Search results for 'Categorization (Psychology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  1
    Robert N. McCauley (1986). Truth, Epistemic Ideals and the Psychology of Categorization. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:198 - 207.
    Recent theoretical work on the psychology of categorization emphasizes the role cognitive constructs play in perception and categorization. This approach supports Putnam's rejection of metaphysical realism. However, the experimental findings concerning basic level categories, in particular, suggest that robust stabilitites among our systems of empirical concepts persist in the face of considerable theoretical diversity and change. These stabilities undermine Putnam's strongest negative conclusions concerning the correspondence theory of truth (once it is uncoupled from metaphysical realism). The centrality of (...)
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  2.  3
    Nick Chater (1993). Categorization, Theories and Folk Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):37.
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  3.  10
    László Garai & Margit Köcski (1991). Positivist and Hermeneutic Principles in Psychology: Activity and Social Categorisation. Studies in East European Thought 42 (2):123-135.
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  4.  11
    Cornelia Zelinsky-Wibbelt (2000). Discourse and the Continuity of Reference: Representing Mental Categorization. Mouton De Gruyter.
    Chapter Introduction This work deals with two contrasting, but mutually interrelated capabilities of the human mind: reference and categorization. ...
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  5. Lena Jayyusi (1984). Categorization and the Moral Order. Routledge & K. Paul.
    INTRODUCTION My underlying concern in this work is with the sociological analysis and description of members' practical activities and their practical ...
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  6.  83
    David Morrow (2009). Moral Psychology and the Mencian Creature. Philosophical Psychology 22 (3):281-304.
    Recent work in various branches of philosophy has reinvigorated debate over the psychology behind moral judgment. Using Marc Hauser's categorization of theories as “Kantian,” “Humean,” or “Rawlsian” to frame the discussion, I argue that the existing evidence weighs against the Kantian model and partly in favor of both the Humean and the Rawlsian models. Emotions do play a causal role in the formation of our moral judgments, as the Humean model claims, but there are also unconscious principles shaping our (...)
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  7.  16
    Alexander Haslam, Tom Postmes & Jolanda Jetten (2004). Beyond Balance: To Understand “Bias,” Social Psychology Needs to Address Issues of Politics, Power, and Social Perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):341-342.
    Krueger & Funder's (K&F's) diagnosis of social psychology's obsession with bias is correct and accords with similar observations by self-categorization theorists. However, the analysis of causes is incomplete and suggestions for cures are flawed. The primary problem is not imbalance, but a failure to acknowledge that social reality has different forms, depending on one's social and political vantage point in relation to a specific social context.
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  8.  27
    Bence Nanay (2013). Artifact Categorization and the Modal Theory of Artifact Function. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):515-526.
    Philosophers and psychologists widely hold that artifact categories – just like biological categories – are individuated by their function. But recent empirical findings in psychology question this assumption. My proposal is to suggest a way of squaring these findings with the central role function should play in individuating artifact categories. But in order to do so, we need to give up on the standard account of artifact function, according to which function is fixed by design, and replace it with a (...)
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  9. Francis Rousseaux (2007). Classer Ou Collectionner?: Réconcilier Scientifiques Et Collectionneurs. Academia Bruylant.
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  10.  42
    Yasmina Jraissati (2013). Proving Universalism Wrong Does Not Prove Relativism Right: Considerations on the Ongoing Color Categorization Debate. Philosophical Psychology (3):1-24.
    For over a century, the question of the relation of language to thought has been extensively discussed in the case of color categorization, where two main views prevail. The relativist view claims that color categories are relative while the universalistic view argues that color categories are universal. Relativists also argue that color categories are linguistically determined, and universalists that they are perceptually determined. Recently, the argument for the perceptual determination of color categorization has been undermined, and the relativist (...)
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  11.  18
    Stephen Vider (2004). Rethinking Crowd Violence: Self-Categorization Theory and the Woodstock 1999 Riot. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (2):141–166.
    According to self-categorization theory , incidents of crowd violence can be understood as discrete forms of social action, limited by the crowd's social identity. Through an analysis of the riot at Woodstock 1999, this paper explores the uses and limitations of SCT in order to reach a more complex psychology of crowd behavior, particularly those instances that appear unmotivated, irrational, and destructive. Psychological and sociological literature are synthesized to explore the role of communication in establishing social norms within the (...)
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  12. Andrew J. Elliot, Mark D. Fairchild & Anna Franklin (eds.) (2015). Handbook of Color Psychology. Cambridge University Press.
    We perceive color everywhere and on everything that we encounter in daily life. Color science has progressed to the point where a great deal is known about the mechanics, evolution, and development of color vision, but less is known about the relation between color vision and psychology. However, color psychology is now a burgeoning, exciting area and this Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of emerging theory and research. Top scholars in the field provide rigorous overviews of work on color categorization, (...)
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  13.  12
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1981). Categories, Life, and Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):269.
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  14. Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto (2013). Dealing with Concepts: From Cognitive Psychology to Knowledge Representation. Frontiers of Psychological and Behevioural Science 2 (3):96-106.
    Concept representation is still an open problem in the field of ontology engineering and, more generally, of knowledge representation. In particular, the issue of representing “non classical” concepts, i.e. concepts that cannot be defined in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, remains unresolved. In this paper we review empirical evidence from cognitive psychology, according to which concept representation is not a unitary phenomenon. On this basis, we sketch some proposals for concept representation, taking into account suggestions from psychological research. In (...)
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  15.  4
    Nancy W. Ingling (1972). Categorization: A Mechanism for Rapid Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):239.
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  16.  92
    Matthew Nudds (2001). Common-Sense and Scientific Psychology. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):171-180.
    In this paper I discuss the circumstances in which it would be right to revise a common-sense psychological categorisation -- such as the common-sense categorisation of emotions -- in the light of the results of empirical investigation. I argue that an answer to that question, familiar from eliminitivist arguments, should be rejected, and suggest that the issue turns on the ontological commitments of the explanations that common-sense psychological states enter into.
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  17.  1
    Elizabeth F. Loftus (1973). Category Dominance, Instance Dominance, and Categorization Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):70.
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  18.  5
    Elizabeth F. Loftus & Ronald W. Scheff (1971). Categorization Norms for Fifty Representative Instances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):355.
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  19.  1
    Raymond S. Nickerson (1967). Categorization Time with Categories Defined by Disjunctions and Conjunctions of Stimulus Attributes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):211.
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  20.  1
    Janet H. Walker (1973). Pronounceability Effects on Word-Nonword Encoding in Categorization and Recognition Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):318-322.
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  21. Marco Mirolli (2011). Towards a Vygotskyan Cognitive Robotics: The Role of Language as a Cognitive Tool. New Ideas in Psychology 29:298-311.
    Cognitive Robotics can be defined as the study of cognitive phenomena by their modeling in physical artifacts such as robots. This is a very lively and fascinating field which has already given fundamental contributions to our understanding of natural cognition. Nonetheless, robotics has to date addressed mainly very basic, low­level cognitive phenomena like sensory­motor coordination, perception, and navigation, and it is not clear how the current approach might scale up to explain high­level human cognition. In this paper we argue that (...)
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  22.  4
    Emmanuel M. Pothos & Nick Chater (2002). A Simplicity Principle in Unsupervised Human Categorization. Cognitive Science 26 (3):303-343.
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  23.  5
    Paula Rubio-Fernández, Bart Geurts & Chris Cummins (forthcoming). Is an Apple Like a Fruit? A Study on Comparison and Categorisation Statements. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-24.
    Categorisation models of metaphor interpretation are based on the premiss that categorisation statements and comparison statements are fundamentally different types of assertion. Against this assumption, we argue that the difference is merely a quantitative one: ‘x is a y’ unilaterally entails ‘x is like a y’, and therefore the latter is merely weaker than the former. Moreover, if ‘x is like a y’ licenses the inference that x is not a y, then that inference is a scalar implicature. We defend (...)
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  24.  21
    Reese M. Heitner (2004). The Cyclical Ontogeny of Ontology: An Integrated Developmental Account of Object and Speech Categorization. Philosophical Psychology 17 (1):45 – 57.
    More than a decade of experimental research confirms that external linguistic information provided in the form of word labels can induce a "mutually exclusive" bias against double naming and lead children to infer the name of novel objects and parts. Linguistic labels have also been shown to encourage more sophisticated reasoning, particularly with respect to superordinate and atypical object categorization. By contrast, however, the inverse possibility that the linguistic labeling of basic-level objects may also developmentally support the kind of (...)
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  25.  25
    Sara Dellantonio, Claudio Mulatti & Remo Job (2013). Artifact and Tool Categorization. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):407-418.
    This study addresses the issue of artifact kinds from a psychological and cognitive perspective. The primary interest of the investigation lies in understanding how artifacts are categorized and what are the properties people rely on for their identification. According to a classical philosophical definition artifacts form an autonomous class of instances including all and only those objects that do not exist in nature, but are artificial, in the sense that they are made by an artĭfex. This definition suggests that artifacts (...)
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  26.  16
    Stefano Borgo, Noemi Spagnoletti, Laure Vieu & Elisabetta Visalberghi (2013). Artifact and Artifact Categorization: Comparing Humans and Capuchin Monkeys. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):375-389.
    We aim to show that far-related primates like humans and the capuchin monkeys show interesting correspondences in terms of artifact characterization and categorization. We investigate this issue by using a philosophically-inspired definition of physical artifact which, developed for human artifacts, turns out to be applicable for cross-species comparison. In this approach an artifact is created when an entity is intentionally selected and some capacities attributed to it (often characterizing a purpose). Behavioral studies suggest that this notion of artifact is (...)
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  27.  21
    William Bechtel (1988). Studies of Categorization: A Review Essay of Neisser's 'Concepts and Conceptual Development' and Hamad's 'Categorical Perception'. Philosophical Psychology 1 (3):381-389.
    Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization ULRIC NEISSER, 1987 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press x+384 pp., $39.50 Categorical Perception STEVAN HARNAD, 1987 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press x+599 pp., $59.50.
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  28.  16
    John Jung Park (2015). The Theory-Theory of Moral Concepts. Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 3 (2).
    There are many views about the structure of concepts, a plausible one of which is the theory-theory. Though this view is plausible for concrete concepts, it is unclear that it would work for abstract concepts, and then for moral concepts. The goal of this paper is to provide a plausible theory-theory account for moral concepts and show that it is supported by results in the moral psychology literature. Such studies in moral psychology do not explicitly contend for the theory-theory of (...)
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  29.  42
    Emmanuel M. Pothos (2005). The Rules Versus Similarity Distinction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):1-14.
    The distinction between rules and similarity is central to our understanding of much of cognitive psychology. Two aspects of existing research have motivated the present work. First, in different cognitive psychology areas we typically see different conceptions of rules and similarity; for example, rules in language appear to be of a different kind compared to rules in categorization. Second, rules processes are typically modeled as separate from similarity ones; for example, in a learning experiment, rules and similarity influences would (...)
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  30. William Ramsey (1992). Prototypes and Conceptual Analysis. Topoi 11 (1):59-70.
    In this paper, I explore the implications of recent empirical research on concept representation for the philosophical enterprise of conceptual analysis. I argue that conceptual analysis, as it is commonly practiced, is committed to certain assumptions about the nature of our intuitive categorization judgments. I then try to show how these assumptions clash with contemporary accounts of concept representation in cognitive psychology. After entertaining an objection to my argument, I close by considering ways in which conceptual analysis might be (...)
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  31.  10
    Rom Harré (2002). Cognitive Science: A Philosophical Introduction. Sage Publications.
    This is the first major textbook to offer a truly comprehensive review of cognitive science in its fullest sense. Ranging across artificial intelligence models and cognitive psychology through to recent discursive and cultural theories Rom Harre offers a breathtakingly original yet accessible integration of the field. At its core this textbook addresses the question "is psychology a science?" with a clear account of scientific method and explanation and their bearing on psychological research. A pivotal figure in psychology and philosophy for (...)
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  32.  10
    John K. Kruschke (2008). Models of Categorization. In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press 267--301.
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  33.  2
    Peter Juslin, Henrik Olsson & Anna-Carin Olsson (2003). Exemplar Effects in Categorization and Multiple-Cue Judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (1):133.
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  34.  51
    Massimiliano Carrara & Daria Mingardo (2013). Artifact Categorization. Trends and Problems. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):351-373.
    The general question (G) How do we categorize artifacts? can be subject to three different readings: an ontological, an epistemic and a semantic one. According to the ontological reading, asking (G) is equivalent to asking in virtue of what properties, if any, a certain artifact is an instance of some artifact kind: (O) What is it for an artifact a to belong to kind K? According to the epistemic reading, when we ask (G) we are investigating what properties of the (...)
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  35. Jussi Jylkkä (2008). Concepts and Reference: Defending a Dual Theory of Natural Kind Concepts. Dissertation, University of Turku
    In this thesis I argue that the psychological study of concepts and categorisation, and the philosophical study of reference are deeply intertwined. I propose that semantic intuitions are a variety of categorisation judgements, determined by concepts, and that because of this, concepts determine reference. I defend a dual theory of natural kind concepts, according to which natural kind concepts have distinct semantic cores and non-semantic identification procedures. Drawing on psychological essentialism, I suggest that the cores consist of externalistic placeholder essence (...)
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  36. Koen Lamberts (1995). Categorization Under Time Pressure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124 (2):161.
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  37.  1
    Aldo Cimino & Andrew W. Delton (2010). On the Perception of Newcomers. Human Nature 21 (2):186-202.
    Human coalitions frequently persist through multiple, overlapping membership generations, requiring new members to cooperate and coordinate with veteran members. Does the mind contain psychological adaptations for interacting within these intergenerational coalitions? In this paper, we examine whether the mind spontaneously treats newcomers as a motivationally privileged category. Newcomers—though capable of benefiting coalitions—may also impose considerable costs (e.g., they may free ride on other members, they may be poor at completing group tasks). In three experiments we show (1) that the mind (...)
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  38.  3
    Edward J. Wisniewski (2002). Concepts and Categorization. In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley
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  39.  10
    Radek Ocelák (2016). “Categorical Perception” and Linguistic Categorization of Color. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):55-70.
    This paper offers a conceptual clarification of the phenomenon commonly referred to as categorical perception of color, both in adults and in infants. First, I argue against the common notion of categorical perception as involving a distortion of the perceptual color space. The effects observed in the categorical perception research concern categorical discrimination performance and the underlying processing; they need not directly reflect the relations of color similarity and difference. Moreover, the methodology of the research actually presupposes that the relations (...)
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  40.  30
    Corrado Roversi, Anna M. Borghi & Luca Tummolini (2013). A Marriage is an Artefact and Not a Walk That We Take Together: An Experimental Study on the Categorization of Artefacts. [REVIEW] Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):527-542.
    Artefacts are usually understood in contrast with natural kinds and conceived as a unitary kind. Here we propose that there is in fact a variety of artefacts: from the more concrete to the more abstract ones. Moreover, not every artefact is able to fulfil its function thanks to its physical properties: Some artefacts, particularly what we call “institutional” artefacts, are symbolic in nature and require a system of rules to exist and to fulfil their function. Adopting a standard method to (...)
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  41.  4
    F. Gregory Ashby, Elliott M. Waldron, W. William Lee & Amelia Berkman (2001). Suboptimality in Human Categorization and Identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (1):77.
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  42.  26
    William C. Hoffman (2001). Group Theory and Geometric Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):674-676.
    The commentary is in general agreement with Roger Shepard's view of evolutionary internalization of certain procedural memories, but advocates the use of Lie groups to express the invariances of motion and color perception involved. For categorization, the dialectical pair is suggested. [Barlow; Hecht; Kubovy & Epstein; Schwartz; Shepard; Todorovic].
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  43.  4
    Edward E. Smith (1967). Effects of Familiarity on Stimulus Recognition and Categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (3):324-332.
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  44.  1
    Mary J. Lewellen, Stephen D. Goldinger, David B. Pisoni & Beth G. Greene (1993). Lexical Familiarity and Processing Efficiency: Individual Differences in Naming, Lexical Decision, and Semantic Categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122 (3):316.
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  45.  31
    Guillaume Beaulac (2014). Language, Mind, and Cognitive Science: Remarks on Theories of the Language-Cognition Relationships in Human Minds. Dissertation, University of Western Ontario
    My dissertation establishes the basis for a systematic outlook on the role language plays in human cognition. It is an investigation based on a cognitive conception of language, as opposed to communicative conceptions, viz. those that suppose that language plays no role in cognition. I focus, in Chapter 2, on three paradigmatic theories adopting this perspective, each offering different views on how language contributes to or changes cognition. -/- In Chapter 3, I criticize current views held by dual-process theorists, and (...)
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  46. Assaf Botzer, Joachim Meyer & Yisrael Parmet (2013). Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (1):39.
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  47.  18
    Pawel Garbacz (2013). Artefacts and Family Resemblance. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):419-447.
    I develop in this paper a conception of artefacts based on L. Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblance. My approach peruses the notion of frame, which was invented in cognitive psychology as an operationisable extension of this philosophical idea. Following the metaphor of life-cycle I show how this schematic notion of frame may be filled with the content relevant for artefacts if we consider them from the point of view of their histories. The resulting conception of artefacts provides a new insight (...)
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  48.  16
    Hector MacIntyre (2013). Category Cognition and Dennett's Design Stance. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):483-495.
    Vaesen and van Amerongen (Philosophical Psychology 21:779-797, 2008) criticize Dennett’s design stance, arguing that as a cognitive thesis about artifact categorization, it is falsified by empirical findings. I assess their criticism in light of both further results and alternate findings the authors acknowledge (but did not discuss in detail). I argue that the design stance still stands in virtue of the conflicting character of these findings, and suggest shifting the domain of empirical scrutiny.
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  49. M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.) (1998). Rational Models of Cognition. Oxford University Press Uk.
    This book explores a new approach to understanding the human mind - rational analysis - that regards thinking as a facility adapted to the structure of the world. This approach is most closely associated with the work of John R Anderson, who published the original book on rational analysis in 1990. Since then, a great deal of work has been carried out in a number of laboratories around the world, and the aim of this book is to bring this work (...)
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  50. Mikkel Gerken (2012). On the Cognitive Bases of Knowledge Ascriptions. In Jessica Brown & Mikkel Gerken (eds.), Knowledge Ascriptions. Oxford University Press
    I develop an epistemic focal bias account of certain patterns of judgments about knowledge ascriptions by integrating it with a general dual process framework of human cognition. According to the focal bias account, judgments about knowledge ascriptions are generally reliable but systematically fallible because the cognitive processes that generate them are affected by what is in focus. I begin by considering some puzzling patters of judgments about knowledge ascriptions and sketch how a basic focal bias account seeks to account for (...)
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