Search results for 'Capacity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nelson Cowan (2001). The Magical Number 4 in Short-Term Memory: A Reconsideration of Mental Storage Capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):87-114.
    Miller (1956) summarized evidence that people can remember about seven chunks in short-term memory (STM) tasks. However, that number was meant more as a rough estimate and a rhetorical device than as a real capacity limit. Others have since suggested that there is a more precise capacity limit, but that it is only three to five chunks. The present target article brings together a wide variety of data on capacity limits suggesting that the smaller capacity limit (...)
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  2.  34
    Graeme S. Halford, William H. Wilson & Steven Phillips (1998). Processing Capacity Defined by Relational Complexity: Implications for Comparative, Developmental, and Cognitive Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):803-831.
    Working memory limits are best defined in terms of the complexity of the relations that can be processed in parallel. Complexity is defined as the number of related dimensions or sources of variation. A unary relation has one argument and one source of variation; its argument can be instantiated in only one way at a time. A binary relation has two arguments, two sources of variation, and two instantiations, and so on. Dimensionality is related to the number of chunks, because (...)
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  3.  33
    Jehan Loza (2004). Business–Community Partnerships: The Case for Community Organization Capacity Building. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (3):297-311.
    Globalization processes have resulted in greater complexity, interdependence and limited resources. Consequently, no one sector can effectively respond to today's business or wider challenges and opportunities. Non-government organizations and corporations are increasingly engaging each other in recognition that shareholder and societal value are intrinsically linked. For both sectors, these partnerships can create an enabling environment to address social issues and can generate social capital. Located in the Australian context, this paper explores the dimensions of community organization capacity building as (...)
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  4.  36
    Jodi Halpern (2012). When Concretized Emotion-Belief Complexes Derail Decision-Making Capacity. Bioethics 26 (2):108-116.
    There is an important gap in philosophical, clinical and bioethical conceptions of decision-making capacity. These fields recognize that when traumatic life circumstances occur, people not only feel afraid and demoralized, but may develop catastrophic thinking and other beliefs that can lead to poor judgment. Yet there has been no articulation of the ways in which such beliefs may actually derail decision-making capacity. In particular, certain emotionally grounded beliefs are systematically unresponsive to evidence, and this can block the ability (...)
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  5.  26
    Joseph A. Petrick & John F. Quinn (2001). The Challenge of Leadership Accountability for Integrity Capacity as a Strategic Asset. Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):331 - 343.
    The authors identify the challenge of holding contemporary business leaders accountable for enhancing the intangible strategic asset of integrity capacity in organizations. After defining integrity capacity and framing it as part of a strategic resource model of sustainable global competitive advantage, the stakeholder costs of integrity capacity neglect are delineated. To address this neglect issue, the authors focus on the cultivation of judgment integrity to handle behavioral, moral and hypothesized economic complexities as key dimensions of integrity (...). Finally, the authors recommend two leadership practices to build competence in business leaders to enhance integrity capacity as an organizational strategic asset. (shrink)
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  6.  23
    Cathal O'Madagain (forthcoming). Outsourcing Concepts: Deference, the Extended Mind, and Expanding Our Epistemic Capacity. In J. Adam Carter, Andy Clark, Jesper Kallestrup, Orestis Palermos & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Socially Extended Knowledge. Oxford University Press
    Semantic deference is the apparent phenomenon whereby some of -/- our concepts have their content fixed by the minds of others. The -/- phenomenon is puzzling both in terms of how such concepts are -/- supposed to work, but also in terms of why we should have -/- concepts whose content is fixed by others. Here I argue that if we -/- rethink semantic deference in terms of extended mind reasoning -/- we find answers to both of these questions: the (...)
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  7.  28
    Sheela Saravanan (2013). An Ethnomethodological Approach to Examine Exploitation in the Context of Capacity, Trust and Experience of Commercial Surrogacy in India. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):10.
    The socio-ethical concerns regarding exploitation in commercial surrogacy are premised on asymmetric vulnerability and the commercialization of women’s reproductive capacity to suit individualistic motives. In examining the exploitation argument, this article reviews the social contract theory that describes an individual as an ‘economic man’ with moral and/or political motivations to satisfy individual desires. This study considers the critique by feminists, who argue that patriarchal and medical control prevails in the surrogacy contracts. It also explores the exploitative dynamics amongst actors (...)
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  8.  23
    Joseph A. Petrick & John F. Quinn (2000). The Integrity Capacity Construct and Moral Progress in Business. Journal of Business Ethics 23 (1):3 - 18.
    The authors propose the integrity capacity construct with its four dimensions (process, judgment, development and system dimensions) as a framework for analyzing and resolving behavioral, moral and legal complexity in business ethics' issues at the individual and collective levels. They claim that moral progress in business comes about through the increase in stakeholders who regularly handle moral complexity by demonstrating process, judgment, developmental and system integrity capacity domestically and globally.
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  9.  16
    Carel Ijsselmuiden, Debbie Marais, Douglas Wassenaar & Boitumelo Mokgatla-Moipolai (2012). Mapping African Ethical Review Committee Activity Onto Capacity Needs: The Marc Initiative and Hrweb's Interactive Database of Recs in Africa. Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):74-86.
    Health research initiatives worldwide are growing in scope and complexity, particularly as they move into the developing world. Expanding health research activity in low- and middle-income countries has resulted in a commensurate rise in the need for sound ethical review structures and functions in the form of Research Ethics Committees (RECs). Yet these seem to be lagging behind as a result of the enormous challenges facing these countries, including poor resource availability and lack of capacity. There is thus an (...)
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  10.  32
    Gareth S. Owen, Fabian Freyenhagen, Wayne Martin & Anthony S. David, Clinical Assessment of Decision-Making Capacity in Acquired Brain Injury with Personality Change.
    Assessment of decision-making capacity can be difficult in acquired brain injury particularly with the syndrome of organic personality disorder. Clinical neuroscience may help but there are challenges translating its constructs to the decision-making abilities considered relevant by law and ethics. An in-depth interview study of DMC in OPD was undertaken. Six patients were purposefully sampled and rich interview data were acquired for scrutiny using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Interview data revealed that awareness of deficit and thinking about psychological states can (...)
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  11.  14
    Thomas Hindmarch, Matthew Hotopf & Gareth S. Owen (2013). Depression and Decision-Making Capacity for Treatment or Research: A Systematic Review. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):54.
    Psychiatric disorders can pose problems in the assessment of decision-making capacity (DMC). This is so particularly where psychopathology is seen as the extreme end of a dimension that includes normality. Depression is an example of such a psychiatric disorder. Four abilities (understanding, appreciating, reasoning and ability to express a choice) are commonly assessed when determining DMC in psychiatry and uncertainty exists about the extent to which depression impacts capacity to make treatment or research participation decisions.
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  12.  44
    Jada Twedt Strabbing (2016). Attributability, Weakness of Will, and the Importance of Just Having the Capacity. Philosophical Studies 173 (2):289-307.
    A common objection to particular views of attributability is that they fail to account for weakness of will. In this paper, I show that the problem of weakness of will is much deeper than has been recognized, extending to all views of attributability on offer because of the general form that these views take. The fundamental problem is this: current views claim that being attributionally responsible is a matter of exercising whatever capacity that they take to be relevant to (...)
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  13. Katrina L. Sifferd (2013). Translating Scientific Evidence Into the Language of the ‘Folk’: Executive Function as Capacity-Responsibility. In Nicole A. Vincent (ed.), Legal Responsibility and Neuroscience. Oxford University Press
    There are legitimate worries about gaps between scientific evidence of brain states and function (for example, as evidenced by fMRI data) and legal criteria for determining criminal culpability. In this paper I argue that behavioral evidence of capacity, motive and intent appears easier for judges and juries to use for purposes of determining criminal liability because such evidence triggers the application of commonsense psychological (CSP) concepts that guide and structure criminal responsibility. In contrast, scientific evidence of neurological processes and (...)
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  14.  9
    Jean-Claude Thoenig & Catherine Paradeise (2016). Strategic Capacity and Organisational Capabilities: A Challenge for Universities. Minerva 54 (3):293-324.
    Are universities able to operate as strategic actors? An organisational sociology based approach supported by a comparative field research project identifies three types of social, cultural and cognitive processes that play a decisive role in building and implementing local capabilities required to mobilise a strategic capacity. The paper identifies how much these processes are present in the four ideal-types of universities defined by crossing their reputation and their metrics-based performance. Such a meso deterministic perspective suggests that universities may position (...)
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  15. Jules Holroyd (forthcoming). Clarifying Capacity: Reasons and Value. In Lubomira Radoilska (ed.), Autonomy and Mental Health. Oxford University Press
    It is usually appropriate for adults to make significant decisions, such as about what kinds of medical treatment to undergo, for themselves. But sometimes impairments are suffered - either temporary or permanent - which render an individual unable to make such decisions. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 sets out the conditions under which it is appropriate to regard an individual as lacking the capacity to make a particular decision (and when provisions should be made for a decision on (...)
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  16.  66
    Jaworska Agnieszka & Tannenbaum Julie (forthcoming). Who Has the Capacity to Participate as a Rearee in a Person-Rearing Relationship. Ethics.
    We discuss applications of our account of moral status grounded in person-rearing relationships: which individuals have higher moral status or not, and why? We cover three classes of cases: (1) cases involving incomplete realization of the capacity to care, including whether infants or fetuses have this incomplete capacity; (2) cases in which higher moral status rests in part on what is required for the being to flourish; (3) hypothetical cases in which cognitive enhancements could, e.g., help dogs achieve (...)
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  17.  90
    Yingxu Wang, Dong Liu & Ying Wang (2003). Discovering the Capacity of Human Memory. Brain and Mind 4 (2):189-198.
    Despite the fact that the number of neurons in the human brain has been identified in cognitive and neural sciences, the magnitude of human memory capacity is still unknown. This paper reports the discovery of the memory capacity of the human brain, which is on the order of 10 8432 bits. A cognitive model of the brain is created, which shows that human memory and knowledge are represented by relations, i.e., connections of synapses between neurons, rather than by (...)
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  18.  4
    Malcolm Parker (2016). Getting the Balance Right: Conceptual Considerations Concerning Legal Capacity and Supported Decision-Making. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (3):381-393.
    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities urges and requires changes to how signatories discharge their duties to people with intellectual disabilities, in the direction of their greater recognition as legal persons with expanded decision-making rights. Australian jurisdictions are currently undertaking inquiries and pilot projects that explore how these imperatives should be implemented. One of the important changes advocated is to move from guardianship models to supported or assisted models of decision-making. A driving force behind these (...)
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  19. Lubomira Radoilska (2012). Personal Autonomy, Decisional Capacity, and Mental Disorder. In Autonomy and Mental Disorder. Oxford University Press
    In this Introduction, I situate the underlying project “Autonomy and Mental Disorder” with reference to current debates on autonomy in moral and political philosophy, and the philosophy of action. I then offer an overview of the individual contributions. More specifically, I begin by identifying three points of convergence in the debates at issue, stating that autonomy is: 1) a fundamentally liberal concept; 2) an agency concept and; 3) incompatible with (severe) mental disorder. Next, I explore, in the context of decisional (...)
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  20.  24
    Adnan A. Hyder, Waleed Zafar, Joseph Ali, Robert Ssekubugu, Paul Ndebele & Nancy Kass (2013). Evaluating Institutional Capacity for Research Ethics in Africa: A Case Study From Botswana. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):31.
    The increase in the volume of research conducted in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), has brought a renewed international focus on processes for ethical conduct of research. Several programs have been initiated to strengthen the capacity for research ethics in LMIC. However, most such programs focus on individual training or development of ethics review committees. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to institutional capacity assessment in research ethics and application of this approach in (...)
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  21.  19
    Wim J. M. Dekkers (2001). Autonomy and Dependence: Chronic Physical Illness and Decision-Making Capacity. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):185-192.
    In this article some of the presuppositions that underly the current ideas about decision making capacity, autonomy and independence are critically examined. The focus is on chronic disorders, especially on chronic physical disorders. First, it is argued that the concepts of decision making competence and autonomy, as they are usually applied to the problem of legal (in)competence in the mentally ill, need to be modified and adapted to the situation of the chronically (physically) ill. Second, it is argued that (...)
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  22.  53
    Rachel Batchelor, Ania Bobrowicz, Robin Mackenzie & Alisoun Milne (2012). Challenges of Ethical and Legal Responsibilities When Technologies' Uses and Users Change: Social Networking Sites, Decision-Making Capacity and Dementia. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 14 (2):99-108.
    Successful technologies’ ubiquity changes uses, users and ethicolegal responsibilities and duties of care. We focus on dementia to review critically ethicolegal implications of increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) by those with compromised decision-making capacity, assessing concerned parties’ responsibilities. Although SNS contracts assume ongoing decision-making capacity, many users’ may be compromised or declining. Resulting ethicolegal issues include capacity to give informed consent to contracts, protection of online privacy including sharing and controlling data, data leaks between different (...)
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  23. Thomas K. Johansen (2012). Capacity and Potentiality: Aristotle's Metaphysics Θ.6–7 From the Perspective of the De Anima. Topoi 31 (2):209-220.
    The notion of a capacity in the sense of a power to bring about or undergo change plays a key role in Aristotle’s theories about the natural world. However, in Metaphysics Θ Aristotle also extends ‘ capacity ’, and the corresponding concept of ‘activity’, to cases where we want to say that something is in capacity, or in activity, such and such but not, or not directly, in virtue of being capable of initiating or undergoing change. This (...)
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  24.  18
    Dasaratha Rama, Bernard J. Milano, Silvia Salas & Che-Hung Liu (2009). CSR Implementation: Developing the Capacity for Collective Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2):463 - 477.
    This article examines capacity development for collective action and institutional change through the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. We integrate Hargrave and Van de Ven's (2006, Academy of Management Review 31(4), 864-888) Collective Action Model with capacity development literature to develop a framework that can be used to clarify the nature of CSR involvement in capacity development, help identify alternative CSR response options, consider expected impacts of these options on stakeholders, and highlight trade-offs across alternative (...)
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  25.  9
    Ron Berghmans, Donna Dickenson & Ruud Ter Meulen (2004). Editorial: Mental Capacity: In Search of Alternative Perspectives. Health Care Analysis 12 (4):251-263.
    Editorial introduction to series of papers resulting from a European Commission Project on mental capacity.
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  26.  58
    Wayne Martin & Ryan Hickerson (2013). Mental Capacity and the Applied Phenomenology of Judgement. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (1):195-214.
    We undertake to bring a phenomenological perspective to bear on a challenge of contemporary law and clinical practice. In a wide variety of contexts, legal and medical professionals are called upon to assess the competence or capacity of an individual to exercise her own judgement in making a decision for herself. We focus on decisions regarding consent to or refusal of medical treatment and contrast a widely recognised clinical instrument, the MacCAT-T, with a more phenomenologically informed approach. While the (...)
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  27.  21
    Guy Claxton (2007). Expanding Young People's Capacity to Learn. British Journal of Educational Studies 55 (2):115 - 134.
    : Though it is being widely argued that expanding young people's capacity to learn is a viable and desirable goal of education, it it not always clear what this means, how it is to be achieved, and how the effectiveness of interventions is to be assessed. It is argued that the capacity to learn should be interpreted as a portmanteau term that comprises a varied set of positive learning dispositions. These are illustrated, and the idea of ?expansion? is (...)
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  28.  20
    Michel Silberfeld & David Checkland (1999). Faulty Judgment, Expert Opinion, and Decision-Making Capacity. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (4):377-393.
    An assessment of decision-making capacity is the accepted procedure for determining when a person is not competent. An inferential gap exists between the criteria for capacity specific abilities and the legal requirements to understand relevant information and appreciate the consequences of a decision. This gap extends to causal influences on a person'scapacity to decide. Using a published case of depression, we illustrate that assessors' uses of diagnostic information is frequently not up to the task of bridging this inferential (...)
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  29.  34
    Gareth S. Owen, Fabian Freyenhagen, Matthew Hotopf & Wayne Martin (2015). Temporal Inabilities and Decision-Making Capacity in Depression. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):163-182.
    We report on an interview-based study of decision-making capacity in two classes of patients suffering from depression. Developing a method of second-person hermeneutic phenomenology, we articulate the distinctive combination of temporal agility and temporal inability characteristic of the experience of severely depressed patients. We argue that a cluster of decision-specific temporal abilities is a critical element of decision-making capacity, and we show that loss of these abilities is a risk factor distinguishing severely depressed patients from mildly/moderately depressed patients. (...)
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  30.  6
    Dieneke Hubbeling (2014). Decision Making Capacity Should Not Be Decisive in Emergencies. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (2):229-238.
    Examples of patients with anorexia nervosa, depression or borderline personality disorder who have decision-making capacity as currently operationalized, but refuse treatment, are discussed. It appears counterintuitive to respect their treatment refusal because their wish seems to be fuelled by their illness and the consequences of their refusal of treatment are severe. Some proposed solutions have focused on broadening the criteria for decision-making capacity, either in general or for specific patient groups, but these adjustments might discriminate against particular groups (...)
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  31.  51
    Brice Mayag, Michel Grabisch & Christophe Labreuche (2011). A Representation of Preferences by the Choquet Integral with Respect to a 2-Additive Capacity. Theory and Decision 71 (3):297-324.
    In the context of Multiple criteria decision analysis, we present the necessary and sufficient conditions allowing to represent an ordinal preferential information provided by the decision maker by a Choquet integral w.r.t a 2-additive capacity. We provide also a characterization of this type of preferential information by a belief function which can be viewed as a capacity. These characterizations are based on three axioms, namely strict cycle-free preferences and some monotonicity conditions called MOPI and 2-MOPI.
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  32.  62
    Jeanette Hewitt (2010). Schizophrenia, Mental Capacity, and Rational Suicide. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):63-77.
    A diagnosis of schizophrenia is often taken to denote a state of global irrationality within the psychiatric paradigm, wherein psychotic phenomena are seen to equate with a lack of mental capacity. However, the little research that has been undertaken on mental capacity in psychiatric patients shows that people with schizophrenia are more likely to experience isolated, rather than constitutive, irrationality and are therefore not necessarily globally incapacitated. Rational suicide has not been accepted as a valid choice for people (...)
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  33.  5
    Philip Bielby (2005). The Conflation of Competence and Capacity in English Medical Law: A Philosophical Critique. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):357-369.
    Ethical and legal discourse pertaining to the ability to consent to treatment and research in England operates within a dualist framework of “competence” and “capacity”. This is confusing, as while there exists in England two possible senses of legal capacity – “first person” legal capacity and “delegable” legal capacity, currently neither is formulated to bear a necessary relationship with decision-making competence. Notwithstanding this, judges and academic commentators frequently invoke competence to consent in discussions involving the validity (...)
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  34.  5
    Jacinta O. A. Tan & Jorg M. Fegert (2004). Capacity and Competence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Health Care Analysis 12 (4):285-294.
    Capacity and competence in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry are complex issues, because of the many different influences that are involved in how children and adolescents make treatment decisions within the setting of mental health. This article will examine some of the influences which must be considered, namely: developmental aspects, the paradoxical relationship between the need for autonomy and participation and the capacity of children, family psychiatry, and the duty of care towards children and adolescents. The (...)
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  35.  2
    Herman Nys, Sander Welie, Tina Garanis-Papadatos & Dimitris Ploumpidis (2004). Patient Capacity in Mental Health Care: Legal Overview. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 12 (4):329-337.
    The discriminatory effects of categorizing psychiatric patients into competent and incompetent, have urged lawyers, philosophers and health care professionals to seek a functional approach to capacity assessment. Dutch and English law have produced some guidelines concerning this issue. So far, most legal systems under investigation have concentrated on alternatives for informed consent by the patient in case of mental incapacity, notably substitute decision-making, intervention of a judge and advance directives. It is hard to judge the way in which the (...)
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  36.  12
    Phil Bielby (2012). Ulysses Arrangements in Psychiatric Treatment: Towards Proposals for Their Use Based on 'Sharing' Legal Capacity. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis (2):1-29.
    A ‘Ulysses arrangement’ (UA) is an agreement where a patient may arrange for psychiatric treatment or non-treatment to occur at a later stage when she expects to change her mind. In this article, I focus on ‘competence-insensitive’ UAs, which raise the question of the permissibility of overriding the patient’s subsequent decisionally competent change of mind on the authority of the patient’s own prior agreement. In “The Ethical Justification for Ulysses Arrangements”, I consider sceptical and supportive arguments concerning competence-insensitive UAs, and (...)
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  37.  12
    Piotr T. Makowski (2009). Metaphysics of Practical Philosophy. The Concept of Capacity in Aristotle. In Georg Arabatzis (ed.), Studies on Supernaturalism. Logos Verlag
    The author presents the Aristotelian conception of capacity/potentiality (dunamis) – one of the most important in Aristotle’s metaphysics. A closer inspection allows to draw conclusion, that the concept of capacity is an important link between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ (metaphysics on the one side, and practical – ethical, rhetorical, political – skills, on the other). A picture of the connection between theory and practice is based on the most important parts of Metaphysics (books delta and theta), it relates metaphysical (...)
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  38.  4
    Manne Sjöstrand, Petter Karlsson, Lars Sandman, Gert Helgesson, Stefan Eriksson & Niklas Juth (2015). Conceptions of Decision-Making Capacity in Psychiatry: Interviews with Swedish Psychiatrists. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):34.
    Decision-making capacity is a key concept in contemporary healthcare ethics. Previous research has mainly focused on philosophical, conceptual issues or on evaluation of different tools for assessing patients’ capacity. The aim of the present study is to investigate how the concept and its normative role are understood in Swedish psychiatric care. Of special interest for present purposes are the relationships between decisional capacity and psychiatric disorders and between health law and practical ethics.
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  39.  5
    April Martin, Zhanna Bagdasarov & Shane Connelly (2015). The Capacity for Ethical Decisions: The Relationship Between Working Memory and Ethical Decision Making. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):271-292.
    Although various models of ethical decision making have implicitly called upon constructs governed by working memory capacity , a study examining this relationship specifically has not been conducted. Using a sense making framework of EDM, we examined the relationship between WMC and various sensemaking processes contributing to EDM. Participants completed an online assessment comprised of a demographic survey, intelligence test, various EDM measures, and the Automated Operation Span task to determine WMC. Results indicated that WMC accounted for unique variance (...)
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  40.  6
    Andrew M. Siegel, Anna S. Barnwell & Dominic A. Sisti (2014). Assessing Decision-Making Capacity: A Primer for the Development of Hospital Practice Guidelines. HEC Forum 26 (2):159-168.
    Decision making capacity (DMC) is a fundamental concept grounding the principle of respect for autonomy and the practice of obtaining informed consent. DMC must be determined and documented every time a patient undergoes a hospital procedure and for routine care when there is reason to believe decision making ability is compromised. In this paper we explore a path toward ethically informed development and implementation of a hospital policy related to DMC assessment. We begin with a review of the context (...)
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  41.  9
    Jacqueline A. Laing (2005). The Mental Capacity Bill 2004: Human Rights Concerns. Family Law Journal 35:137-143.
    The Mental Capacity Bill endangers the vulnerable by inviting human rights abuse. It is perhaps these grave deficiencies that prompted the warnings of the 23rd Report of the Joint Committee on Human Rights highlighting the failure of the legislation to supply adequate safeguards against Articles 2, 3 and 8 incompatibilities. Further, the fact that it is the mentally incapacitated as a class that are thought ripe for these and other kinds of intervention, highlights the Article 14 discrimination inherent in (...)
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  42.  9
    Nicholas John Munn (forthcoming). Capacity Testing the Youth: A Proposal for Broader Enfranchisement. Journal of Youth Studies.
    In this article, I claim that at least some young people have the requisite capacity for political participation, and that the exclusion of these young people is in breach of the reasonable expectation that all capable citizens are included in democratic processes. I suggest implementing a capacity test for those under the current age of majority. I outline a system of capacity testing for the youth, distinguish this proposal from prior attempts to justify capacity testing and (...)
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  43.  2
    Gemma Clarke, Sarah Galbraith, Jeremy Woodward, Anthony Holland & Stephen Barclay (2015). Eating and Drinking Interventions for People at Risk of Lacking Decision-Making Capacity: Who Decides and How? BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-11.
    BackgroundSome people with progressive neurological diseases find they need additional support with eating and drinking at mealtimes, and may require artificial nutrition and hydration. Decisions concerning artificial nutrition and hydration at the end of life are ethically complex, particularly if the individual lacks decision-making capacity. Decisions may concern issues of life and death: weighing the potential for increasing morbidity and prolonging suffering, with potentially shortening life. When individuals lack decision-making capacity, the standard processes of obtaining informed consent for (...)
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  44. Vanessa Carbonell (2013). Interactive Capacity, Decisional Capacity, and a Dilemma for Surrogates. AJOB Neuroscience 4 (4):36-37.
    In “Conscientious of the Conscious: Interactive Capacity as a Threshold Marker for Consciousness” (2013), Fischer and Truog argue that recent studies showing that some patients diagnosed as being in a vegetative state are in fact in a minimally conscious state raise various ethical questions for clinicians and family members. I argue that these findings raise a further ethical dilemma about how and whether to seek the involvement of the minimally conscious person herself in decisions about her care. There may (...)
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  45. Scott Lamont, Cameron Stewart & Mary Chiarella (forthcoming). Documentation of Capacity Assessment and Subsequent Consent in Patients Identified With Delirium. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-9.
    BackgroundDelirium is highly prevalent in the general hospital patient population, characterized by acute onset, fluctuating levels of consciousness, and global impairment of cognitive functioning. Mental capacity, its assessment and subsequent consent are therefore prominent within this cohort, yet under-explored.AimThis study of patients with delirium sought to determine the processes by which consent to medical treatment was attempted, how capacity was assessed, and any subsequent actions thereafter.MethodA retrospective documentation review of patients identified as having a delirium for the twelve (...)
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    Paul M. Fitts (1954). The Information Capacity of the Human Motor System in Controlling the Amplitude of Movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (6):381.
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  47.  14
    Natalie F. Banner (2012). Unreasonable Reasons: Normative Judgements in the Assessment of Mental Capacity. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1038-1044.
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    Torsten Marcus Breden & Jochen Vollmann (2004). The Cognitive Based Approach of Capacity Assessment in Psychiatry: A Philosophical Critique of the MacCAT-T. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 12 (4):273-283.
    This article gives a brief introduction to the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T) and critically examines its theoretical presuppositions. On the basis of empirical, methodological and ethical critique it is emphasised that the cognitive bias that underlies the MacCAT-T assessment needs to be modified. On the one hand it has to be admitted that the operationalisation of competence in terms of value-free categories, e.g. rational decision abilities, guarantees objectivity to a great extent; but on the other hand it bears severe (...)
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    Nicole A. Vincent (2008). Responsibility, Dysfunction and Capacity. Neuroethics 1 (3):199-204.
    The way in which we characterize the structural and functional differences between psychopath and normal brains – either as biological disorders or as mere biological differences – can influence our judgments about psychopaths’ responsibility for criminal misconduct. However, Marga Reimer (Neuroethics 1(2):14, 2008) points out that whether our characterization of these differences should be allowed to affect our judgments in this manner “is a difficult and important question that really needs to be addressed before policies regarding responsibility... can be implemented (...)
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    Richard M. Shiffrin & Gerald T. Gardner (1972). Visual Processing Capacity and Attentional Control. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):72.
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