The prevailing interpretation of Augustine’s theory of divine illumination suggests that illumination provides the human mind with the content of our a priori concepts. While there is strong textual evidence to support this view, I contend it offers an incomplete picture of the work illumination does in Augustine’s epistemology. Based on an analysis of Augustine’s solution to the paradox of language acquisition in De magistro, I argue illumination also supplies the mind with the content of all our empirical concepts. In (...) this text, Augustine calls our attention to the problem that learning the meaning of words by even the simplest of means—through direct acquaintance (i.e., by having an object pointed out to us and labeled with a name)—turns out to require a relatively sophisticated grasp of the word’s usage in the first place, one that depends on illumination to provide the content of all our universal concepts. (shrink)
This article investigates a tension among Aquinas’s basic claims about what constitutes the proper object of the human intellect. Aquinas asserts that the mindhas only one proper object, yet he repeatedly endorses two different candidates for this role: the being of a thing (ens) and a thing’s essence (essentia). One might assume the tension disappears if ens signifies the essence of a thing. Alternatively, the tension seems to dissolve if each operation of the intellect (apprehension and judgment) takes its own (...) object (essence and ens respectively). Although each approach effectively hides the tension from immediate sight, neither genuinely resolves it. This is because neither sufficiently accounts for the features of simplicity and priority Aquinas claims our “first conception of being” must have. Alternatively, I suggest how we might mitigate this tension by treating the intellect itself as having its own proper object (ens) and apprehension as having another (essence). (shrink)
Through an argumentation analysis can one show how it is feasible to view a narrative religious text such as the Gospel of Matthew as a literary argument. The Gospel is not just good news but an elaborate argument for the standpoint that Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah. It is shown why an argumentation analysis needs to be supplemented with a pragmatic literary analysis in order to describe how the evangelist presents his story so as to reach (...) his argumentative objective. The analysis also shows why in the case of historical religious literary texts, certain demands are put on the analyst that are not normally present. (shrink)
This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpected areas. For similar reasons, it is difficult to (...) give full information of the nature of a particular interview at the outset, hence informed consent is problematic. Where a pair is interviewed (such as carer and cared-for) there are major difficulties in maintaining confidentiality and protecting privacy. The potential for interviews to harm participants emotionally is noted in some papers, although this is often set against potential therapeutic benefit. As well as these generic issues, there are some ethical issues fairly specific to in-depth interviews. The problem of dual role is noted in many papers. It can take many forms: an interviewer might be nurse and researcher, scientist and counsellor, or reporter and evangelist. There are other specific issues such as taking sides in an interview, and protecting vulnerable groups. Little specific study of the ethics of in-depth interviews has taken place. However, that which has shows some important findings. For example, one study shows participants are not averse to discussing painful issues provided they feel the study is worthwhile. Some papers make recommendations for researchers. One such is that they should consider using a model of continuous (or process) consent rather than viewing consent as occurring once, at signature, prior to the interview. However, there is a need for further study of this area, both philosophical and empirical. (shrink)
In his book A Charge to Keep, George W. Bush writes of his decision to "recommit my heart to Jesus Christ." He traces it to a walk along the beach in Maine with the Christian evangelist Billy Graham. Conversing with Graham, Bush was "humbled to learn that God had sent His Son to die for a sinner like me." After his decision to recommit himself to Jesus, Bush tells us, he began to read the Bible regularly and joined a (...) Bible study group. Later, when Bush describes a visit to Israel that he and his wife, Laura, made in 1998, we get a further insight into his view of the Gospels as history. George and Laura went, he tells us, to the Sea of Galilee and "stood atop the hill where Jesus delivered the Sermon on the Mount." It was, he adds, "an overwhelming feeling to stand in the spot where the most famous speech in the history of the world was delivered, the spot where Jesus outlined the character and conduct of a believer and gave his disciples and the world the beatitudes, the golden rule, and the Lord's Prayer." Bush concludes his account of his visit to Israel by saying he knows that faith changes lives, because "faith changed mine." This faith is something that enables him to build his life on "a foundation that will not shift.". (shrink)
This article contains a detailed discussion of the friendship and the intellectual collaboration between D. H. Lawrence and Bertrand Russell during the spring and summer of 1915. The questions it seeks to answer are why Russell initially was inclined to treat Lawrence's philosophical thought with respect, even to the extent of becoming an evangelist on its behalf; why he subsequently rejected Lawrence's outlook and distanced himself from Lawrence's political program; and what similarities and dissimilarities exist in Russell's thought and (...) Lawrence's as represented by Russell's Principles of Social Reconstruction and Lawrence's essays "Study of Thomas Hardy" and "The Crown." Both writers, it is suggested, were centrally concerned with the possibility of transcending the "prison" of the self, but the ideas each developed as to how this should be done were radically divergent, so much so that each could, in the end, regard the other as the very personification of the kind of egoism they sought to transcend. (shrink)
In this second edition of his best-selling introduction to philosophy, Martin Cohen combines new and topical problems with humorous and engaging discussion. The new edition includes an updated glossary of helpful terms, possible new solutions to the problems, as well as many classic problems and new contemporary problems taken from the media to physics, medical ethics to artificial intelligence. 101 Philosophy Problems, Second Edition combines wit with philosophical scholarship and is ideal for anyone interested in this exciting and stimulating topic. (...) Examples of problems included: * Protagoras' Problem * The Lost Kingdom and the Pesky-Fly Problem * Life on Sirius * Achilles and the Tortoise * The Value of Stamps and Potatoes * The Cube and the Triangle * The Microworld Time Forgot * A Problem Arranging Ship Battles * But Will the Waterfall? * Kant's Problem * A Sinister Transplant Problem * The Evangelist * Problems with the Speed of Light * Schopenhauer's Problem. (shrink)
In Ethics in the Sanctuary, Margaret Battin argues that traditional evangelism, directed to promoting religious belief, practice, and affiliation, that is proselytizing, is morally questionable to the extent that it involves unwarranted paternalism in the interests of securing other-worldly benefits for potential converts. I argue that Christian evangelism is justified in order to make the this-worldly benefits of religious belief and practice available to everyone, to bring about an increase in religious affiliation for the purpose of providing a more supportive (...) social environment for Christians, and to promote the survival of the institutional Church, which benefits Christians and nonChristians alike by maintaining church property, providing access to church buildings and doing liturgy visibly and publicly for the sake of all people. (shrink)
In his book A Charge to Keep, George W. Bush writes of his decision to "recommit my heart to Jesus Christ." He traces it to a walk along the beach in Maine with the Christian evangelist Billy Graham. Conversing with Graham, Bush was "humbled to learn that God had sent His Son to die for a sinner like me." After his decision to recommit himself to Jesus, Bush tells us, he began to read the Bible regularly and joined a (...) Bible study group. (shrink)
This scholarly synthesis of biblical studies and Christian social ethics is designed to provide a biblical argument for intentional institutional change on behalf of social justice. Stephen Charles Mott provides a biblical and ethical guide on ways to implement that change. The first part of the book, providing the biblical theology of intentional social change, deals with the central concepts in biblical and theological ethics: grace, evil, love, justice, and the Reign of God. Christian social change must be rooted not (...) only in justice, but in the grace received through the death and resurrection of Christ. The second part evaluates ethical and theological methods for carrying out that intentional social change. It offers a study of evangelism, counter community, civil disobedience, armed revolution, and political reform. It shows the contribution of each as well as the strong limitations of each used in isolation. A recurring theme of the book is the scriptural insistence on the priority of justice as taking upon oneself the cause of the oppressed. Justice is understood on bringing back into the community those who are near to falling out of it. Political authority has a vital role in social change for justice. It is essential that a Christian use all available and legitimate means of meeting basic needs by providing for all what is essential for inclusion in society. In this revised edition, Mott updates the contemporary illustrations and includes his own further reflections in the last thirty years on this topic. (shrink)
In response to the Supreme court’s ruling that equality was beginning to be recognized, people anti-sodomy laws are unconstitutional, like Pat Robertson pointed to the advancements evangelist Pat Robertson urged his followers to and called them evil. Twenty years from now, engage in what he called a 21- day “prayer..
O pentecostalismo é a religião que mais cresce, em número de fiéis, no Brasil de acordo com a última contagem populacional do IBGE. Este crescimento não se deu somente através dos métodos de evangelismo pessoal e de massa já empregados há anos pelas igrejas pentecostais, mas também teve um importante acréscimo se forem analisados os efeitos secularizantes da modernidade e que inevitavelmente afetaram essas igrejas. Com o incremento do número de pentecostais, houve também alterações significativas de suas tradições doutrinárias. Sendo (...) a secularização promovedora de pluralismo religioso, as denominações pentecostais passam por um processo de secularização, notadamente com um pluralismo doutrinário a fim de manterem-se plausíveis em meio à sociedade secularizada. Este trabalho cita o caso da igreja Assembleia de Deus, principal denominação pentecostal do País por seu número de fiéis, por sua trajetória histórica e sua consequente secularização. Palavras chave: Assembleia de Deus. Pentecostalismo. Pluralismo religioso. Secularização.The author points out that according to the latest data from the IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística), Pentecostalism is the fastest growing religion in Brazil. One reason for this growth binds to different methods of evangelism, used for many years by the Pentecostal churches. Another possible reason for the fast growth of Pentecostalism is related to the effects produced by the process of secularization of modernity that inevitably have affected the churches. Along with the increase in the number of Pentecostals, there were also significant changes in their doctrinal traditions. Because secularism promotes religious pluralism, the Pentecostal denominations undergo a process of secularization, especially with a doctrinal pluralism in order to maintain themselves plausible amid a secularized society. This paper cites the case of the Assembly of God church, a leading Pentecostal denomination in Brazil in terms of number of followers, and because of its historical trajectory and its consequent secularization. Keywords : Assembly of God. Pentecostalism. Religious pluralism. Secularization. (shrink)
Though academic debate over gender-inclusive God-talk seems to have fizzled, the issue is a pressing one within many Christiandenominations today—both within and outside the Church—and for that reason deserves to be briefly revisited. Accordingly, althoughin this essay we approach the issue as professional philosophers, our focus is on the life of the Church—more specifically, those no doubt sizable segments of the Church for which a personal God and Satan exist and evangelism matters. Running an elimination argument, we contend that if (...) a certain sort of feminist concern about traditional God-talk is well-directed, the best response is to speak of not only God but also Satan in both masculine and feminine terms. And in closing, we address the possible worry that this response to the God-talk problem would not be Christian enough. (shrink)
Este artigo trata das formas de construção e reelaboração identitárias que ocorrem a partir dos processos de adesões religiosas em curso nos contextos urbanos atuais. Através das narrativas midiáticas e dos depoimentos orais de fiéis que aderiram ao neopentecostalismo, busca-se perceber como ocorrem os trânsitos por entre modalidades religiosas. Neste texto discuto os modos de recepção de uma modalidade de narrativa recorrente nos programas televisivos da Igreja Universal - os testemunhos – destacando a força incorporadora desta modalidade narrativa nas mediações (...) culturais de que se utiliza e os processos de reordenamento simbólico e identitário que esta modalidade narrativa provoca. Noções como identidade-diferença, apropriação e recepção propostas por autores do grupo dos Estudos Culturais são utilizadas para compreender, como, mediante a nova adesão religiosa, fiéis reordenam suas identidades, configurando novos modos de compreensão de si mesmos, dos outros, da divindade e do mundo. A metodologia utilizada decorre das análises propostas pela História Oral sobre narrativas televisivas e os depoimentos orais de fiéis e ex-fiéis neopentecostais. Palavras-chave : Neopentecostalismo; Mídia Evangélica; Narrativas Orais; Identidades.This article deals with the ways of construction and reworking of the identity that occurs from the ongoing religious accession processes on the current urban contexts. Through the media narratives and the oral testimonials of the people who joined the neopentecostalism, the way transits between religious modalities occur has been studied. In this text, I discuss the ways of reception of a recurrent narrative modality on television programs of The Universal Church – the testimonials – highlighting the developing power of this narrative modality on the cultural mediations it makes use of, and the processes of symbolic and identity reordering this modality provokes. Notions as identity-difference, appropriation and reception, proposed by authors of the Cultural Studies group are used to comprehend how, by the new religious accession, people reorder their identities, configuring new ways of comprehension of themselves, of the others, of the divinity and of the world. The methodology that was used comes from analysis proposed by the Oral History about the television narratives and the oral testimonials of people who follow, or do not follow anymore, the neopentecostalism. Keywords : Neo-Pentecostalism; Evangelical Media; Oral Narratives; Identities. (shrink)
Neste artigo, nossa tarefa será estudar a estratégia literária usada na composição da narrativa do encontro de Jesus com a mulher samaritana, famosa passagem do quarto capítulo do evangelho de João. Defenderemos a hipótese de que o autor fez, para a construção desta narrativa sobre Jesus, uso de um enredo arquétipo, uma cena-padrão do Antigo Testamento que era usada todas as vezes que se pretendia contar uma história de casamento. Veremos os elementos que constituem tal enredo padrão e alguns exemplos (...) textuais, para então analisar o evangelho de João demonstrando em detalhes como o evangelista manipulou este gênero literário popular para atingir seus próprios objetivos. Metodologicamente falando, é a análise narrativa ou narratologia que conduzirá nossas reflexões e análises exegéticas, mantendo o foco desta investigação sempre na figura do “leitor implícito” da narrativa bíblica, que é quem deveria surpreender-se ao notar que o texto conduzia Jesus ao próprio casamento, até uma reviravolta criativa do autor no final. Palavras-chave : Exegese; Narratologia; Bíblia; Cristianismo Primitivo; Evangelho de João.In this article, our task will be study the literary strategy used in composition of the narrative of meeting among Jesus and the Samaritan woman, famous episode of fourth chapter of John’s Gospel. We’ll defending the hypothesis that the author made, for to construct this narrative about Jesus, use of a master-plot, a standard scene of the Old Testament that was used all times when someone wished to tell a marriage store. We’ll see the compositional elements of this standard plot and some textual examples, and then, we can to analyze the John’s Gospel and show how the evangelist manipulated the popular literary genre for reach your own objectives. Methodologically speaking, the narrative analysis (or narratology) going to drive our reflections and exegetical analysis, keeping the focus of this research always in “implicit reader” of biblical narrative, who would to feel the surprise through to see the text driving Jesus to the own marriage, until the creative author’s turnaround at the end. Key words : Exegesis; Narratology; Bible; Primitive Christianity; John’s Gospel. (shrink)
What is needed now is a critical method which does justice to an evangelist's literary activity and yet moves beyond concern for authorial activity and theology to include a concern for the text of the Gospel as a totality.
It is the genius of the Fourth Evangelist to have created a gospel in which Jesus as the representative of the world above visits and really lives in this world without depriving it of its verisimilitude and without depriving life here of its seriousness.
Summary Harry Alpert (1912?1977), the US sociologist, is best-known for his directorship of the National Science Foundation's social science programme in the 1950s. This study extends our understanding of Alpert in two main ways: first, by examining the earlier development of his views and career. Beginning with his 1939 biography of Emile Durkheim, we explore the early development of Alpert's views about foundational questions concerning the scientific status of sociology and social science more generally, proper social science methodology, the practical (...) value of social science, the academic institutionalisation of sociology, and the unity-of-science viewpoint. Second, this paper illuminates Alpert's complex involvement with certain tensions in mid-century US social science that were themselves linked to major transformations in national science policy, public patronage, and unequal relations between the social and natural sciences. We show that Alpert's views about the intellectual foundations, practical relevance, and institutional standing of the social sciences were, in some important respects, at odds with his NSF policy work. Although remembered as a quantitative evangelist and advocate for the unity-of-science viewpoint, Alpert was in fact an urbane critic of natural-science envy, social scientific certainty, and what he saw as excessive devotion to quantitative methods. (shrink)
En este trabajo procuraremos analizar, en primera instancia, al "Festival con Luis Palau" en tanto dispositivo de impacto evangelístico, haciendo foco principalmente en la estructura organizativa que lo propició. A continuación, profundizaremos en los dispositivos de construcción del acontecimiento ..
In his The Foundations of Psychoanalysis (1984) Grunbaum compliments Freud on the development of the Tally Argument as an answer to a number of serious methodological criticisms, "The epistemological considerations that prompted Freud to enunciate (this argument) make him a sophisticated methodologist" (p. 128). In contrast to this position I argue that the Tally Argument and the considerations for it are hardly sophisticated: They would equally well go to demonstrate the methodological sophistication of modern-day evangelists. Furthermore, I argue that the (...) Tally Argument does not play the crucial role that Grunbaum assigns to it. It is one of many arguments Freud used to counter criticism, but not one to which Freud gave pride of place. (shrink)
Back in 1922, American essayist H. L. Mencken wrote a little essay titled "Memorial Service". Here's how he began: Where is the graveyard of dead gods? What lingering mourner waters their mounds? There was a day when Jupiter was the king of the gods, and any man who doubted his puissance [power] was ipso facto a barbarian and an ignoramus. But where in all the world is there a man who worships Jupiter today? And what of Huitzilopochtli [wee-tsee-lohpoch'-tlee]? In one (...) year-- and it is no more than five hundred years ago--50,000 youths and maidens were slain in sacrifice to him. Mencken went on to name a total of 189 pagan gods.1 He told how millions worshipped them; how men laboured for generations to build them vast temples; how priests, evangelists, bishops, and archbishops served them; how to doubt them was to die, usually at the stake; how armies took to the fields to defend them against infidels; and how villages were burned, women and children slaughtered, and cattle driven off. All these, he pointed out in conclusion: were gods of the highest standing and dignity--gods of civilized peoples--worshipped and believed in by millions. All were theoretically omnipotent, omniscient, and immortal. And all are dead. The death of the gods. (shrink)
The words of religion promote a hidden hypocrisy, an intellectual acceptance and a legalistic obedience which do not transform. Jesus and the Evangelists were seeking something more, as careful study of their language shows.