Search results for 'Buddhist cosmology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    W. Randolph Kloetzli (2007). Nous and Nirvāṇa: Conversations with Plotinus -- An Essay in Buddhist Cosmology. Philosophy East and West 57 (2):140 - 177.
    In the Classical world, the language of cosmology was a means for framing philosophical concerns. Among these were issues of time, motion, and soul; concepts of the limited and the unlimited; and the nature and basis of number. This is no less true of Indian thought-Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, and Ājivika-where the prestige of the cosmological idiom for organizing philosophical and theological thought cannot be overstated. This essay focuses on the structural similarities in the thought of Plotinus and (...) cosmological/philosophical speculation. It builds on research concerning the Buddha-field (buddhakṣetra), which identified two discrete numerologies central to this speculation: the thousands of worlds (sāhasralokadhātu) comprising the field of a single Buddha (buddhakṣetra), characteristic of the Hinayana, and the innumerable or incalculable (asaṃkhyeya) Buddha-fields filling the ten regions of space, characteristic of the Mahāyāna. The Enneads of Plotinus serve as a lens through which to view in a fresh way a broad range of difficult issues associated with Buddhist cosmology in three general areas. First, it asks whether Plotinus' understanding of Intellect and his treatment of infinite and essential number afford an understanding of the innumerables and thousands central to the concept of the Buddhā-field. This analysis involves a consideration of the Hindu creator god, Brahma, as 'demiurge.' Second, it suggests analogies between the One, Intellect, and Soul of Plotinus and the three Buddhist Realms-the Formless Realm, the Realm of Form, and the Realm of Desire. Finally, it explores the possibility that an understanding of the Enneads can provide a model for relating the cosmologies of the Hīnayāna and the Mahāyāna. (shrink)
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  2.  14
    Randy Kloetzli (2007). Nous and Nirvāṇa: Conversations with Plotinus — An Essay in Buddhist Cosmology. Philosophy East and West 57 (2):140-177.
    In the Classical world, the language of cosmology was a means for framing philosophical concerns. Among these were issues of time, motion, and soul; concepts of the limited and the unlimited; and the nature and basis of number. This is no less true of Indian thought-Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, and Ājivika-where the prestige of the cosmological idiom for organizing philosophical and theological thought cannot be overstated. This essay focuses on the structural similarities in the thought of Plotinus and (...) cosmological/philosophical speculation. It builds on research concerning the Buddha-field (buddhakṣetra), which identified two discrete numerologies central to this speculation: the thousands of worlds (sāhasralokadhātu) comprising the field of a single Buddha (buddhakṣetra), characteristic of the Hinayana, and the innumerable or incalculable (asaṃkhyeya) Buddha-fields filling the ten regions of space, characteristic of the Mahāyāna. The Enneads of Plotinus serve as a lens through which to view in a fresh way a broad range of difficult issues associated with Buddhist cosmology in three general areas. First, it asks whether Plotinus' understanding of Intellect and his treatment of infinite and essential number afford an understanding of the innumerables and thousands central to the concept of the Buddhā-field. This analysis involves a consideration of the Hindu creator god, Brahma, as 'demiurge.' Second, it suggests analogies between the One, Intellect, and Soul of Plotinus and the three Buddhist Realms-the Formless Realm, the Realm of Form, and the Realm of Desire. Finally, it explores the possibility that an understanding of the Enneads can provide a model for relating the cosmologies of the Hīnayāna and the Mahāyāna. (shrink)
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  3.  3
    Donald W. Mitchell (forthcoming). The Trinity and Buddhist Cosmology. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  4.  1
    Sara Mcclintock (1999). Review of Myriad Worlds: Buddhist Cosmology in Abhidharma, Kālacakra and Dzog-Chen by Jamgön Kongtrul Lodrö Tayé; International Translation Committee. [REVIEW] Philosophy East and West 49 (2):209-212.
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  5.  4
    Brian Edward Brown (2004). Environmental Ethics and Cosmology: A Buddhist Perspective. Zygon 39 (4):885-900.
  6. Christopher Key Chapple (forthcoming). Thomas Berry, Buddhism, and the New Cosmology. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  7.  15
    B. Formoso (1996). Tai Cosmology and the Influence of Buddhism. Diogenes 44 (174):61-82.
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  8.  16
    William Montgomery McGovern (1923/1977). A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy. Chinese Materials Center.
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  9. H. G. Quaritch Wales (1977). The Universe Around Them: Cosmology and Cosmic Renewal in Indianized South-East Asia. A. Probsthain.
  10.  19
    Laurence Tamatea (2010). Online Buddhist and Christian Responses to Artificial Intelligence. Zygon 45 (4):979-1002.
    I report the findings of a comparative analysis of online Christian and Buddhist responses to artificial intelligence. I review the Buddhist response and compare it with the Christian response outlined in an earlier essay (Tamatea 2008). The discussion seeks to answer two questions: Which approach to imago Dei informs the online Buddhist response to artificial intelligence? And to what extent does the preference for a particular approach emerge from a desire to construct the Self? The conclusion is (...)
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  11. Qisong Hong (2007). Guan Yu Yu Zhou de Shi Xiang: Jin Ru Quan Shi Kong Yu Zhou de Shi Jie. Pu Yue Wen Hua You Xian Gong Si.
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  12. William Montgomery Mcgovern & Shao-yüan Chiang (1936). Fo Chia Chê Hsüeh T'ung Lun. Shang Wu Yin Shu Kuan.
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  13. Som Sučhīrā (2011). Khwāmlap Khō̜ng Čhakkrawān Thāng Hǣng Nipphān. Post Books.
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  14. Martin A. Mills (2002). Identity, Ritual and State in Tibetan Buddhism: The Foundations of Authority in Gelukpa Monasticism. Routledge.
    This is a major anthropological study of contemporary Tibetan Buddhist monasticism and tantric ritual in the Ladakh region of North-West India and of the role of tantric ritual in the formation and maintenance of traditional forms of state structure and political consciousness in Tibet. Containing detailed descriptions and analyses of monastic ritual, the work builds up a picture of Tibetan tantric traditions as they interact with more localised understandings of bodily identity and territorial cosmology, to produce a substantial (...)
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  15.  1
    Amos Yong (2012). The Cosmic Breath: Spirit and Nature in the Christianity-Buddhism-Science Trialogue. Brill.
    The interjection of pneumatology in both theologies of interreligious dialogue and in the theology-and-science conversation comes together in this volume. The resulting Christianity-Buddhism-science trialogue opens up to new pneumatological perspectives on philosophical cosmology and anthropology in interdisciplinary and global context.
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  16.  14
    Gananath Obeyesekere (2002). Imagining Karma: Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth. University of California Press.
    With Imagining Karma, Gananath Obeyesekere embarks on the very first comparison of rebirth concepts across a wide range of cultures. Exploring in rich detail the beliefs of small-scale societies of West Africa, Melanesia, traditional Siberia, Canada, and the northwest coast of North America, Obeyesekere compares their ideas with those of the ancient and modern Indic civilizations and with the Greek rebirth theories of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Pindar, and Plato. His groundbreaking and authoritative discussion decenters the popular notion that India was the (...)
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  17.  11
    John W. M. Krummel (forthcoming). Kūkai's Shingon: Embodiment of Emptiness. In Bret W. Davis (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Japanese Philosophy. Oxford University Press
    This chapter explicates the philosophy of the body of sixth-century Buddhist thinker Kūkai. Kūkai brings together what initially seem to be opposing concepts: body and emptiness. He does this in the context of formulating a system of cosmology inseparable from religious practice. We interact with the rest of the cosmos through our body. Kūkai characterizes the cosmos in turn as the body of the Buddha, who personifies the embodiment of the dharma. This cosmic body is comprised of myriad (...)
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  18.  2
    Paul O. Ingram (2005). The New Physics and Cosmology: Dialogues with the Dalai Lama (Review). Buddhist-Christian Studies 25 (1):180-182.
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  19.  6
    J. W. Bowker (1990). Cosmology, Religion, and Society. Zygon 25 (1):7-23.
    . It is a mistake to assume that science and religion are competing accounts of the same subject matter, so that either science supersedes religion or religion anticipates science. Using the question of cosmic origins as an example, I argue that the basic task of religion is not the scientific one of establishing the most accurate acccunt of the origin of the universe. Rather, as illustrated from Jewish, Hindu, Chinese, and Buddhist thought, religion uses a variety of cosmologies to (...)
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  20. John T. Brinkman (forthcoming). Cosmology and Consciousness. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  21. James L. Fredericks (forthcoming). The Cross and the Begging Bowl: Deconstructing the Cosmology of Violence. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  22. Arthur Zajonc (ed.) (2004). The New Physics and Cosmology: Dialogues with the Dalai Lama. OUP Usa.
    What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with five leading physicists and a historian ? This book documents their fascinating discussions about theoretical quantum physics and Buddhist philosophy.
     
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  23.  65
    Bradford Cokelet (forthcoming). Confucianism, Buddhism, and Virtue Ethics. European Journal for the Philosophy of Religion.
    Are Confucian and Buddhist ethical views closer to Kantian, Consequentialist, or Virtue Ethical ones? And how can such comparisons shed light on the unique aspects of Confucian and Buddhist views? This essay (i) provides a historically grounded framework for distinguishing western views, (ii) identifies a series of questions that we can ask in order to clarify the philosophic accounts of ethical motivation embedded in the Buddhist and Confucian traditions, and (iii) then critiques Lee Ming-huei’s claim that Confucianism (...)
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  24.  56
    Bronwyn Finnigan (forthcoming). Buddhist Idealism. In Tyron Goldschmidt & Kenneth Pearce (eds.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics. Oxford
    This article surveys some of the most influential Buddhist arguments in defense of idealism. It begins by clarifying the central theses under dispute and rationally reconstructs arguments from four major Buddhist figures in defense of some or all of these theses. It engages arguments from Vasubandhu’s Viṃśikā and Triṃśikā; Dignāga’s matching-failure argument in the Ālambanaparīkṣā; the sahopalambhaniyama inference developed by Dharmakīrti; and Xuanzang’s weird but clever logical argument that intrigued philosophers in China and Japan. It aims to clarify (...)
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  25. Christian Thomas Kohl (2008). Buddhism and Quantum Physics. Indian International Journal of Buddhist Studies 9 (2008):45-62.
    Rudyard Kipling, the famous english author of « The Jungle Book », born in India, wrote one day these words: « Oh, East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet ». In my paper I show that Kipling was not completely right. I try to show the common ground between buddhist philosophy and quantum physics. There is a surprising parallelism between the philosophical concept of reality articulated by Nagarjuna and the physical concept of reality (...)
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  26. Martín López Corredoira (2009). Sociology of Modern Cosmology. In J. A. Rubiño-Martín, J. A. Belmonte, F. Prada & A. Alberdi (eds.), Cosmology across Cultures. Astronomical Society of Pacific 66-73.
    Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the "snowball effect" or "groupthink". We (...)
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  27.  21
    Colette Sciberras (2008). Buddhism and Speciesism: On the Misapplication of Western Concepts to Buddhist Beliefs. Journal of Buddhist Ethics 15:215-240.
    In this article, I defend Buddhism from Paul Waldau’s charge of speciesism. I argue that Waldau attributes to Buddhism various notions that it does not necessarily have, such as the ideas that beings are morally considerable if they possess certain traits, and that humans, as morally considerable beings, ought never to be treated as means. These ideas may not belong in Buddhism, and for Waldau’s argument to work, he needs to show that they do. Moreover, a closer look at his (...)
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  28. Christian Coseru (2013). Reason and Experience in Buddhist Epistemology. In Steven Emmanuel (ed.), A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell
    As a specific domain of inquiry, “ Buddhist epistemology” stands primarily for the dialogical-disputational context in which Buddhists advance their empirical claims to knowledge and articulate the principles of reason on the basis of which such claims may be defended. The main questions pursued in this article concern the tension between the notion that knowledge is ultimately a matter of direct experience---which the Buddhist considers as more normative than other, more indirect, modes of knowing---and the largely discursive and (...)
     
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  29.  38
    Owen J. Flanagan (2011). The Bodhisattva's Brain: Buddhism Naturalized. MIT Press.
    An Essay in Comparative Neurophilosophy -- Preface -- Introduction: Buddhism Naturalized -- The Bodhisattva's Brain -- The Colour of Happiness -- Buddhist Epistemology and Science -- Buddhism as a Natural Philosophy. Buddhist Persons -- Being No-self & Being Nice -- Virtue & Happiness -- Postscript: Cosmopolitanism and Comparative Philosophy.
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  30.  83
    Jay L. Garfield (2002). Empty Words: Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Interpretation. Oxford University Press.
    This volume collects Jay Garfield 's essays on Madhyamaka, Yogacara, Buddhist ethics and cross-cultural hermeneutics. The first part addresses Madhyamaka, supplementing Garfield 's translation of Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, a foundational philosophical text by the Buddhist saint Nagarjuna. Garfield then considers the work of philosophical rivals, and sheds important light on the relation of Nagarjuna's views to other Buddhist and non-Buddhist philosophical positions.
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  31. Andrea Sauchelli (forthcoming). Buddhist Reductionism, Fictionalism About the Self, and Buddhist Fictionalism. Philosophy East and West 67 (2).
    I discuss an interpretation, recently proposed by Mark Siderits, of the claim that within the Buddhist tradition the self is a convenient fiction. I subsequently propose a novel approach to fictionalism in contemporary metaphysics, outline an application of such an approach to the case of the self and then specify one version of fictionalism combined with some basic tenets of Buddhism.
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  32. Finn Janning (2014). True Detective: Buddhism, Pessimism or Philosophy? Journal of Philosophy of Life 4 (4).
    The aim of this paper is to raise two questions. The first question is: How is pessimism related to Buddhism (and vice versa)? The second question is: What relation does an immanent philosophy have to pessimism and Buddhism, if any? Using True Detective, an American television crime drama, as my point of departure, first I will outline some of the likenesses between Buddhism and pessimism. At the same time, I will show how the conduct of one of the main characters (...)
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  33. Elise M. Crull (2015). Less Interpretation and More Decoherence in Quantum Gravity and Inflationary Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 45 (9):1019-1045.
    I argue that quantum decoherence—understood as a dynamical process entailed by the standard formalism alone—carries us beyond conceptual aspects of non-relativistic quantum mechanics deemed insurmountable by many contributors to the recent quantum gravity and cosmology literature. These aspects include various incarnations of the measurement problem and of the quantum -to-classical puzzle. Not only can such problems be largely bypassed or dissolved without default to a particular interpretation, but theoretical work in relativistic arenas stands to gain substantial physical and (...)
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  34.  72
    William Edelglass & Jay L. Garfield (eds.) (2009). Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings. Oxford University Press.
    This volume is an ideal single text for an intermediate or advanced course in Buddhist philosophy, and makes this tradition immediately accessible to the ...
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  35.  11
    Jay L. Garfield, Shaun Nichols, Arun K. Rai & Nina Strohminger (2015). Ego, Egoism and the Impact of Religion on Ethical Experience: What a Paradoxical Consequence of Buddhist Culture Tells Us About Moral Psychology. Journal of Ethics 19 (3-4):293-304.
    We discuss the structure of Buddhist theory, showing that it is a kind of moral phenomenology directed to the elimination of egoism through the elimination of a sense of self. We then ask whether being raised in a Buddhist culture in which the values of selflessness and the sense of non-self are so deeply embedded transforms one’s sense of who one is, one’s ethical attitudes and one’s attitude towards death, and in particular whether those transformations are consistent with (...)
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  36.  35
    Daniel Anderson Arnold (2012). Brains, Buddhas, and Believing: The Problem of Intentionality in Classical Buddhist and Cognitive-Scientific Philosophy of Mind. Columbia University Press.
    Aiming to complicate this story, Dan Arnold confronts a significant obstacle to popular attempts at harmonizing classical Buddhist and modern scientific thought: since most Indian Buddhists believe that the mental continuum is uninterrupted ..
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  37.  34
    Christian Coseru (2012). Perceiving Reality: Consciousness, Intentionality, and Cognition in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    What turns the continuous flow of experience into perceptually distinct objects? Can our verbal descriptions unambiguously capture what it is like to see, hear, or feel? How might we reason about the testimony that perception alone discloses? Christian Coseru proposes a rigorous and highly original way to answer these questions by developing a framework for understanding perception as a mode of apprehension that is intentionally constituted, pragmatically oriented, and causally effective. By engaging with recent discussions in phenomenology and analytic (...) of mind, but also by drawing on the work of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, Coseru offers a sustained argument that Buddhist philosophers, in particular those who follow the tradition of inquiry initiated by Dign?ga and Dharmak?rti, have much to offer when it comes to explaining why epistemological disputes about the evidential role of perceptual experience cannot satisfactorily be resolved without taking into account the structure of our cognitive awareness. -/- Perceiving Reality examines the function of perception and its relation to attention, language, and discursive thought, and provides new ways of conceptualizing the Buddhist defense of the reflexivity thesis of consciousness-namely, that each cognitive event is to be understood as involving a pre-reflective implicit awareness of its own occurrence. Coseru advances an innovative approach to Buddhist philosophy of mind in the form of phenomenological naturalism, and moves beyond comparative approaches to philosophy by emphasizing the continuity of concerns between Buddhist and Western philosophical accounts of the nature of perceptual content and the character of perceptual consciousness. (shrink)
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  38.  14
    Christian Coseru (2014). Buddhism, Comparative Neurophilosophy, and Human Flourishing. Zygon 49 (1):208-219.
    Owen Flanagan's The Bodhisattva's Brain represents an ambitious foray into cross-cultural neurophilosophy, making a compelling, though not entirely unproblematic, case for naturalizing Buddhist philosophy. While the naturalist account of mental causation challenges certain Buddhist views about the mind, the Buddhist analysis of mind and mental phenomena is far more complex than the book suggests. Flanagan is right to criticize the Buddhist claim that there could be mental states that are not reducible to their neural correlates; however, (...)
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  39.  11
    Charles Goodman (2014). Buddhism, Naturalism, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Zygon 49 (1):220-230.
    Owen Flanagan's important book The Bodhisattva's Brain presents a naturalized interpretation of Buddhist philosophy. Although the overall approach of the book is very promising, certain aspects of its presentation could benefit from further reflection. Traditional teachings about reincarnation do not contradict the doctrine of no self, as Flanagan seems to suggest; however, they are empirically rather implausible. Flanagan's proposed “tame” interpretation of karma is too thin; we can do better at fitting karma into a scientific worldview. The relationship between (...)
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  40.  26
    Matthew Kapstein (2001). Reason's Traces: Identity and Interpretation in Indian & Tibetan Buddhist Thought. Wisdom Publications.
    Reason's Traces is a collection of essays by one of the foremost authorities on Indian and Tibetan Buddhism.
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  41.  31
    Stefano Pace (2013). Does Religion Affect the Materialism of Consumers? An Empirical Investigation of Buddhist Ethics and the Resistance of the Self. Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):25-46.
    This paper investigates the effects of Buddhist ethics on consumers’ materialism, that is, the propensity to attach a fundamental role to possessions. The literature shows that religion and religiosity influence various attitudes and behaviors of consumers, including their ethical beliefs and ethical decisions. However, most studies focus on general religiosity rather than on the specific doctrinal ethical tenets of religions. The current research focuses on Buddhism and argues that it can tame materialism directly, similar to other religions, (...)
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  42.  61
    Charles Goodman (2009). Consequences of Compassion: An Interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Fundamental Buddhist teachings -- Main features of some western ethical theories -- Teravāda ethics as rule-consequentialism -- Mahāyāna ethics before Śāntideva and after -- Transcending ethics -- Buddhist ethics and the demands of consequentialism -- Buddhism on moral responsibility -- Punishment -- Objections and replies -- A Buddhist response to Kant.
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  43.  90
    Elias Okon & Daniel Sudarsky (2014). Benefits of Objective Collapse Models for Cosmology and Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 44 (2):114-143.
    We display a number of advantages of objective collapse theories for the resolution of long-standing problems in cosmology and quantum gravity. In particular, we examine applications of objective reduction models to three important issues: the origin of the seeds of cosmic structure, the problem of time in quantum gravity and the information loss paradox; we show how reduction models contain the necessary tools to provide solutions for these issues. We wrap up with an adventurous proposal to relate (...)
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  44. Bronwyn Finnigan (2015). Madhyamaka Buddhist Meta-Ethics: Investigating the Justificatory Grounds of Moral Judgments. Philosophy East and West 65 (3):765-785.
    This paper investigates whether the metaphysical commitments of Madhyamaka Buddhism afford a satisfactory justificatory ground for moral judgments. Finnigan and Tanaka (2011a) argue that they do not. Their argument has since been challenged by Tillemans (2010-11), who alleges that both Svātantrika and Prāsaṅgika Mādhyamikas can readily justify moral judgments by respective appeal to the doctrine of the two truths. This paper shall contest this claim with respect to Prāsaṅgika Madhyamaka. It shall provide several arguments to show that Prāsaṅgika cannot satisfactorily (...)
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  45. James Giles (1993). The No-Self Theory: Hume, Buddhism, and Personal Identity. Philosophy East and West 43 (2):175-200.
    The problem of personal identity is often said to be one of accounting for what it is that gives persons their identity over time. However, once the problem has been construed in these terms, it is plain that too much has already been assumed. For what has been assumed is just that persons do have an identity. A new interpretation of Hume's no-self theory is put forward by arguing for an eliminative rather than a reductive view of personal identity, and (...)
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  46.  22
    Owen Flanagan (2014). Buddhism and the Scientific Image: Reply to Critics. Zygon 49 (1):242-258.
    I provide a précis of The Bodhisattva's Brain: Buddhism Naturalized (), and then respond to three critics, Christian Coseru, Charles Goodman, and Bronwyn Finnigan.
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  47. Claus Beisbart (2009). Can We Justifiably Assume the Cosmological Principle in Order to Break Model Underdetermination in Cosmology? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):175 - 205.
    If cosmology is to obtain knowledge about the whole universe, it faces an underdetermination problem: Alternative space-time models are compatible with our evidence. The problem can be avoided though, if there are good reasons to adopt the Cosmological Principle (CP), because, assuming the principle, one can confine oneself to the small class of homogeneous and isotropic space-time models. The aim of this paper is to ask whether there are good reasons to adopt the Cosmological Principle in order to avoid (...)
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  48.  30
    Damien Keown (2005). Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
    The latter half of the twentieth century witnessed a growing interest in Buddhism, and it continues to capture the imagination of many in the West who see it as either an alternative or a supplement to their own religious beliefs. Numerous introductory books have appeared in recent years to cater to this growing interest, but almost none devotes attention to the specifically ethical dimensions of the tradition. For various complex cultural and historical reasons, ethics has not received as much attention (...)
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  49.  56
    Noa Ronkin (2005). Early Buddhist Metaphysics: The Making of a Philosophical Tradition. London ; New Yorkroutledgecurzon.
    Early Buddhist Metaphysics provides a philosophical account of the major doctrinal shift in the history of early Theravada tradition in India: the transition from the earliest stratum of Buddhist thought to the systematic and allegedly scholastic philosophy of the Pali Abhidhamma movement. Entwining comparative philosophy and Buddhology, the author probes the Abhidhamma's metaphysical transition in terms of the Aristotelian tradition and vis-à-vis modern philosophy, exploits Western philosophical literature from Plato to contemporary texts in the fields (...)
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  50.  29
    Stephen E. Harris (2014). Suffering and the Shape of Well-Being in Buddhist Ethics. Asian Philosophy 24 (3):242-259.
    This article explores the defense Indian Buddhist texts make in support of their conceptions of lives that are good for an individual. This defense occurs, largely, through their analysis of ordinary experience as being saturated by subtle forms of suffering . I begin by explicating the most influential of the Buddhist taxonomies of suffering: the threefold division into explicit suffering , the suffering of change , and conditioned suffering . Next, I sketch the three theories of welfare that (...)
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