Search results for 'Categorization' (try it on Scholar)

924 found
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  1.  34
    B. A. C. Saunders & J. van Brakel (1997). Are There Nontrivial Constraints on Colour Categorization? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):167-179.
    In this target article the following hypotheses are discussed: (1) Colour is autonomous: a perceptuolinguistic and behavioural universal. (2) It is completely described by three independent attributes: hue, brightness, and saturation: (3) Phenomenologically and psychophysically there are four unique hues: red, green, blue, and yellow; (4) The unique hues are underpinned by two opponent psychophysical and/or neuronal channels: red/green, blue/yellow. The relevant literature is reviewed. We conclude: (i) Psychophysics and neurophysiology fail to set nontrivial constraints on colour categorization. (ii) (...)
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  2.  41
    Yasmina Jraissati (2013). Proving Universalism Wrong Does Not Prove Relativism Right: Considerations on the Ongoing Color Categorization Debate. Philosophical Psychology (3):1-24.
    For over a century, the question of the relation of language to thought has been extensively discussed in the case of color categorization, where two main views prevail. The relativist view claims that color categories are relative while the universalistic view argues that color categories are universal. Relativists also argue that color categories are linguistically determined, and universalists that they are perceptually determined. Recently, the argument for the perceptual determination of color categorization has been undermined, and the relativist (...)
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  3.  16
    Eric Hauser (2011). Generalization: A Practice of Situated Categorization in Talk. [REVIEW] Human Studies 34 (2):183-198.
    This paper analyzes four instances in talk of generalization about people, that is, of using statements about one or more people as the basis of stating something about a category. Generalization can be seen as a categorization practice which involves a reflexive relationship between the generalized-from person or people and the generalized-to category. One thing that is accomplished through generalization is instruction in how to understand the identity of the generalized-from person or people, so in addition (...)
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  4.  35
    Soonja Choi & Kate Hattrup (2012). Relative Contribution of Perception/Cognition and Language on Spatial Categorization. Cognitive Science 36 (1):102-129.
    This study investigated the relative contribution of perception/cognition and language-specific semantics in nonverbal categorization of spatial relations. English and Korean speakers completed a video-based similarity judgment task involving containment, support, tight fit, and loose fit. Both perception/cognition and language served as resources for categorization, and allocation between the two depended on the target relation and the features contrasted in the choices. Whereas perceptual/cognitive salience for containment and tight-fit features guided categorization in many contexts, language-specific semantics influenced (...) where the two features competed for similarity judgment and when the target relation was tight support, a domain where spatial relations are perceptually diverse. In the latter contexts, each group categorized more in line with semantics of their language, that is, containment/support for English and tight/loose fit for Korean. We conclude that language guides spatial categorization when perception/cognition alone is not sufficient. In this way, language is an integral part of our cognitive domain of space. (shrink)
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  5.  17
    Brett K. Hayes & Bob Rehder (2012). The Development of Causal Categorization. Cognitive Science 36 (6):1102-1128.
    Two experiments examined the impact of causal relations between features on categorization in 5- to 6-year-old children and adults. Participants learned artificial categories containing instances with causally related features and noncausal features. They then selected the most likely category member from a series of novel test pairs. Classification patterns and logistic regression were used to diagnose the presence of independent effects of causal coherence, causal status, and relational centrality. Adult classification was driven primarily by coherence when causal links were (...)
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  6.  18
    Sung-Joo Lim & Lori L. Holt (2011). Learning Foreign Sounds in an Alien World: Videogame Training Improves Non-Native Speech Categorization. Cognitive Science 35 (7):1390-1405.
    Although speech categories are defined by multiple acoustic dimensions, some are perceptually weighted more than others and there are residual effects of native-language weightings in non-native speech perception. Recent research on nonlinguistic sound category learning suggests that the distribution characteristics of experienced sounds influence perceptual cue weights: Increasing variability across a dimension leads listeners to rely upon it less in subsequent category learning (Holt & Lotto, 2006). The present experiment investigated the implications of this among native Japanese learning English /r/-/l/ (...)
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  7.  13
    Yasmina Jraissati (2014). On Color Categorization: Why Do We Name Seven Colors in the Rainbow? Philosophy Compass 9 (6):382-391.
    What makes it the case that we draw the boundary between “blue” and “green” where we draw it? Do we draw this boundary where we draw it because our perceptual system is biologically determined in this way? Or is it culture and language that guide the way we categorize colors? These two possible answers have shaped the historical discussion opposing so-called universalists to relativists. Yet, the most recent theoretical developments on color categorization reveal the limits of such a polarization.
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  8.  8
    Peter Eglin & Stephen Hester (1999). “You're All a Bunch of Feminists:” Categorization and the Politics of Terror in the Montreal Massacre. [REVIEW] Human Studies 22 (2-4):253-272.
    Following Sacks's model membership categorization analysis (MCA) of a suicidal person's conclusion 'I have no one to turn to,' the paper examines in MCA terms a political actor's twin conclusions that murder-suicide is a rational course of action. The case in question is the killer's reasoning in the Montreal Massacre as revealed in his reported announcement at the scene (notably 'You're all a bunch of feminists. I hate feminists') and recovered suicide letter (for example, 'For why persevere to exist (...)
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  9.  17
    Jennifer Summerville & Barbara Adkins (2007). Enrolling the Citizen in Sustainability: Membership Categorization, Morality and Civic Participation. [REVIEW] Human Studies 30 (4):429 - 446.
    This article examines the common-sense and methodical ways in which “the citizen” is produced and enrolled as an active participant in “sustainable” regional planning. Using Membership Categorization Analysis, we explicate how the categorization procedures in the Foreword of a draft regional planning policy interactionally produce the identity of “the citizen” and “civic values and obligations” in relation to geographic place and institutional categories. Furthermore, we show how positioning practices establish a relationship between authors (government) and readers (citizens) where (...)
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  10.  11
    Cornelia Zelinsky-Wibbelt (2000). Discourse and the Continuity of Reference: Representing Mental Categorization. Mouton De Gruyter.
    Chapter Introduction This work deals with two contrasting, but mutually interrelated capabilities of the human mind: reference and categorization. ...
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  11.  99
    Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Color Categorization. In Derek Brown & Fiona Macpherson (eds.), Routledge Handbook on the Philosophy of Colour. Routledge
  12.  19
    Paul Egré, Vincent de Gardelle & David Ripley (2013). Vagueness and Order Effects in Color Categorization. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (4):391-420.
    This paper proposes an experimental investigation of the use of vague predicates in dynamic sorites. We present the results of two studies in which subjects had to categorize colored squares at the borderline between two color categories (Green vs. Blue, Yellow vs. Orange). Our main aim was to probe for hysteresis in the ordered transitions between the respective colors, namely for the longer persistence of the initial category. Our main finding is a reverse phenomenon of enhanced contrast (i.e. negative hysteresis), (...)
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  13.  7
    Bob Rehder (2003). Categorization as Causal Reasoning⋆. Cognitive Science 27 (5):709-748.
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  14. Lena Jayyusi (1984). Categorization and the Moral Order. Routledge & K. Paul.
    INTRODUCTION My underlying concern in this work is with the sociological analysis and description of members' practical activities and their practical ...
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  15.  27
    Benjamin M. Rottman, Dedre Gentner & Micah B. Goldwater (2012). Causal Systems Categories: Differences in Novice and Expert Categorization of Causal Phenomena. Cognitive Science 36 (5):919-932.
    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories—categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content—among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in the (...)
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  16.  4
    Nancy W. Ingling (1972). Categorization: A Mechanism for Rapid Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):239.
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  17.  6
    Valentina Gliozzi, Julien Mayor, Jon‐Fan Hu & Kim Plunkett (2009). Labels as Features (Not Names) for Infant Categorization: A Neurocomputational Approach. Cognitive Science 33 (4):709-738.
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  18.  10
    Michelle C. St Clair, Padraic Monaghan & Michael Ramscar (2009). Relationships Between Language Structure and Language Learning: The Suffixing Preference and Grammatical Categorization. Cognitive Science 33 (7):1317-1329.
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  19.  1
    Caroline Michel, Olivier Corneille & Bruno Rossion (2007). Race Categorization Modulates Holistic Face Encoding. Cognitive Science 31 (5):911-924.
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  20. Shimon Edelman & Sharon Duvdevani-Bar (1997). Similarity-Based Viewspace Interpolation and the Categorization of 3D Objects. In Proc. Edinburgh Workshop on Similarity and Categorization.
    Visual objects can be represented by their similarities to a small number of reference shapes or prototypes. This method yields low-dimensional (and therefore computationally tractable) representations, which support both the recognition of familiar shapes and the categorization of novel ones. In this note, we show how such representations can be used in a variety of tasks involving novel objects: viewpoint-invariant recognition, recovery of a canonical view, estimation of pose, and prediction of an arbitrary view. The unifying principle in all (...)
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  21.  1
    Elizabeth F. Loftus (1973). Category Dominance, Instance Dominance, and Categorization Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):70.
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  22.  5
    Elizabeth F. Loftus & Ronald W. Scheff (1971). Categorization Norms for Fifty Representative Instances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):355.
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  23.  18
    Evan Heit & Stephen P. Nicholson (2010). The Opposite of Republican: Polarization and Political Categorization. Cognitive Science 34 (8):1503-1516.
    Two experiments examined the typicality structure of contrasting political categories. In Experiment 1, two separate groups of participants rated the typicality of 15 individuals, including political figures and media personalities, with respect to the categories Democrat or Republican. The relation between the two sets of ratings was negative, linear, and extremely strong, r = −.9957. Essentially, one category was treated as a mirror image of the other. Experiment 2 replicated this result, showing some boundary conditions, and extending the result to (...)
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  24.  1
    Raymond S. Nickerson (1967). Categorization Time with Categories Defined by Disjunctions and Conjunctions of Stimulus Attributes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):211.
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  25.  2
    Bob McMurray, Joel L. Dennhardt & Andrew Struck‐Marcell (2008). Context Effects on Musical Chord Categorization: Different Forms of Top‐Down Feedback in Speech and Music? Cognitive Science 32 (5):893-920.
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  26.  1
    Janet H. Walker (1973). Pronounceability Effects on Word-Nonword Encoding in Categorization and Recognition Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):318-322.
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  27. Frank Alvarez-Pereyre (ed.) (2008). Catégories Et Catégorisation: Une Perspective Interdisciplinaire. Peeters.
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  28. Robert Thornberg (2008). A Categorisation of School Rules. Educational Studies 34 (1):25-33.
    The aim of this paper is to investigate and describe the content in school rules by developing a category system of school rules, and thus making the logic behind different types of rules in school explicit. Data were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in two primary schools in Sweden. In order to analyse the data, grounded theory methodology was adapted. The analysis resulted in a category system of school rules, containing the following main categories: (a) relational rules, (b) structuring (...)
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  29.  17
    Cilia Witteman & Andreas Glöckner (2011). Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making. Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1-25.
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms have to (...)
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  30.  47
    Andreas Glöckner & Cilia Witteman (2010). Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making. Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1 – 25.
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms have to (...)
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  31.  8
    Jeremy N. Bailenson, Michael S. Shum, Scott Atran, Douglas L. Medin & John D. Coley (2002). A Bird's Eye View: Biological Categorization and Reasoning Within and Across Cultures. Cognition 84 (1):1-53.
    Many psychological studies of categorization and reasoning use undergraduates to make claims about human conceptualization. Generalizability of findings to other populations is often assumed but rarely tested. Even when comparative studies are conducted, it may be challenging to interpret differences. As a partial remedy, in the present studies we adopt a 'triangulation strategy' to evaluate the ways expertise and culturally different belief systems can lead to different ways of conceptualizing the biological world. We use three groups (US bird experts, (...)
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  32. Eric Dietrich (2010). Analogical Insight: Toward Unifying Categorization and Analogy. Cognitive Processing 11 (4):331-.
    The purpose of this paper is to present two kinds of analogical representational change, both occurring early in the analogy-making process, and then, using these two kinds of change, to present a model unifying one sort of analogy-making and categorization. The proposed unification rests on three key claims: (1) a certain type of rapid representational abstraction is crucial to making the relevant analogies (this is the first kind of representational change; a computer model is presented that demonstrates this kind (...)
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  33.  9
    Y. Coello & Y. DelevoYeturrell (2007). Embodiment, Spatial Categorisation and Action. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (3):667-683.
    Despite the subjective experience of a continuous and coherent external world, we will argue that the perception and categorisation of visual space is constrained by the spatial resolution of the sensory systems but also and above all, by the pre-reflective representations of the body in action. Recent empirical data in cognitive neurosciences will be presented that suggest that multidimensional categorisation of perceptual space depends on body representations at both an experiential and a functional level. Results will also be resumed that (...)
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  34.  3
    Paula Rubio-Fernández, Bart Geurts & Chris Cummins (forthcoming). Is an Apple Like a Fruit? A Study on Comparison and Categorisation Statements. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-24.
    Categorisation models of metaphor interpretation are based on the premiss that categorisation statements and comparison statements are fundamentally different types of assertion. Against this assumption, we argue that the difference is merely a quantitative one: ‘x is a y’ unilaterally entails ‘x is like a y’, and therefore the latter is merely weaker than the former. Moreover, if ‘x is like a y’ licenses the inference that x is not a y, then that inference is a scalar implicature. We defend (...)
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  35.  1
    S. John (2014). Patient Preference Predictors, Apt Categorization, and Respect for Autonomy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (2):169-177.
    In this paper, I set out two ethical complications for Rid and Wendler’s proposal that a “Patient Preference Predictor” (PPP) should be used to aid decision making about incapacitated patients’ care. Both of these worries concern how a PPP might categorize patients. In the first section of the paper, I set out some general considerations about the “ethics of apt categorization” within stratified medicine and show how these challenge certain PPPs. In the second section, I argue for a more (...)
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  36.  70
    Stevan Harnad (2005). To Cognize is to Categorize: Cognition is Categorization. In C. Lefebvre & H. Cohen (eds.), Handbook of Categorization. Elsevier
    2. Invariant Sensorimotor Features ("Affordances"). To say this is not to declare oneself a Gibsonian, whatever that means. It is merely to point out that what a sensorimotor system can do is determined by what can be extracted from its motor interactions with its sensory input. If you lack sonar sensors, then your sensorimotor system cannot do what a bat's can do, at least not without the help of instruments. Light stimulation affords color vision for those of us with the (...)
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  37.  41
    George Psathas (1999). Studying the Organization in Action: Membership Categorization and Interaction Analysis. [REVIEW] Human Studies 22 (2-4):139-162.
    A current set of concerns in ethnomethodology and conversation analysis includes the question of how conversation analysis (CA) can deal with studies of social structure or studies of talk in institutional settings.In this paper a focus is placed on how the accomplishment of "work" and "categorization" are interrelated. Two particular instances are examined: a ski school and a package delivery service. Membership categorization is shown to be a complex, on-going, interactive accomplishment. The parties act in ways that are (...)
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  38.  14
    James T. Townsend, Kam M. Silva, Jesse Spencer-Smith & Michael J. Wenger (2000). Exploring the Relations Between Categorization and Decision Making with Regard to Realistic Face Stimuli. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 8 (1):83-105.
    Categorization and decision making are combined in a task with photorealistic faces. Two different types of face stimuli were assigned probabilistically into one of two fictitious groups; based on the category, faces were further probabilistically assigned to be hostile or friendly. In Part I, participants are asked to categorize a face into one of two categories, and to make a decision concerning interaction. A Markov model of categorization followed by decision making provides reasonable fits to Part I data. (...)
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  39.  13
    David Nicolas (2002). La Catégorisation des Noms Communs: Massifs Et Comptables. In Catégorisation et langage. Hermès
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  40.  21
    Reese M. Heitner (2004). The Cyclical Ontogeny of Ontology: An Integrated Developmental Account of Object and Speech Categorization. Philosophical Psychology 17 (1):45 – 57.
    More than a decade of experimental research confirms that external linguistic information provided in the form of word labels can induce a "mutually exclusive" bias against double naming and lead children to infer the name of novel objects and parts. Linguistic labels have also been shown to encourage more sophisticated reasoning, particularly with respect to superordinate and atypical object categorization. By contrast, however, the inverse possibility that the linguistic labeling of basic-level objects may also developmentally support the kind of (...)
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  41.  1
    Douglas L. Berger (2016). Categorisation in Indian Philosophy: Thinking Inside the Box Ed. By Jessica Frazier. Philosophy East and West 66 (2):655-660.
    In Categorisation in Indian Philosophy: Thinking Inside the Box, Jessica Frazier has brought together an impressive array of scholars who have contributed nine essays, plus an introductory and concluding chapter, both written by her, which collectively provide a most fruitful perspective for examining classical South Asian traditions of thought. Creating categorial frameworks was certainly a prolific activity among the ancient and medieval authors of the darśanas, and indeed these authors drew heavily from pre-scholastic texts and language to (...)
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  42.  20
    Scott Atran, Douglas I. Medin & Norbert Ross (2002). Thinking About Biology. Modular Constraints on Categorization and Reasoning in the Everyday Life of Americans, Maya, and Scientists. Mind and Society 3 (2):31-63.
    This essay explores the universal cognitive bases of biological taxonomy and taxonomic inference using cross-cultural experimental work with urbanized Americans and forest-dwelling Maya Indians. A universal, essentialist appreciation of generic species appears as the causal foundation for the taxonomic arrangement of biodiversity, and for inference about the distribution of causally-related properties that underlie biodiversity. Universal folkbiological taxonomy is domain-specific: its structure does not spontaneously or invariably arise in other cognitive domains, like substances, artifacts or persons. It is plausibly an innately-determined (...)
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  43.  25
    Bence Nanay (2013). Artifact Categorization and the Modal Theory of Artifact Function. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):515-526.
    Philosophers and psychologists widely hold that artifact categories – just like biological categories – are individuated by their function. But recent empirical findings in psychology question this assumption. My proposal is to suggest a way of squaring these findings with the central role function should play in individuating artifact categories. But in order to do so, we need to give up on the standard account of artifact function, according to which function is fixed by design, and replace it with a (...)
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  44.  2
    Jeffrey Stibel (2006). Categorization and Technology Innovation. Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):343-356.
    Theories on categorization have led to numerous technical innovations. Starting with artificial intelligence and neural models, scientists have leveraged psychological theories to drive forward innovative technology. More recently, software companies and Internet firms have implemented high technology software developed from cognitive theory. One class of systems rooted in the philosophical tradition stresses the importance of explanation and function. Another focuses on feature similarity and rule-based reasoning. Both approaches have had modest success and solve fundamental problems, but neither has achieved (...)
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  45.  15
    Alessandro Giovannelli (2013). Ethicism, Particularism, and Artistic Categorization. Ethical Perspectives 20 (3):375-401.
    In this paper, I critically examine Berys Gaut’s proposals regarding ethical criticism, that is, regarding the question of whether, and if so how, an ethical evaluation of a work of art can be considered amongst the determinants of the work’s value as art. I critically examine Gaut’s proposed taxonomy on the possible positions on the ethical criticism question as well as his own influential answer to such question: ethicism. My critique focuses on one missing element, I argue, in Gaut’s overall (...)
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  46.  20
    Sara Dellantonio, Claudio Mulatti & Remo Job (2013). Artifact and Tool Categorization. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):407-418.
    This study addresses the issue of artifact kinds from a psychological and cognitive perspective. The primary interest of the investigation lies in understanding how artifacts are categorized and what are the properties people rely on for their identification. According to a classical philosophical definition artifacts form an autonomous class of instances including all and only those objects that do not exist in nature, but are artificial, in the sense that they are made by an artĭfex. This definition suggests that artifacts (...)
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  47.  9
    Elisabetta Zibetti, Vicenç Quera, Charles Tijus & Francesc Salvador Beltran (2001). Reasoning Based on Categorisation for Interpreting and Acting: A First Approach. Mind and Society 2 (2):87-104.
    Taking a detour to reach a goal is intelligent behavior based on making inferences. The main purpose of the present research is to show how such apparently complex behavior can emerge from basic mechanisms such as contextual categorisation and goal attribution when perceiving people. We presentacacia (Action by Contextually Automated Categorising Interactive Agents), a computer model implemented using StarLogo software, grounded in the principles of Artificial Life (Al), capable of simulating the behavior of a group of agents with a goal (...)
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  48.  3
    Marco LiCalzi & Nadia Maagli (2016). Bargaining Over a Common Categorisation. Synthese 193 (3):705-723.
    Two agents endowed with different categorisations engage in bargaining to reach an understanding and agree on a common categorisation. We model the process as a simple non-cooperative game and demonstrate three results. When the initial disagreement is focused, the bargaining process has a zero-sum structure. When the disagreement is widespread, the zero-sum structure disappears and the unique equilibrium requires a retraction of consensus: two agents who individually associate a region with the same category end up rebranding it under a different (...)
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  49.  17
    Professor Ronaldo Vigo & Colin Allen, How to Reason Without Words: Inference as Categorization.
    The idea that reasoning is a singular accomplishment of the human species has an ancient pedigree.Yet this idea remains as controversial as it is ancient. Those who would deny reasoning to nonhuman animals typically hold a language-based conception of inference which places it beyond the reach of languageless creatures. Others reject such an anthropocentric conception of reasoning on the basis of similar performance by humans and animals in some reasoning tasks, such as transitive inference. Here, building on the modal similarity (...)
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  50.  6
    Colin Allen (2013). Cross-Cutting Categorization Schemes in the Digital Humanities. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 104:573-583.
    Digital access to large amounts of scholarly text presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers in the humanities. Meeting these challenges depends on having high-quality representations of the contents of digital resources suitable for both machines and humans to use. Different ways of categorizing these contents are appropriate for different purposes, leading to the further problem of relating the contents of different categorization schemes to each other. This essay discusses the rationale for categorizing philosophical concepts and surveys some of (...)
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