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Carl F. Cranor [22]Carl Cranor [10]
  1. Carl Cranor (2008). Different Conceptions of Food Labels and Acceptable Risks: Some Contingent/Institutional Considerations in Favor of Labeling. In Paul Weirich (ed.), Labeling Genetically Modified Food: The Philosophical and Legal Debate. Oup Usa.
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  2. Carl F. Cranor (2007). Towards a Non-Consequentialist Approach to Acceptable Risks. In Tim Lewens (ed.), Risk: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge. 36--53.
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  3. Carl F. Cranor (2007). The Use of Empirical Evidence to Assess and Critique Judicial Decisions. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31 (1):1–24.
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  4. Carl F. Cranor (2005). The Science Veil Over Tort Law Policy: How Should Scientific Evidence Be Utilized in Toxic Tort Law? [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 24 (2):139 - 210.
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  5. Carl F. Cranor (2004). Toward Understanding Aspects of the Precautionary Principle. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):259 – 279.
    The idea of a precautionary principle (or precautionary principles) is beginning to come to the wider attention of the environmental community, governmental agencies, regulatory agencies, and the regulated community. Different precautionary principles have not been specified in detail, and, of course, this is difficult to do. Yet some specification must be done in order to understand it better and, if it is to be used for specific action-guidance, to implement it. Moreover, it is important to understand more about the principle, (...)
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  6. Carl F. Cranor (2001). Learning From the Law to Address Uncertainty in the Precautionary Principle. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):313-326.
    Environmentalists have advocated the Precautionary Principle (PP) to help guide public and private decisions about the environment. By contrast, industry and its spokesmen have opposed this. There is not one principle, but many that have been recommended for this purpose. Despite the attractiveness of a core idea in all versions of the principle—that decision-makers should take some precautionary steps to ensure that threats of serious and irreversible damage to the environment and public health do not materialize into harm—even one of (...)
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  7. Carl F. Cranor (2001). Oliver A. Johnson, 1923-2000. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 75 (2):116 - 118.
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  8. Carl F. Cranor (2000). Kenneth R. Foster and Peter W. Huber, Judging Science: Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts:Judging Science: Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts. Ethics 110 (4):829-832.
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  9. Carl F. Cranor (1999). Empirically and Institutionally Rich Legal and Moral Philosophy. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 23 (1):286–311.
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  10. Carl F. Cranor (1998). Howard Margolis, Dealing with Risk: Why the Public and the Experts Disagree on Environmental Issues:Dealing with Risk: Why the Public and the Experts Disagree on Environmental Issues. Ethics 108 (4):830-833.
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  11. Carl F. Cranor (1997). A Philosophy of Risk Assessment and the Law: A Case Study of the Role of Philosophy in Public Policy. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 85 (2-3):135-162.
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  12. Carl Cranor, Helena Eilstein & Adam Grobler (1997). Timothy Childers Undertook His Graduate Studies at the London School, of Economics, and is Employed as a Researcher in the Department of Logic, Institute of Philosophy, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. His Main Interests Center on the Foundations of Probability, with Applications to Methodology and Epistemology. Foundations of Science 2:397-399.
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  13. John Lemons, Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Carl Cranor (1997). The Precautionary Principle: Scientific Uncertainty and Type I and Type II Errors. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 2 (2):207-236.
    We provide examples of the extent and nature of environmental and human health problems and show why in the United States prevailing scientific and legal burden of proof requirements usually cannot be met because of the pervasiveness of scientific uncertainty. We also provide examples of how may assumptions, judgments, evaluations, and inferences in scientific methods are value-laden and that when this is not recognized results of studies will appear to be more factual and value-neutral than warranted. Further, we show that (...)
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  14. Carl Cranor & David Magnus (1996). Are Genes Us? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (3):363.
     
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  15. Carl F. Cranor (1995). Learning From the Law for Regulatory Science. Law and Philosophy 14 (1):115 - 145.
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  16. Carl F. Cranor (1993). Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law. Oxford University Press, Usa.
    In this book, Carl Cranor utilizes material from ethics, philosophy of law, epidemiology, tort law, regulatory law, and risk assessment to argue that the evidentiary standards for science used in the law to control toxics ought to be ...
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  17. Carl F. Cranor (1990). Book Review:The Importance of What We Care About: Philosophical Essays. Harry G. Frankfurt. [REVIEW] Ethics 100 (4):886-.
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  18. Carl F. Cranor (1990). Some Moral Issues in Risk Assessment. Ethics 101 (1):123-143.
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  19. Carl Cranor & Kurt Nutting (1990). Scientific and Legal Standards of Statistical Evidence in Toxic Tort and Discrimination Suits. Law and Philosophy 9 (2):115 - 156.
    Many legal disputes turn on scientific, especially statistical, evidence. Traditionally scientists have accepted only that statistical evidence which satisfies a 95 percent (or 99 percent) rule — that is, only evidence which has less than five percent (or one percent) probability of resulting from chance.The rationale for this rule is the reluctance of scientists to accept anything less than the best-supported new knowledge. The rule reflects the internal needs of scientific practice. However, when uncritically adopted as a rule for admitting (...)
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  20. Carl F. Cranor (1988). Some Public Policy Problems with the Science of Carcinogen Risk Assessment. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:467 - 488.
    Government agencies and private risk assessors use (quasi) scientific risk assessment procedures to try to estimate or predict risk to human health or the environment that might result from exposure to toxic substances in order to take steps to prevent such risks from arising or to eliminate the risks if they already exist. In this paper I discuss several ways in which the "science" of carcinogen risk assessment differs from ordinary scientific enterprises. I also consider several ways in which normative (...)
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  21. Carl F. Cranor (1986). Book Review:Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy: An Anthology. Ferdinand D. Schoeman. [REVIEW] Ethics 96 (3):643-.
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  22. Carl Cranor (1985). Billy Budd and the Duty to Enforce the Law. Philosophy Research Archives 11:245-268.
    Herman Melville’s Billy Budd presents a classic example of a legal official legally required to enforce a law he believes or knows to be unjust. Although there has been considerable discussion of a citizen’s moral duty to obey unjust laws, there has been little consideration of a legalofficial’s duty to enforce unjust laws.In this paper I take the central moral dilemma of the novel -- a legal official’s moral duty to enforce a valid law of a legal system vs. his (...)
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  23. Carl F. Cranor (1985). Collective and Individual Duties to Protect the Environment. Journal of Applied Philosophy 2 (2):243-259.
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  24. Carl F. Cranor (1985). Joint Causation, Torts, and Regulatory Law in Workplace Health Protections. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 2 (4):59-84.
  25. Carl F. Cranor (1983). Bibliographical Essay / the Hart‐Devlin Debate. Criminal Justice Ethics 2 (1):59-65.
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  26. Carl F. Cranor (1983). On Respecting Human Beings as Persons. Journal of Value Inquiry 17 (2):103-117.
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  27. Carl F. Cranor (1982). Limitations on Respect-for-Persons Theories. Tulane Studies in Philosophy 31:45-60.
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  28. Carl Cranor (1980). Kant's Respect-for-Persons Principle. International Studies in Philosophy 12 (2):19-39.
  29. Carl Cranor (1979). Legal Obligation. Social Theory and Practice 5 (2):251-261.
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  30. Carl F. Cranor (1979). Legal Moralism Reconsidered. Ethics 89 (2):147-164.
    In section i, I sketch the main arguments to date for legal moralism, And show the ways in which they are unpersuasive. In sections ii and iii, I sketch and evaluate a seemingly compelling argument, Dependent on the concept of wrongful conduct, For the weak thesis that the immorality of conduct is a reason, But not a sufficient reason for making it illegal. Despite the apparent persuasiveness of this argument, The particular conclusions of the legal moralist, That various non-Harmful immoralities (...)
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  31. Carl Cranor (1978). The Justification of Attitudes. Southern Journal of Philosophy 16 (2):21-33.
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  32. Carl Cranor (1975). Toward a Theory of Respect for Persons. American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (4):309 - 319.
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