas of common concern. In this article, we describe the changing institutional context of global business and suggest ways in which both (...)
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  5. Karen Maas, Bryan W. Husted, Markus Biehl & Mark McElroy (2009). Workshop. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 20:376-382.
    The goal of the workshop is to bring IABS performance measurement researchers together, so that they can improve the quality of their research, develop new ideas and projects, strengthen and enlarge their networks, and increase collaboration. During the workshop four discussion sessions were facilitated, all discussion a specific issue related to performance measurement; (1) evaluation methods for CSP, (2) measurement metrics, (3) level of analysis, and (4) relation between motivations and impact.
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  6. Ivan Montiel & Bryan W. Husted (2009). The Adoption of Voluntary Environmental Management Programs in Mexico: First Movers as Institutional Entrepreneurs. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):349 - 363.
    This article analyzes the adoption of voluntary environmental management programs by firms operating in Mexico. Mexican firms can obtain national certification (Clean Industry) and/or international certification (ISO 14001). Based on institutional entrepreneurship theory, we posit that the role played by first movers as institutional entrepreneurs is crucial if these programs are to become established with sufficient strength and appeal. This understanding is especially important in an environment where more than one program can be adopted. We tested several hypotheses on the (...)
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  7. Bryan W. Husted & David B. Allen (2008). Toward a Model of Cross-Cultural Business Ethics: The Impact of Individualism and Collectivism on the Ethical Decision-Making Process. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):293 - 305.
    In this paper, we explore the impact of individualism and collectivism on three basic aspects of ethical decision making - the perception of moral problems, moral reasoning, and behavior. We argue that the inclusion of business practices within the moral domain by the individual depends partly upon individualism and collectivism. We also propose a pluralistic approach to post-conventional moral judgment that includes developmental paths appropriate for individualist and collectivist cultures. Finally, we argue that the link between moral judgment and behavior (...)
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  8. José Salazar & Bryan W. Husted (2008). Measuring Corporate Social Performance. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:149-161.
    This article argues that one of the principal difficulties in measuring CSR performance lies with the unit of analysis and that its social, environmental and economic impacts need to be examined at a project level. Using a quasi-experimental research approach the paper shows an evaluation of the Patrimonio Hoy (PH) a CSR program of CEMEX, one of the largest cement manufacturers inthe world.
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  9. Bryan W. Husted & David B. Allen (2007). Corporate Social Strategy in Multinational Enterprises: Antecedents and Value Creation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):345 - 361.
    In this article, we examine the relationship of the multinational firm’s market environment, stakeholders, resources, and values to the development of strategic social planning and strategic social positioning. Using a sample of multinational enterprises in Mexico, we examine the relationship of these different ways of conducting social strategy to the creation of value by the firm. The market conditions of munificence and dynamism, and the resource for continuous innovation are found to be related to strategic social positioning. The social responsibility (...)
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  10. Bryan W. Husted & Ivan Montiel (2007). Environmental Performance Implications of Certified Management Standards in Mexico. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:314-317.
    This study analyzes the adoption and performance implications of two certified management standards in Mexico. Basing our predictions on strategic balance theory we find that those firms seeking for higher levels of differentiation or legitimacy show inferior environmental performance that firms demonstrating higher strategic balance.
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  11. Bryan W. Husted (2006). Conference Chair's Comments. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 17:3-4.
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  12. Bryan W. Husted (2005). Risk Management, Real Options, Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 60 (2):175 - 183.
    The relationship of corporate social responsibility to risk management has been treated sporadically in the business society literature. Using real options theory, I develop the notion of corporate social responsibility as a real option its implications for risk management. Real options theory allows for a strategic view of corporate social responsibility. Specifically, real options theory suggests that corporate social responsibility should be negatively related to the firm’s ex ante downside business risk.
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  13. Bryan W. Husted, David B. Allen & Jorge Rivera (2005). Making, Buying, or Collaborating for Corporate Social Responsibility. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:136-141.
    The decision to internalize corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, to outsource them in the form of corporate philanthropy, or to collaborate with otherorganizations is of great significance to the ability of the firm to reap benefits from such activity. Using insights provided by the new institutional economics and the resourcebased view of the firm, this paper describes how the variables of centrality and specificity affect CSR governance choice. This framework is tested using data collected from Central America and Mexico. Support (...)
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  14. Bryan W. Husted (2002). Culture and International Anti-Corruption Agreements in Latin America. Journal of Business Ethics 37 (4):413 - 422.
    This paper analyzes the likelihood that recent conventions against corruption signed by the OECD and the OAS will be effective in Latin America. It begins by looking at the cultural context of corruption in Latin America and examines efforts by Latin American signatories to implement both agreements. It then evaluates the extent to which these efforts will prove successful. It concludes with suggestions for the development of culturally sensitive policies that will be effective in the fight against corruption in Latin (...)
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  15. Bryan W. Husted & Carlos Serrano (2002). Corporate Governance in Mexico. Journal of Business Ethics 37 (3):337 - 348.
    This paper looks broadly at the theme of corporate governance in Mexico. It begins with a brief analysis of the historical corporate governance model in Mexico, including the governance structures, the banking and financial systems, ownership and control patterns, industrial policy, and industrial relations. The paper then examines how and why these various aspects of corporate governance have been changing with processes of economic liberalization currently under way. Finally, it analyzes the consequences of changes in the model of corporate governance (...)
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  16. Bryan W. Husted (2000). A Contingency Theory of Corporate Social Performance. Business and Society 39 (1):24-48.
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  17. Bryan W. Husted (2000). The Impact of National Culture on Software Piracy. Journal of Business Ethics 26 (3):197 - 211.
    This paper examines the impact of the level of economic development, income inequality, and five cultural variables on the rate of software piracy at the country level. The study finds that software piracy is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, income inequality, and individualism. Implications for anti-piracy programs and suggestions for future research are developed.
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  18. Bryan W. Husted & David B. Allen (2000). Is It Ethical to Use Ethics as Strategy? Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):21 - 31.
    Increasingly research in the field of business and society suggests that ethics and corporate social responsibility can be profitable. Yet this work raises a troubling question: Is it ethical to use ethics and social responsibility in a strategic way? Is it possible to be ethical or socially responsible for the wrong reason? In this article, we define a strategy concept in order to situate the different approaches to the strategic use of ethics and social responsibility found in the current literature. (...)
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  19. Bryan W. Husted (1999). A Critique of the Empirical Methods of Integrative Social Contracts Theory. Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3):227 - 235.
    Integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) uses empirical methods to develop guidelines for international business ethics. This article criticizes ISCT in terms of the way people actually think about contracts and agreements around the globe. Differences in orientations to communications context, moral reasoning, and institutional and structural conditions make the identification of authentic norms, hypernorms, and relevant communities problematic. The difficulties of the empirical methods suggest recourse to more traditional theoretical approaches for the identification of hypernorms as well as a stronger (...)
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  20. Janelle Brinker Dozier, Bryan W. Husted & J. Timothy Mcmahon (1998). Need for Approval in Low-Context and High-Context Cultures: A Communications Approach to Cross-Cultural Ethics. Teaching Business Ethics 2 (2):111-125.
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  21. Bryan W. Husted (1998). Organizational Justice and the Management of Stakeholder Relations. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):643 - 651.
    Despite the appeal of the stakeholder concept, little work had been done with respect to the development of specific structures for the management of stakeholder relations. This paper draws upon the organizational justice literature to demonstrate how many of its concerns coincide with those of the stakeholder management literature. It shows that organizational justice can provide specific advice for the design of stakeholder relations, while stakeholder theory can broaden the scope of current inquiries into organizational justice.
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  22. Bryan W. Husted (1998). The Ethical Limits of Trust in Business Relations. Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (2):233-248.
    This article defines and analyzes the nature of a trust relation. It specifically examines the internal and external morality of trustrelations and the ethical limits of those relations. It examines both the ends pursued by trust relations as well as the means by whichtrust is developed. It shows that the ends need to be evaluated by traditional ethical theories, while the ethical constraints of the trustprocess depend upon the specific bases of trust. In addition, the consequences of the trust process (...)
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  23. Bryan W. Husted (1994). Honor Among Thieves. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (1):17-27.
    This paper views corruption as a form of contracting amenable to analysis from the viewpoint of transaction-cost economics. Concepts such as transaction, bounded rationality, opportunism, and asset specificity are shown to apply to cases of corruption. Both market and parochial corruption are hypothesized to vary in accordance with changes in the specificity of assets invested to support the corruption transaction. Evidence from a number of different studies tends to support the hypothesized relation. The implications of the transaction-cost perspective are developed (...)
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  24. Bryan W. Husted (1994). Transaction Costs, Norms, and Social Networks A Preliminary Study of Cooperation in Industrial Buyer-Seller Relationships in the United States and Mexico. Business and Society 33 (1):30-57.
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  25. Bryan W. Husted (1993). Reliability and the Design of Ethical Organizations: A Rational Systems Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 12 (10):761 - 769.
    This paper argues that the concept of reliability provides a useful framework for analyzing defects in organizational design and for prescribing changes that will facilitate ethical decision making. Reliability becomes an ethical concern when the individual or organizational interest diverges from the collective interest. Redundancy and requisite variety provide two design tools which can enable organizations to act reliably in the collective interest. The paper then discusses potential disadvantages to the use of a reliability framework as well as possible problems (...)
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  26. Bryan W. Husted (1989). Trust in Business Relations. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 8 (2):23-40.