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  1. Lenahan L. O’Connell, Carroll U. Stephens, Michael Betz, Jon M. Shepard & Jamie R. Hendry (2005). An Organizational Field Approach to Corporate Rationality: The Role of Stakeholder Activism. Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (1):93-111.
    This paper contends that rationality is more properly evaluated as a property of an organization’s relationships with its stakeholders than of the organization itself. We predicate our approach on the observation that stakeholders can hold goals quite distinct from those of owners and top managers, and these too can be rationally pursued. We build upon stakeholder theory and Weber’s classic distinction between wertrationalitat and zweckrationalitat, adding to them the “new institutionalist” concept of the organization field . Stakeholders employ a variety (...)
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  2. George W. Watson, Jon M. Shepard & Carroll U. Stephens (1999). Fairness and Ideology An Empirical Test of Social Contracts Theory. Business and Society 38 (1):83-108.
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  3. George Watson, Jon M. Shepard, Carroll U. Stephens, Amp & Others) (1999). Ideology and the Economic Social Contract in a Downsizing Environment. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):659-672.
    By combining normative philosophy and empirical social science, we craft a research framework for assessing differential expectations embodied in normative conceptions of the economic social contract in the United States. We argue that there are distinctviews of such a contract grounded in individualist and communitarian philosophical ideologies. We apply this framework to organizational downsizing, postulating that certain human resource practices, in combination with the respective ideological orientations, will affect perceptions of the justice of downsizing policies.Living up to one’s word is (...)
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  4. Arie Y. Lewin, Tomoaki Sakano, Carroll U. Stephens & Bart Victor (1995). Corporate Citizenship in Japan: Survey Results From Japanese Firms. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 14 (2):83 - 101.
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  5. Jon M. Shepard, Jon Shepard, James C. Wimbush & Carroll U. Stephens (1995). The Place of Ethics in Business. Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (3):577-601.
    This article uses concepts from sociology, history, and philosophy to explore the shifting relationship between moral values and business in the Western world. We examine the historical roots and intellectual underpinnings of two major business-society paradigms in ideal-type terms. In pre-industrial Western society, we argue that business activity was linked to society’s values of morality (the moral unity paradigm}-for good or for ill. With the rise of industrialism, we contend that business was freed from moral constraints by the alleged “invisible (...)
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  6. Jon M. Shepard, Jon Shepard, James C. Wimbush & Carroll U. Stephens (1995). The Place of Ethics in Business: Shifting Paradigms? Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (3):577-601.
    This article uses concepts from sociology, history, and philosophy to explore the shifting relationship between moral values and business in the Western world. We examine the historical roots and intellectual underpinnings of two major business-society paradigms in ideal-type terms. In pre-industrial Western society, we argue that business activity was linked to society’s values of morality . Armed with this understanding of the intellectual history of the moral unity and amoral business-society paradigms, we suggest that some variant of the moral unity (...)
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  7. Carroll Underwood Stephens (1994). Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (2):145-155.
    A synthesis of the two theoretical bases of business ethics-normative philosophy and descriptive social science-is called for. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate that to ignore the descriptive aspects of moral behavior is to risk unreal philosophy, and that to ignore the normative aspects is to risk amoral social science. Business ethics is portrayed as a single unified field, in which fact-value distinctions are inappropriate.
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