Search results for 'C. O. X. G' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Armand O. Citarella (1988). Giuseppe Rabotti, ed., Breviarium ecclesiae Ravennatis (Codice Bavaro), secoli VIIX. Appendices by C. Curradi, G. Rabotti, and A. Vasina.(Fonti per la Storia d'Italia, 110.) Rome: Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo, 1985. Paper. Pp. xcii, 293. [REVIEW] Speculum 63 (2):462-463.score: 552.0
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  2. David Schweickart, Economic Democracy: A W o R T H y S o C I a L I S M That Would Really Work.score: 432.0
    w a y s h a v e b e e n . W e a l l r e m e m b e r M a (...) r x ' s p o l e m i c a g a i n s t P r o u d h o n , t h e Manifesto's critique of "historical action [yielding] to personal inventive action, historically created conditions of emancipation to fantastic ones, and the gradual spontaneous class organizations of the proletariat to an organization of society specially contrived by these inventors" (Marx and Engels, 1986, 64), and the numerous other occasions when the fathers of "scientific socialism" went a f t e r t h e " u t o p i a n s . " I n general this Marxian aversion to drawing up blueprints has been healthy, fueled at least in part by a respect for the concrete specificity of the revolutionary situation and for the agents engaged in revolutionary activity: it is not the business of Marxist intellectuals to tell the agents of revolution how they are to construct their postrevolutionary economy. (shrink)
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  3. Terence Parsons, Supposi T I o N as Quant I F I C a T I o N Versus Supposi T I o N as Globa L Quant I F I C a T I o N a L Ef Fec T.score: 432.0
    Spade 1988 sugges t s tha t t he r e are ac tua l l y two theo r i e s t o address t (...)
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  4. G. O. Hutchinson (1989). P. Köln 6 M. Gronewald, B. Kramer, K. Maresch, M. Parca, C. Römer (with contributions by Z. Borkowski, A. Geissen, H. Schaefer, P. J. Sijpestein): Kölner Papyri (P. Köln), Band 6. (Abhandlungen der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Papyrologica Coloniensia, VII.) Pp. x + 290; 40 plates. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1987. Paper, DM 64. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 39 (02):356-358.score: 288.0
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  5. C. O. X. G. (1967). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 7 (1).score: 201.0
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  6. R. Hernandez, M. Cooney, C. Duale, M. Galvez, S. Gaynor, G. Kardos, C. Kubiak, S. Mihaylov, J. Pleiner, G. Ruberto, N. Sanz, M. Skoog, P. Souri, C. O. Stiller, A. Strenge-Hesse, A. Vas, D. Winter & X. Carne (2009). Harmonisation of Ethics Committees' Practice in 10 European Countries. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (11):696-700.score: 198.0
    Background: The Directive 2001/20/EC was an important first step towards consistency in the requirements and processes for clinical trials across Europe. However, by applying the same (...) rules to all types of drug trials and transposing the Directives principles into pre-existing national legislations, the Directive somewhat failed to meet its facilitation and harmonisation targets. In the field of ethics, the Directive 2001/20/EC conditioned the way of understanding and transposing thesingle opinionprocess in each country. This led to a situation in which two models of research ethics committees organisation systems exist, being the model in which thesingle opinionis considered to be the decision made by a single ethics committee more effective and simpler in terms of administrative and logistic workload. Method: A survey was conducted in 10 European countries. Members of the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network working party number 1, with expertise in the field of ethics, responded. Results: There is a major heterogeneity in the composition of ethics committees among the surveyed countries based on the number of members, proportion of experts versus lay members and expertise of the scientific members. A harmonised education of the ethics committeesmembership based in common curricula is recommended by the majority of countries. Conclusions: Despite the efforts for harmonisation of the European Clinical Trial Directive, from an ethical point of view, there remains a plurality of ethics committees' systems in Europe. It is important to comprehend the individual national systems to understand the problems they are facing. (shrink)
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  7. Anthony J. Draper (2003). Jeremy Bentham, procedimiento jurídico Y utilidad. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 37:287-307.score: 198.0
    This paper pr o vides an o v e r vi e w of the themes presented in Bentha m ' s w ork Scotch Reform -a n (...) e w w ork being prepared for pu b lication from Bentha m ' s manuscripts b y Oxford Un i v ersity Press as pa r t of the Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham. Attention is focused on the relationship bet w een the system of l e g al procedure proposed and the under l ying principle of utili t y . T w o issues are highlighte d , the nature of Bentha m ' s anti-nomian thesis for c i vil cou r ts and the parad o x of requiring restraint on the judicial control of c i vil procedure, w hilst simultaneous l y rem o ving all r ules of action and all o wing increased judicial discretion. (shrink)
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  8. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Thephilosophyofautomatedtheoremproving.score: 198.0
    Different researchers use "the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g " t o cover d i f f e r e n t (...) concepts, indeed, different levels of concepts. Some w o u l d count such issues as h o w to e f f i c i e n t l y i n d e x databases as part of the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g . Others wonder about whether f o r m u l a s should be represented as strings or as trees or as lists, and call this part of the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g . Yet others concern themselves w i t h what k i n d o f search should b e embodied i n a n y automated theorem prover, or to what degree any automated theorem prover should resemble Prolog. Still others debate whether natural deduction or semantic tableaux or resolution is " b e t t e r " , a n d c a l l t h i s a part of the p h i l o s o p h y of automated theorem p r o v i n g . Some people wonder whether automated theorem p r o v i n g should be " h u m a n oriented" or "machine o r i e n t e d " — sometimes arguing about whether the internal p r o o f methods should be " h u m a n - I i k e " or not, sometimes arguing about whether the generated proof should be output in a f o r m u n d e r s t a n d a b l e by p e o p l e , and sometimes a r g u i n g a b o u t the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f h u m a n intervention in the process of constructing a proof. There are also those w h o ask such questions as whether we s h o u l d even be concerned w i t h completeness or w i t h soundness of a system, or perhaps we should instead look at very efficient (but i n c o m p l e t e ) subsystems or look at methods of generating models w h i c h might nevertheless validate invalid arguments. A n d a l l of these have been v i e w e d as issues in the philosophy of automated theorem proving. Here, I w o u l d l i k e to step back from such i m p l e m e n t - ation issues and ask: " W h a t do we really think we are doing when we w r i t e an automated theorem prover?" My reflections are perhaps idiosyncratic, but I do think that they put the different researchers* efforts into a broader perspective, and give us some k i n d of handle on w h i c h directions we ourselves m i g h t w i s h to pursue when constructing (or extending) an automated theorem proving system. A logic is defined to be (i) a vocabulary and formation rules ( w h i c h tells us w h a t strings of symbols are w e l l - formed formulas in the logic), and ( i i ) a definition of ' p r o o f in that system ( w h i c h tells us the conditions under which an arrangement of formulas in the system constitutes a proof). Historically speaking, definitions of ' p r o o f have been given in various different manners: the most c o m m o n have been H i l b e r t - s t y l e ( a x i o m a t i c ) , Gentzen-style (consecution, or sequent), F i t c h - s t y l e (natural deduction), and Beth-style (tableaux).. (shrink)
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  9. Marion Scheepers (1999). The Length of Some Diagonalization Games. Archive for Mathematical Logic 38 (2):103-122.score: 198.0
    For X a separable metric space and $\alpha$ an infinite ordinal, consider the following three games of length $\alpha$ : In $G^{\alpha}_1$ ONE chooses in inning $\ (...)gamma$ an $\omega$ –cover $O_{\gamma}$ of X; TWO responds with a $T_{\gamma}\in O_{\gamma}$ . TWO wins if $\{T_{\gamma}:\gamma<\alpha\}$ is an $\omega$ –cover of X; ONE wins otherwise. In $G^{\alpha}_2$ ONE chooses in inning $\gamma$ a subset $O_{\gamma}$ of ${\sf C}_p(X)$ which has the zero function $\underline{0}$ in its closure, and TWO responds with a function $T_{\gamma}\in O_{\gamma}$ . TWO wins if $\underline{0}$ is in the closure of $\{T_{\gamma}:\gamma<\alpha\}$ ; otherwise, ONE wins. In $G^{\alpha}_3$ ONE chooses in inning $\gamma$ a dense subset $O_{\gamma}$ of ${\sf C}_p(X)$ , and TWO responds with a $T_{\gamma}\in O_{\gamma}$ . TWO wins if $\{T_{\gamma}:\gamma<\alpha\}$ is dense in ${\sf C}_p(X)$ ; otherwise, ONE wins. After a brief survey we prove: 1. If $\alpha$ is minimal such that TWO has a winning strategy in $G^{\alpha}_1$ , then $\alpha$ is additively indecomposable (Theorem 4) 2. For $\alpha$ countable and minimal such that TWO has a winning strategy in $G^{\alpha}_1$ on X, the following statements are equivalent (Theorem 9): a) TWO has a winning strategy in $G^{\alpha}_2$ on ${\sf C}_p(X)$ . b) TWO has a winning strategy in $G^{\alpha}_3$ on ${\sf C}_p(X)$ . 3. The Continuum Hypothesis implies that there is an uncountable set X of real numbers such that TWO has a winning strategy in $G^{\omega^2}_1$ on X (Theorem 10). (shrink)
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  10. Martin Cohen (2005). Wittgenstein's Beetle and Other Classic Thought Experiments. Blackwell Pub..score: 192.0
    A is for Alice and astronomers arguing about acceleration -- B is for Bernard's body-exchange machine -- C is for the Catholic cannibal -- D is for Maxwell (...)'s demon -- E is for evolution (and an embarrassing problem with it) -- F is for the forms lost forever to the prisoners of the cave -- G is for Galileo's gravitational balls -- H is for Hume's shades -- I is for the identity of indiscernibles -- J is for Henri Poincaré and alternative geometries -- K is for the Kritik and Kant's kind of thought experiments -- L is for Lucretius' spear -- M is for Mach's motionless chain -- N is for Newton's bucket -- O is for Olbers' paradox -- P is for Parfit's person -- Q is for the questions raised by thought experiments quotidiennes -- R is for the rule-ruled room -- S is for Salvatius' ship, sailing along its own space-time line -- T is for the time-travelling twins -- U is for the universe, and Einstein's attempts to understand it -- V is for the vexed case of the violinist -- W is for Wittgenstein's beetle -- X is for xenophanes and thinking by examples -- Y is for counterfactuals and a backwards approach to history -- Z is for Zeno and the mysteries of infinity. (shrink)
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  11. A. N. Whitehead (1934). Corrigenda. Mind 43 (172):543.score: 192.0
    To the Article Indication, Classes, Numbers, Validation, by A. N. White-head, Vol. XLIII, N.S., No. 171. Some misprints in the symbolrm of my article mast, I (...) fear, make the whole unintelligible, apart from the following corrections. The proofs arrived from across the Atlantic on the day when I was overtaken by a dangerous illness which has incapacitated me for work during three months. Thus there has been no opportunity for autho-'s proof-corrections. I am obliged to the courtesy of the Editor for the belated insertion of these corrigenda:— P. 286. Def. I, replace () by (3) P. 286. Def. II, replace 1st occurrence of p q by p g. P. 286. Def. III, replace Ec! x p by Ec x p. P. 286 Def. IV, replace p by p. P. 286 Four lines below, replace Ec! x Ec ! x by Eo x Ec! x P. 287. Lines 2 and 4, replace () by (). P. 287. Def. VIII, replace () by (). P. 287. Last line but one, replace o by 2, P. 291. Def. XXIII, replace (S) by (S). P. 292. Def. XXVII, end of 2nd line, replace xy by y. P. 292. Def. XXVIII, replace (c) by (c) P. 292. Def. XXVIII, replace c by c. P. 292. Def. XXIX, replace (1, 0) by , c). P. 292. Def. XXIX, replace (u + cm, v + c1) by (u + cm, v + c1). P. 293. Def. XXXI, replace (x) by (x). P. 293. Line 8, replace by . P. 293. Def. XXXIV, replace (x) by (x). P. 294. Lines 1 and 5, replace by Q. (shrink)
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  12. Andrew Kuper, D E B at E.score: 192.0
    The main thrust of my argument was that ad hoc su gge s ti ons of ch a ri ty cannot replace a systematic and theoreti c (...)
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  13. Richard Beigel, Harry Buhrman, Peter Fejer, Lance Fortnow, Piotr Grabowski, Luc Longpré, Andrej Muchnik, Frank Stephan & Leen Torenvliet (2006). Enumerations of the Kolmogorov Function. Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (2):501 - 528.score: 192.0
    A recursive enumerator for a function h is an algorithm f which enumerates for an input x finitely many elements including h(x), f is a k(n (...))-enumerator if for every input x of length n, h(x) is among the first k(n) elements enumerated by f. If there is a k(n)-enumerator for h then h is called k(n)-enumerable. We also consider enumerators which are only A-recursive for some oracle A. We determine exactly how hard it is to enumerate the Kolmogorov function, which assigns to each string x its Kolmogorov complexity: • For every underlying universal machine U, there is a constant a such that C is k(n)-enumerable only if k(n) ≥ n/a for almost all n. • For any given constant k, the Kolmogorov function is k-enumerable relative to an oracle A if and only if A is at least as hard as the halting problem. • There exists an r.e., Turing-incomplete set A such for every non-decreasing and unbounded recursive function k, the Kolmogorov function is k(n)-enumerable relative to A. The last result is obtained by using a relativizable construction for a nonrecursive set A relative to which the prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity differs only by a constant from the unrelativized prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity. Although every 2-enumerator for C is Turing hard for K, we show that reductions must depend on the specific choice of the 2-enumerator and there is no bound on the quantity of their queries. We show our negative results even for strong 2-enumerators as an oracle where the querying machine for any x gets directly an explicit list of all hypotheses of the enumerator for this input. The limitations are very general and we show them for any recursively bounded function g: • For every Turing reduction M and every non-recursive set B, there is a strong 2-enumerator f for g such that M does not Turing reduce B to f. • For every non-recursive set B, there is a strong 2-enumerator f for g such that B is not wtt-reducible to f. Furthermore, we deal with the resource-bounded case and give characterizations for the class ${\rm S}_{2}^{{\rm P}}$ introduced by Canetti and independently Russell and Sundaram and the classes PSPACE, EXP. • ${\rm S}_{2}^{{\rm P}}$ is the class of all sets A for which there is a polynomially bounded function g such that there is a polynomial time tt-reduction which reduces A to every strong 2-enumerator for g. • PSPACE is the class of all sets A for which there is a polynomially bounded function g such that there is a polynomial time Turing reduction which reduces A to every strong 2-enumerator for g. Interestingly, g can be taken to be the Kolmogorov function for the conditional space bounded Kolmogorov complexity. • EXP is the class of all sets A for which there is a polynomially bounded function g and a machine M which witnesses APSPACEf for all strong 2-enumerators f for g. Finally, we show that any strong O(log n)-enumerator for the conditional space bounded Kolmogorov function must be PSPACE-hard if P = NP. (shrink)
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  14. José Eduardo Faria (2010). Policentrismo versus soberanía. Los nuevos órdenes normativos. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 44:295-309.score: 192.0
    Th e a r ticl e e xplore s h o w globalizatio n i s assumin g a pr o g ress i v e emptyin (...)
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  15. Dolores Morondo Taramundi (2011). Subordiscriminación y discriminación interseccional: elementos para una teoría del derecho antidiscriminatorio. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 45:15 - 42.score: 192.0
    Thi s w or k i s pa r t o f a r e visio n i n p r o g r es s r (...)
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