Search results for 'Catherine Craver-Lemley' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  58
    Martha E. Arterberry, Catherine Craver-Lemley & Adam Reeves (2002). Visual Imagery is Not Always Like Visual Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):183-184.
    The “Perky effect” is the interference of visual imagery with vision. Studies of this effect show that visual imagery has more than symbolic properties, but these properties differ both spatially (including “pictorially”) and temporally from those of vision. We therefore reject both the literal picture-in-the-head view and the entirely symbolic view.
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  2. Carl F. Craver (2007). Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.
    Carl Craver investigates what we are doing when we sue neuroscience to explain what's going on in the brain.
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  3. Carl F. Craver (2014). The Ontic Account of Scientific Explanation. In Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver R. Scholz, Daniel Plenge & Andreas Hüttemann (eds.), Explanation in the Special Sciences: The Case of Biology and History. Springer Netherlands 27-52.
    According to one large family of views, scientific explanations explain a phenomenon (such as an event or a regularity) by subsuming it under a general representation, model, prototype, or schema (see Bechtel, W., & Abrahamsen, A. (2005). Explanation: A mechanist alternative. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 36(2), 421–441; Churchland, P. M. (1989). A neurocomputational perspective: The nature of mind and the structure of science. Cambridge: MIT Press; Darden (2006); Hempel, C. G. (1965). Aspects of scientific (...)
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  4. Carl F. Craver (2009). Explaining the Brain. OUP Oxford.
    Carl F. Craver investigates what we are doing when we use neuroscience to explain what's going on in the brain. When does an explanation succeed and when does it fail? Craver offers explicit standards for successful explanation of the workings of the brain, on the basis of a systematic view about what neuroscientific explanations are.
     
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  5. Peter K. Machamer, Lindley Darden & Carl F. Craver (2000). Thinking About Mechanisms. Philosophy of Science 67 (1):1-25.
    The concept of mechanism is analyzed in terms of entities and activities, organized such that they are productive of regular changes. Examples show how mechanisms work in neurobiology and molecular biology. Thinking in terms of mechanisms provides a new framework for addressing many traditional philosophical issues: causality, laws, explanation, reduction, and scientific change.
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  6. Gualtiero Piccinini & Carl Craver (2011). Integrating Psychology and Neuroscience: Functional Analyses as Mechanism Sketches. Synthese 183 (3):283-311.
    We sketch a framework for building a unified science of cognition. This unification is achieved by showing how functional analyses of cognitive capacities can be integrated with the multilevel mechanistic explanations of neural systems. The core idea is that functional analyses are sketches of mechanisms , in which some structural aspects of a mechanistic explanation are omitted. Once the missing aspects are filled in, a functional analysis turns into a full-blown mechanistic explanation. By this process, functional analyses are seamlessly integrated (...)
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  7. Carl F. Craver & William Bechtel (2007). Top-Down Causation Without Top-Down Causes. Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):547-563.
    We argue that intelligible appeals to interlevel causes (top-down and bottom-up) can be understood, without remainder, as appeals to mechanistically mediated effects. Mechanistically mediated effects are hybrids of causal and constitutive relations, where the causal relations are exclusively intralevel. The idea of causation would have to stretch to the breaking point to accommodate interlevel causes. The notion of a mechanistically mediated effect is preferable because it can do all of the required work without appealing to mysterious interlevel causes. When interlevel (...)
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  8. Carl F. Craver (2006). When Mechanistic Models Explain. Synthese 153 (3):355-376.
    Not all models are explanatory. Some models are data summaries. Some models sketch explanations but leave crucial details unspecified or hidden behind filler terms. Some models are used to conjecture a how-possibly explanation without regard to whether it is a how-actually explanation. I use the Hodgkin and Huxley model of the action potential to illustrate these ways that models can be useful without explaining. I then use the subsequent development of the explanation of the action potential to show what is (...)
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  9. Carl F. Craver (2001). Role Functions, Mechanisms, and Hierarchy. Philosophy of Science 68 (1):53-74.
    Many areas of science develop by discovering mechanisms and role functions. Cummins' (1975) analysis of role functions-according to which an item's role function is a capacity of that item that appears in an analytic explanation of the capacity of some containing system-captures one important sense of "function" in the biological sciences and elsewhere. Here I synthesize Cummins' account with recent work on mechanisms and causal/mechanical explanation. The synthesis produces an analysis of specifically mechanistic role functions, one that uses the characteristic (...)
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  10. Carl F. Craver (2009). Mechanisms and Natural Kinds. Philosophical Psychology 22 (5):575-594.
    It is common to defend the Homeostatic Property Cluster ( HPC ) view as a third way between conventionalism and essentialism about natural kinds ( Boyd , 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999; Griffiths , 1997, 1999; Keil , 2003; Kornblith , 1993; Wilson , 1999, 2005; Wilson , Barker , & Brigandt , forthcoming ). According to the HPC view, property clusters are not merely conventionally clustered together; the co-occurrence of properties in the cluster is sustained by a similarity generating ( (...)
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  11. Carl F. Craver (2005). Beyond Reduction: Mechanisms, Multifield Integration and the Unity of Neuroscience. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):373-395.
    Philosophers of neuroscience have traditionally described interfield integration using reduction models. Such models describe formal inferential relations between theories at different levels. I argue against reduction and for a mechanistic model of interfield integration. According to the mechanistic model, different fields integrate their research by adding constraints on a multilevel description of a mechanism. Mechanistic integration may occur at a given level or in the effort to build a theory that oscillates among several levels. I develop this alternative model using (...)
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  12. Carl F. Craver (2002). Interlevel Experiments and Multilevel Mechanisms in the Neuroscience of Memory. Philosophy of Science Supplemental Volume 69 (3):S83-S97.
    The dominant neuroscientific theory of spatial memory is, like many theories in neuroscience, a multilevel description of a mechanism. The theory links the activities of molecules, cells, brain regions, and whole organisms into an integrated sketch of an explanation for the ability of organisms to navigate novel environments. Here I develop a taxonomy of interlevel experimental strategies for integrating the levels in such multilevel mechanisms. These experimental strategies include activation strategies, interference strategies, and additive strategies. These strategies are mutually reinforcing, (...)
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  13.  12
    Carl F. Craver & Lindley Darden (2001). Discovering Mechanisms in Neurobiology: The Case of Spatial Memory. In P.K. Machamer, Rick Grush & Peter McLaughlin (eds.), Theory and Method in Neuroscience. Pittsburgh: University of Pitt Press 112--137.
  14.  23
    Lindley Darden & Carl Craver (2002). Strategies in the Interfield Discovery of the Mechanism of Protein Synthesis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (1):1-28.
    In the 1950s and 1960s, an interfield interaction between molecular biologists and biochemists integrated important discoveries about the mechanism of protein synthesis. This extended discovery episode reveals two general reasoning strategies for eliminating gaps in descriptions of the productive continuity of mechanisms: schema instantiation and forward chaining/backtracking. Schema instantiation involves filling roles in an overall framework for the mechanism. Forward chaining and backtracking eliminate gaps using knowledge about types of entities and their activities. Attention to mechanisms highlights salient features of (...)
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  15.  70
    Carl F. Craver (2008). Physical Law and Mechanistic Explanation in the Hodgkin and Huxley Model of the Action Potential. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):1022-1033.
    Hodgkin and Huxley’s model of the action potential is an apparent dream case of covering‐law explanation in biology. The model includes laws of physics and chemistry that, coupled with details about antecedent and background conditions, can be used to derive features of the action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley insist that their model is not an explanation. This suggests either that subsuming a phenomenon under physical laws is insufficient to explain it or that Hodgkin and Huxley were wrong. I defend Hodgkin (...)
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  16.  65
    Carl F. Craver & Anna Alexandrova (2008). No Revolution Necessary: Neural Mechanisms for Economics. Economics and Philosophy 24 (3):381-406.
    We argue that neuroeconomics should be a mechanistic science. We defend this view as preferable both to a revolutionary perspective, according to which classical economics is eliminated in favour of neuroeconomics, and to a classical economic perspective, according to which economics is insulated from facts about psychology and neuroscience. We argue that, like other mechanistic sciences, neuroeconomics will earn its keep to the extent that it either reconfigures how economists think about decision-making or how neuroscientists think about brain mechanisms underlying (...)
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  17.  82
    Carl Craver (2007). Constitutive Explanatory Relevance. Journal of Philosophical Research 32:3-20.
    In what sense are the activities and properties of components in a mechanism explanatorily relevant to the behavior of a mechanism as a whole? I articulate this problem, the problem of constitutive relevance, and I show that it must be solved if we are to understand mechanisms and mechanistic explanation. I argue against some putative solutions to the problem of constitutive relevance, and I sketch a positive account according to which relevance is analyzed in terms ofrelationships of mutual manipulability between (...)
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  18.  64
    Carl F. Craver (2003). The Making of a Memory Mechanism. Journal of the History of Biology 36 (1):153-95.
    Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a kind of synaptic plasticity that many contemporary neuroscientists believe is a component in mechanisms of memory. This essay describes the discovery of LTP and the development of the LTP research program. The story begins in the 1950's with the discovery of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus (a medial temporal lobe structure now associated with memory), and it ends in 1973 with the publication of three papers sketching the future course of the LTP research program. The (...)
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  19. Carl Craver, Why the Hodgkin and Huxely Model Does Not Explain the Action Potential.
    Hodgkin and Huxley’s 1952 model of the action potential is an apparent dream case of covering-law explanation. The model appeals to general laws of physics and chemistry (specifically, Ohm’s law and the Nernst equation), and the laws, coupled with details about antecedent and background conditions, entail many of the significant properties of the action potential. However, Hodgkin and Huxley insist that their model falls short of an explanation. This historical fact suggests either that there is more to explaining the action (...)
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  20.  69
    Carl F. Craver & Sarah K. Robins (2011). No Nonsense Neuro-Law. Neuroethics 4 (3):195-203.
    In Minds, Brains, and Norms, Pardo and Patterson deny that the activities of persons (knowledge, rule-following, interpretation) can be understood exclusively in terms of the brain, and thus conclude that neuroscience is irrelevant to the law, and to the conceptual and philosophical questions that arise in legal contexts. On their view, such appeals to neuroscience are an exercise in nonsense. We agree that understanding persons requires more than understanding brains, but we deny their pessimistic conclusion. Whether neuroscience can be used (...)
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  21.  2
    Carl F. Craver & Lindley Darden (2005). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):233-244.
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  22. Carl F. Craver & Robert A. Wilson (2006). Realization. In P. Thagard (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science. Elsevier
    For the greater part of the last 50 years, it has been common for philosophers of mind and cognitive scientists to invoke the notion of realization in discussing the relationship between the mind and the brain. In traditional philosophy of mind, mental states are said to be realized, instantiated, or implemented in brain states. Artificial intelligence is sometimes described as the attempt either to model or to actually construct systems that realize some of the same psychological abilities that we and (...)
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  23.  36
    Carl F. Craver (2004). Dissociable Realization and Kind Splitting. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):960-971.
    It is a common assumption in contemporary cognitive neuroscience that discovering a putative realized kind to be dissociably realized (i.e., to be realized in each instance by two or more distinct realizers) mandates splitting that kind. Here I explore some limits on this inference using two deceptively similar examples: the dissociation of declarative and procedural memory and Ramachandran's argument that the self is an illusion.
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  24.  36
    L. U. Catherine (2011). Colonialism as Structural Injustice: Historical Responsibility and Contemporary Redress. Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (3):261-281.
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  25. Carl F. Craver (2005). Functions and Mechanisms in Contemporary Neuroscience. In Pierre Poirier, Luc Faucher, Eric Racine & E. Ennan (eds.), Des Neurones A La Conscience: Neurophilosophie Et Philosophie Des Neurosciences. Bruxelles: De Boeck Universite
  26.  25
    Sarah Robins & Carl Craver (2011). No Nonsense Neuro-Law. Neuroethics 4 (3):195-203.
    In Minds, Brains, and Norms , Pardo and Patterson deny that the activities of persons (knowledge, rule-following, interpretation) can be understood exclusively in terms of the brain, and thus conclude that neuroscience is irrelevant to the law, and to the conceptual and philosophical questions that arise in legal contexts. On their view, such appeals to neuroscience are an exercise in nonsense. We agree that understanding persons requires more than understanding brains, but we deny their pessimistic conclusion. Whether neuroscience can be (...)
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  27. Carl F. Craver & William P. Bechtel, Explaining Top-Down Causation (Away).
     
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  28.  18
    Brandon N. Towl, Jonathan Halvorson & Carl F. Craver (2003). An Elusive Target: A Critical Review of Clark Glymour's the Mind's Arrows. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 16 (1):157 – 164.
    The mind's arrows , by Clark Glymour, combines several of the author's previous essays on causal inference. Glymour deploys causal Bayes nets (CBNs) to provide a descriptive psychological model of human causal inference and a prescriptive model for making inferences in cognitive neuropsychology and the social sciences. Though The mind's arrows is highly original and provocative, its labyrinthine organization and technical style render it inaccessible to the uninitiated. Here we attempt to distill, package and dress some of Glymour's more interesting (...)
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  29.  6
    L. Welch Catherine, E. Welch Denice & Lisa Hewerdine (2008). Gender and Export Behaviour: Evidence From Women-Owned Enterprises. Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1).
    This article draws on the results of a qualitative, exploratory study of 20 Australian women business owners to demonstrate how using a ‹gender as social identity’ lens provides new insights into the influence of gender on exporting and entrepreneurial behaviour. Interview data reveal perceptions of gender identity and gender relations varied and influenced the interpretations which women business owners placed on their exporting activities. Women in the study used different terms to describe exporter and entrepreneurial characteristics to those found in (...)
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  30. R. Skipper Jr, C. Allen, R. A. Ankeny, C. F. Craver, L. Darden, G. Mikkelson & R. Richardson (eds.) (forthcoming). Philosophy and the Life Sciences: A Reader. MIT Press.
  31.  7
    James Lindemann Nelson (2014). Odd Complaints and Doubtful Conditions: Norms of Hypochondria in Jane Austen and Catherine Belling. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (2):193-200.
    In her final fragmentary novel Sanditon, Jane Austen develops a theme that pervades her work from her juvenilia onward: illness, and in particular, illness imagined, invented, or self-inflicted. While the “invention of odd complaints” is characteristically a token of folly or weakness throughout her writing, in this last work imagined illness is also both a symbol and a cause of how selves and societies degenerate. In the shifting world of Sanditon, hypochondria is the lubricant for a society bent on turning (...)
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  32.  5
    J. Cahall (2015). Catherine of Siena and the New Evangelization1. New Blackfriars 97 (1067).
    This article shows the relevance of past ages to the current project of the new evangelization. In particular, it presents St. Catherine of Siena as an example of the intuition that saints throughout the history of the Church have had regarding how to undertake the process of evangelization. The concept of the “new evangelization” is outlined by referring to the writings and speeches of Pope St. John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, and Pope Francis. While covering the basic features (...)
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  33.  8
    Justin Garson (2015). Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden. In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):180-83.
    Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden’s new book, In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries across the Life Sciences, is a fantastic and lucid introduction to the “new mechanism” tradition in the philosophy of science. Over the last 2 decades, but particularly since the turn of the century, this has become an influential framework for thinking about core problems in the history and philosophy of science, with a strong emphasis on biology. There are at least four major aims. First, the new mechanism (...)
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  34. Perry J. Cahall (2016). Catherine of Siena and the New Evangelization. New Blackfriars 97 (1069):325-344.
    This article shows the relevance of past ages to the current project of the new evangelization. In particular, it presents St. Catherine of Siena as an example of the intuition that saints throughout the history of the Church have had regarding how to undertake the process of evangelization. The concept of the “new evangelization” is outlined by referring to the writings and speeches of Pope St. John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, and Pope Francis. While covering the basic features (...)
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  35.  1
    Ana Luísa Lamounier Costa & Samuel Simon (2015). Explanation in Neuroscience: a critical analysis of multinivelar mechanistic-causal model of Carl Craver. Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 19 (1):17-31.
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  36.  39
    Jim Bogen (2008). The Hodgkin‐Huxley Equations and the Concrete Model: Comments on Craver, Schaffner, and Weber. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):1034-1046.
    I claim that the Hodgkin‐Huxley (HH) current equations owe a great deal of their importance to their role in bringing results from experiments on squid giant action preparations to bear on the study of the action potential in other neurons in other in vitro and in vivo environments. I consider ideas from Weber and Craver about the role of Coulomb’s and other fundamental equations in explaining the action potential and in HH’s development of their equations. Also, I offer an embellishment (...)
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  37.  9
    Florence Chiew (2012). Neuroplasticity as an Ecology of Mind A Conversation with Gregory Bateson and Catherine Malabou. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (11-12):11-12.
    Neuroplasticity research marks a considerable shift in focus from localization theories of the brain to more holistic, or systemsoriented, theories of the body-brain-environment interrelation. In What Should We Do with Our Brain?, philosopher Catherine Malabou calls attention to the political significance of neuroplasticity for engaging questions of agency and accountability. This paper addressesMalabou's ethical concerns by way of anthropologist Gregory Bateson's ecological view of human agency. By redefining the individual mind as an ecological 'tangle', Bateson's perspectives offer an important (...)
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  38.  62
    Lisabeth During (2000). Catherine Malabou and the Currency of Hegelianism. Hypatia 15 (4):190-195.
    : Catherine Malabou is a professor of philosophy at Paris-Nanterre. A collaborator and student of Jacques Derrida, her work shares some of his interest in rigorous protocols of reading, and a willingness to attend to the undercurrents of over-read and "too familiar" texts. But, as she points out, this orientation was shared by Hegel himself. Arguing against Heidegger, Kojève, and other critics of Hegel, the book in which this Introduction appears puts Hegel back on the map of the present.
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  39.  84
    Arnon Levy (2009). Explaining What? Review of Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience by Carl F. Craver. Biology and Philosophy 24 (1).
    Carl Craver’s recent book offers an account of the explanatory and theoretical structure of neuroscience. It depicts it as centered around the idea of achieving mechanistic understanding, i.e., obtaining knowledge of how a set of underlying components interacts to produce a given function of the brain. Its core account of mechanistic explanation and relevance is causal-manipulationist in spirit, and offers substantial insight into casual explanation in brain science and the associated notion of levels of explanation. However, the focus on mechanistic (...)
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  40.  4
    Elizabeth T. Groppe (2005). Creation Ex Nihilo and Ex Amore: Ontological Freedom in the Theologies of John Zizioulas and Catherine Mowry Lacugna. Modern Theology 21 (3):463-496.
    This essay takes as its starting point Reinhard Hütter's analysis of the crisis of meaning of “freedom” in late modernity. The essay argues that the trinitarian theologies of John Zizioulas and Catherine Mowry LaCugna make an important contribution to the reconstruction of a theology of freedom in our postmodern era. God's ontological freedom, they explain, is both unorigination and ecstatic love. The essay concludes with reflection on how the work of these theologians can be used constructively to address the (...)
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  41.  11
    Anna Antonopoulos (1991). Writing the Mystic Body: Sexuality and Textuality in the Écriture-Féminine of Saint Catherine of Genoa. Hypatia 6 (3):185 - 207.
    This paper looks to evolve a discourse about the body in medieval women's mystical experience via an understanding of the life and work of Saint Catherine of Genoa as écriture-féminine. Drawing upon Catherine's resolution of binarism through the articulation of sexuality and textuality, I argue that the female mystic's experience of the body as site of struggle helps move beyond analysis of a binary experience to a politics of speaking the body directly.
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  42.  11
    Stuart Glennan, Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden: In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences.
    Carl Craver and Lindley Darden are two of the foremost proponents of a recent approach to the philosophy of biology that is often called the New Mechanism. In this book they seek to make available to a broader readership insights gained from more than two decades of work on the nature of mechanisms and how they are described and discovered. The book is not primarily aimed at specialists working on the New Mechanism, but rather targets scientists, students and teachers who (...)
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  43.  7
    Jacques Maître (1995). Sainte Catherine de sienne : patronne des anorexiques ? Clio 2:6-6.
    À partir du XIIIe siècle, le tableau clinique de l'anorexie mentale se présente sous la forme de l'anorexie mystique. L'exemple retenu est Catherine de Sienne († 1380). Une approche de psychanalyse socio-historique permet de situer sa démarche par rapport à ses conflits intrapsychiques et aux processus idéologiques de son époque. L'anorexie mystique apparaît comme liée à l'histoire personnelle de chacune dans sa constellation familiale comme à l'essor de la mystique affective féminine. On la trouve souvent marquée par une révolte (...)
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  44.  9
    Sophie Dulucq (1997). Catherine COQUERY-VIDROVITCH, Les Africaines. Histoire des femmes d'Afrique noire du XIXe au XXe siècle, Paris, Desjonquères, 1994, 291 p. [REVIEW] Clio 2:25-25.
    Parue en 1994, l'impressionnante synthèse de Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch sur les femmes dans les sociétés africaines contemporaines est un livre pionnier dans l'historiographie française. S'appuyant sur une considérable bibliographie (notamment en anglais) et sur ses propres recherches, l'auteur dresse le bilan des connaissances accumulées depuis deux décennies et s'attache à établir une cartographie des incertitudes et des lacunes qui demeurent. « Ce qu'il importe de comprendre, c'es..
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  45. Charles Brittain (2007). Catherine Conybeare, The Irrational Augustine. Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 1:227-234.
    A review of Catherine Conybeare, The Irrational Augustine, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2006.
     
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  46.  3
    André Ferreira de Araújo (2013). AUDARD, Catherine. Cidadania e democracia deliberativa. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, 2006. Cadernos Do Pet Filosofia 4 (8):90-96.
    Esta resenha versa sobre a obra Cidadania e Democracia Deliberativa de Catherine Audard que se refere à uma articulação rawlsiana entre uma teoria da justiça e as teses centrais do seu liberalismo político sobre o pluralismo razoável, democracia deliberativa, cidadania participativa, razão pública, direito dos povos e multiculturalismo.
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  47.  3
    Cyril Olivier (2003). Jean-Yves LE NAOUR, Catherine VALENTI, Histoire de l'avortement (XIXe-XXe siècle), Paris, Le Seuil, coll. « L'univers historique »), 2003, 394 p. [REVIEW] Clio 2:27-27.
    Jean-Yves Le Naour et Catherine Valenti proposent un ouvrage ambitieux par son propos : faire une histoire de l'avortement depuis le milieu du XIXe jusqu'à la fin du XXe siècle. Entreprise ambitieuse mais nécessaire, une telle synthèse étant inédite en France. L'idée force du livre tient donc dans sa longue durée : un siècle et demi durant lequel la question de l'avortement fut au centre de débats tant politiques, que juridiques, économiques et sociaux. Le problème est pris à bras (...)
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  48.  4
    Iulia Iuga (2010). Catherine Clement, Julia Kristeva, Femeia si Sacrul/ The Woman and the Sacred. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 2 (6):198-200.
    Catherine Clement, Julia Kristeva, Femeia si Sacrul Editura Albatros, Bucureoti, 2001., 244 pg.
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  49.  3
    Agnès Fine (2002). Catherine ALES et Cécile BARRAUD (dir.), Sexe relatif ou sexe absolu ?, Paris, Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme, 2001, 431 p. [REVIEW] Clio 2:32-32.
    Le titre au premier abord énigmatique de cet ouvrage collectif d'anthropologie et le caractère très technique et parfois difficile de son contenu risquent de décourager les lecteurs non spécialistes. Aussi me paraît-il important d'en résumer la problématique tant elle paraît importante pour qui s'intéresse à la question du caractère universel de la différence des sexes et de la subordination des femmes. La lecture de l'introduction générale de Catherine Alès qui présente les différente..
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    Emma Shackle (2003). The Effect of Twinship on the Mysticism of Catherine of Siena (1347-1380): A Vergotean Analysis. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 25 (1):129-141.
    Catherine of Siena was a twin whose twin sister, Giovanna, died around the age of two. It is argued that a conflict relating to her lasting relationship with her dead twin is the key to a psychological understanding of the mysticism of Catherine of Siena. She was torn between her survivor-guilt and her desire to be re-united with her lost twin. This 'Vergotean' thesis is supported by contemporary psychological knowledge relating to the social construction of twinship and the (...)
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