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  1. C. Daniel Batson (2011). What’s Wrong with Morality? Emotion Review 3 (3):230-236.
    Why do moral people so often fail to act morally? Standard scientific answers point to poor moral judgment (based on deficient character development, reason, or intuition) or to situational pressure. I consider a third possibility: a relative lack of truly moral motivation and emotion. What has been taken for moral motivation is often instead a subtle form of egoism. Recent research provides considerable evidence for moral hypocrisy—motivation to appear moral while, if possible, avoid the cost of actually being moral—but very (...)
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  2. C. Daniel Batson (2010). The Naked Emperor: Seeking a More Plausible Genetic Basis for Psychological Altruism. Economics and Philosophy 26 (2):149-164.
    The adequacy of currently popular accounts of the genetic basis for psychological altruism, including inclusive fitness (kin selection), reciprocal altruism, sociality, and group selection, is questioned. Problems exist both with the evidence cited as supporting these accounts and with the relevance of the accounts to what is being explained. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis, a more plausible account is proposed: generalized parental nurturance. It is suggested that four evolutionary developments combined to provide a genetic basis for psychological altruism. First is (...)
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  3. C. Daniel Batson (2008). Moral Masquerades: Experimental Exploration of the Nature of Moral Motivation. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (1):51-66.
    Why do people act morally – when they do? Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that acting morally in the absence of incentives or sanctions is a product of a desire to uphold one or another moral principle (e.g., fairness). This form of motivation might be called moral integrity because the goal is to actually be moral. In a series of experiments designed to explore the nature of moral motivation, colleagues and I have found little evidence of moral integrity. We (...)
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  4. C. Daniel Batson, Elizabeth Collins & Adam A. Powell (2006). Doing Business After the Fall: The Virtue of Moral Hypocrisy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 66 (4):321 - 335.
    Moral hypocrisy is motivation to appear moral yet, if possible, avoid the cost of actually being moral. In business, moral hypocrisy allows one to engender trust, solve the commitment problem, and still relentlessly pursue personal gain. Indicating the power of this motive, research has provided clear and consistent evidence that, given the opportunity, many people act to appear fair (e.g., they flip a coin to distribute resources between themselves and another person) without actually being fair (they accept the flip only (...)
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  5. C. Daniel Batson & El Stocks (2004). Core Psychological Functions. In Jeff Greenberg, Sander L. Koole & Tom Pyszczynski (eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology. Guilford Press. 141.
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  6. C. Daniel Batson (2000). Commentary Discussion of Sober and Wilson's' Unto Others'. In Leonard Katz (ed.), Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives. Imprint Academic. 1--1.
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  7. C. Daniel Batson (1994). Seeing the Light: What Does Biology Tell Us About Human Social Behavior? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):610.
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  8. C. Daniel Batson (1972). Linguistic Analysis and Psychological Explanations of the Mental. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 2 (1):37–59.
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