This volume began as a remembrance of Alonzo Church while he was still with us and is now finally complete. It contains papers by many well-known scholars, most of whom have been directly influenced by Church's own work. Often the emphasis is on foundational issues in logic, mathematics, computation, and philosophy - as was the case with Church's contributions, now universally recognized as having been of profound fundamental significance in those areas. The volume will be of (...) interest to logicians, computer scientists, philosophers, and linguists. The contributions concern classical first-order logic, higher-order logic, non-classical theories of implication, set theories with universal sets, the logical and semantical paradoxes, the lambda-calculus, especially as it is used in computation, philosophical issues about meaning and ontology in the abstract sciences and in natural language, and much else. The material will be accessible to specialists in these areas and to advanced graduate students in the respective fields. (shrink)
Some religious believers may see synthetic biology as usurping God's creative role. The CatholicChurch has yet to issue a formal teaching on the field (though it has issued some informal statements in response to Craig Venter's development of a ‘synthetic’ cell). In this paper I examine the likely reaction of the Catholic Magisterium to synthetic biology in its entirety. I begin by examining the Church's teaching role, from its own viewpoint, to set the necessary backround (...) and context for the discussion that follows. I then describe the Church's attitude to science, and particularly to biotechnology. From this I derive a likely Catholic theology of synthetic biology.The Church's teachings on scientific and biotech research show that it is likely to have a generally positive disposition to synbio, if it and its products can be acceptably safe. Proper evaluation of, and protection against, risk will be a significant factor in determining the morality of the research. If the risks can be minimized through regulation or other means, then the Church is likely to be supportive. The Church will also critique the social and legal environment in which the research is done, evaluating issues such as the patenting of scientific discoveries and of life. (shrink)
O artigo aqui apresentado propõe uma leitura teológico-pastoral dos resultados do último Censo do IBGE 2010– Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – sobre religião no Brasil, publicados em julho de 2012, recorrendo também ao estudo da Fundação Getúlio Vargas – O novo mapa das religiões – publicado em 2011, e à pesquisa encomendada pela Arquidiocese de Belo Horizonte sobre Valores e religião na região metropolitana, cuja realização se deu em 2012. A leitura proposta pelo artigo toma em conta sobretudo (...) o que os dados dessas pesquisas dizem da igreja católica. Após um breve comentário de alguns elementos apresentados por tais pesquisas, o texto propõe algumas chaves de interpretação. Começa com uma leitura de tipo sociorreligioso, mostrando que a queda acentuada da pertença ao catolicismo é o resultado da saída de uma religião de tipo ‘ambiental’ e herdado para uma religião de ‘convicção’, de caráter ‘confessante’. Num segundo momento apresenta algumas raízes dessa maneira de compreender a fé no Novo Testamento e na leitura sobre a natureza e a missão da igreja feita pelo Concílio Vaticano II. Conclui, enfim, com algumas considerações de tipo pastoral, apontando não tanto para as soluções levantadas pela queda da pertença ao catolicismo, mas para as atitudes que uma igreja ‘confessante’ deve assumir na hora atual. Palavras-chave: Censo IBGE 2010. Censo das Religiões. Igreja Católica no Brasil. Leitura teológicaThe article proposes a theological-pastoral reading of the results of the most recent Census by the IBGE 2010 – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – regarding religion in Brazil, published in July 2012, while also drawing on a study by the Fundação Getúlio Vargas – O novo mapa das religiões (The new map of religions) – published in 2011, and on the research project sponsored by the Archdiocese of Belo Horizonte regarding Valores e religião na região metropolitana (Values and religion in the metropolitan region), which was carried out in 2012. The reading proposed by this article focuses especially on what the data from these investigations says about the CatholicChurch. After commenting briefly on some elements presented by the research, the text proposes some interpretive keys. The first is a socio-religious reading, showing that the steep decline in rates of belonging to Catholicism is the result of the shift from an “environmental” and “natal” type of religion to a religion of “conviction,” with a “confessional” nature. Secondly, the article presents some roots of this way of understanding faith in the New Testament and in the Second Vatican Council’s reading of the nature and mission of the Church. Finally, it concludes with some pastoral considerations, pointing not so much to solutions regarding the decline in Catholic belonging, but rather to the attitudes that a “confessional” church should have in our time. Key-words : IBGE Census 2010. Census data on religions. CatholicChurch in Brazil. Theological reading. (shrink)
Introduction: "A certain crime unobserved" -- On Catholic thinking -- The mind that is Catholic -- "Infinitized by the spirit" : Maritain and the intellectual vocation -- Chesterton, the real "heretic" : "the outstanding eccentricity of the peculiar sect called Roman Catholics" -- "The very graciousness of being" -- Reckoning with Plato -- On the uniqueness of Socrates : political philosophy and the rediscovery of the human body -- On the death of Plato : some philosophical thoughts (...) on the Thracian Maidens -- What is piety? -- The abiding implications of friendship -- Aristotle on friendship -- The totality of society : from justice to friendship -- The Trinity : God is not alone -- The medieval experience -- The point of medieval political philosophy -- "Possessed of both a reason and a revelation" -- Aquinas and the defense of ordinary things : on "what common men call common sense" -- Implications of Catholic thought -- The "realism" of St. Augustine's "political realism" : Augustine and Machiavelli -- "Mystifying indeed" : on being fully human -- Transcendence and political philosophy -- Mysticism, political philosophy, and play -- Things practical and impractical -- Sports and philosophy -- The real alternatives to just war -- Where does it lead? -- On choosing not to see -- The ultimate meaning of existence -- "The beginning of the real story" -- Conclusion: On being allowed to read Monte Cristo. (shrink)
In Faithful Reason, the noted Catholic philosopher John Haldane explores various aspects of intellectual and practical life from a perspective inspired by Catholic thought and informed by his distinctive philosophical approach: "Analytical Thomism." Haldane's discussions of ethics, politics, education, art, social philosophy and other themes explain why Catholic thought is still relevant in today's world, and show how the legacy of Thomas Aquinas can benefit modern philosophy in its efforts to answer fundamental questions about humanity (...) and its place within nature. Drawing on a Catholic philosophical tradition that is committed to concepts of the world's intrinsic intelligibility and the objectivity of truth, Faithful Reason's bold and insightful perspectives provide rich matter for debate, and food for further thought. (shrink)
No período em que a Igreja Católica vivia um processo conhecido como romanização, no Brasil começaram a surgir Faculdades e Universidades Católicas. Adjetivadas, tais instituições de ensino superior implicavam a alocação de recursos os mais variados por parte do aparelho eclesiástico, pois a qualificação atribuída era acompanhada da expectativa de um desempenho específico dentro do mais amplo processo de romanização. Este artigo objetiva abordar o contexto eclesial da época e, nele, a compreensão da Igreja acerca da sua relação com a (...) sociedade recifense, tendo como viés a atuação da Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, na cidade, e sua correspondência ao cenário estabelecido. Para escrevê-lo o autor fez revisão da literatura e pesquisa nos arquivos da própria UNICAP e da Vice-província do Brasil Setentrional da Companhia de Jesus; além disso, recorreu a depoimentos orais de ex-alunos e ex-professores. A análise empreendida permite afirmar que, em sua trajetória inicial, a Universidade correspondeu ao ser católico, se ele for entendido como sintonia com o modelo eclesial predominante na Igreja e ao papel dele decorrente. Palavras-chave : Igreja católica. Modelos eclesiais. Educação.During the period of time in which the CatholicChurch experienced a process known as Romanization, there began to emerge Catholic colleges and universities in Brazil. Once having received the adjective Catholic, these institutions of higher education demanded of the ecclesiastic apparatus the allocation of the most varied resources, because the attributed qualification was accompanied by the expectancy of a specific performance inside the most ample process of Romanization. This article aims at accosting the ecclesiastic context of the time and, in it, the Churche’s understanding of its relationship with Recife’s society, taking as bias the acts of the Catholic University of Pernambuco (UNICAP) in the city and its correspondence to the established scenario. To write it, the author revised the literature and research in the archives of the UNICAP itself and of the vice-province of Northern Brazil of the Society of Jesus; furthermore, he analyzed the oral testimony of former students and teachers. The analysis undertaken allows us to affirm that during its initial steps the university fulfilled the exigencies made for being Catholic, if this term was being understood as being in tune with the ecclesiastic model predominant in the Church at the time and the role corresponding to it. Keywords : CatholicChurch. Ecclesiastic models. Education. (shrink)
When we ask modern questions about democracy and democratization, we have to clarify the meaning of these words. It has been 21 years since the Velvet Revolution and we still think that it had to do with democracy and the democratization of our Czechoslovak society in that time, as if the common use of the word "democratization" makes possible the expression or the vindicate one´s own opinion. There is a question whether the majority of our society was thinking this way. (...) In this context it would be very interesting to see the practical purposes of our Church society during the revolution, as hierarchic or as non-hierarchic. Also there are still the voices of some people that echo the unpreparedness of the Church for this modern world, especially when communicating with the faithful and the society. . (shrink)
The study discusses the paradox of the failure of the Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (RCUR) to assert itself after 1990, in the context of a revival of the life of all other religious communities. The significant decrease in the number of Greek-Catholic believers and the difficulties in exercising their rights are germane to the limits of democracy in Romania. No other vulnerable communities, neither immigrants, gays, Roma,nor Jehovah's Witnesses, have been denied, all this time, the (...) protection of the Romanian state, as Greek-Catholics have been. The systematic denial of the rights of the Romanian Church United with Rome (Greek-Catholic) is explained by the feature which distinguishes RCUR faithful from the members of other vulnerable communities: their organisation is perceived by the Romanian Orthodox Church (ROC) as an adversary. The Romanian Orthodox Church constantly proclaimed the illegitimacy of the RCUR in the first half of the twentieth century, and participated in its dissolution when the opportunity arose in 1948. It holds today the same explicit goal. The societal circumstances, specific to anarchic democracy, allow a major player like the ROC to impose its policy of undermining the RCUR. In accordance with Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and Alastair Smith's concept, the material and symbolic competition between the RCUR and the ROC is interpreted as an example of "bad behavior as good politics". The ROC strategy finds an optimal framework for maximizing gain in the circumstances of the Romanian anarchic democracy. (shrink)
The German philosopher Robert Spaemann provides an important contribution to a number of contemporary debates in philosophy and theology, opening up possibilities for conversation between these disciplines. He engages in a dialogue with classical and contemporary positions and often formulates important and original insights which lie beyond common alternatives. In this study Holger Zaborowski provides an analysis of the most important features of Spaemann's philosophy and shows the unity of his thought. The question 'Who is a person?' is (...) of increasing significance: Are all human beings persons? Are there animals that can be considered persons? What does it mean to speak of personal identity and of the dignity of the person? Spaemann provides an answer to these questions: Every human being, he argues, is a person and, therefore, 'has' his nature in freedom. In order to understand the person, Spaemann explains, we have to think about the relation between nature and freedom and avoid the reductive accounts of this relation prevalent in important strands of modern thought. Spaemann develops a challenging critique of modernity, incorporating analysis of modern anti-modernisms and showing that these are also subject to a dialectical development, perpetuating the problematic shortcomings of many features of modern reasoning. If we do not want to abolish ourselves as persons, Spaemann reasons, we need to find a way of understanding ourselves that evades the dialectic of modernity. Thus, he reminds his readers of 'self-evident' knowledge: insights that we have once already known, but tend to forget. (shrink)
Theistic theology as responsibility for the word of God -- The existential situation in which I find myself -- Christian culture : its philosophical roots and present crisis -- Reconstruction in theistic theology -- Thresholds of phenomenological theological inquiry -- Particular thresholds of phenomenological inquiry -- Phenomenology and the Catholicity of Vatican II : a broad criticism.
The teaching of the Aquinas Academy in its first thirty years was based on the scholastic philosophy of Thomas Aquinas, then regarded as the official philosophy of the CatholicChurch. That philosophy has not been so much heard of in the last thirty years, but it has a strong presence below the surface. Its natural law theory of ethics, especially, still informs Vatican pronouncements on moral topics such as contraception and euthanasia. It has also been (...) important in Australia in the High Court’s deliberations on the Mabo case. It is argued that some officially-sanctioned deductions on particular cases have not been correct, but that any attempt to do without a natural law foundation of ethics would throw out the baby with the bathwater. The sense of the basic objective worth of persons that is the centre of natural law ethics is essential to any ethics better than a simple “might is right” approach. (shrink)
In this radical reinterpretation of Rousseau, Jeremiah Alberg reveals the neglected theological dimension of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s philosophy. Alberg shows how only Christianity can bring the coherence of Rousseau’s system to light, arguing that the philosopher's system of thought is founded on theological scandal and on his inability to accept forgiveness through Christianity. This book explores Rousseau’s major works in a novel way, advancing his system of thought as an alternative to Christianity.
McInerney, Patrick Nostra Aetate (NA) is Vatican II's ground-breaking document on the CatholicChurch's relation with people of other religions. The two previous Popes have called it 'the Magna Carta' of the Church's new direction in interreligious dialogue. For centuries church teaching and practice in regard to other religions had been encapsulated in the axiom extra ecclesiam nulla salus (outside the church no salvation). Nostra Aetate represents a 'radically new understanding of the relations of the (...)church to the other great world religions.'. (shrink)
Does the position of the Roman CatholicChurch on contraception also imply that the usage of condoms by HIV-discordant couples is illicit? A standard argument is to appeal to the doctrine of double effect to condone such usage, but this meets with the objection that there exists an alternative action that brings about the good effect—namely, abstinence. I argue against this objection, because an HIV-discordant couple does not bring about any bad outcome through condom usage—there is no disrespect (...) displayed for the generative function of sex. One might retort that the badness of condom usage consists in thwarting the unitive function of sex. I argue that also this objection cannot be upheld. In conclusion, if there are no in-principle objections against condom usage for HIV-discordant couples, then policies that deny access to condoms to such couples are indefensible. HIV-discordant couples have a right to continue consummating their marriage in a manner that is minimally risky and this right cannot be trumped by utilitarian concerns that the distribution of condoms might increase promiscuity and along with it the HIV infection rate. (shrink)
Homosexual activist groups have targeted the CatholicChurch and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. (...) Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity. (shrink)
ExcerptIn 1929, at the height of the conciliation process between the Italian State and the CatholicChurch, sealed by the Lateran Treaty, Pope Pius XI referred to Mussolini as the man “sent by providence.”1 Conversely, in 1938, right in the middle of the clash between the Holy See and the Fascist government over the racial problem, Pius XI would say: “Today there is a mutual declaration of war between the Prime Minister and us. Mussolini might even win on (...) some battlefields, but one day he will be considered just like those peoples who won a battle but lost the war.”2. (shrink)
The Catholicphilosophy of history, by Joseph Schrembs.- The "Two cities" of Otto of Freising and its influence on the Catholicphilosophy of history, by Felix Fellner.- Aquinas and the missing link in the philosophy of history, by M.F.X.Millar.- Dante's philosophy of history, by G.G.Walsh.- Bossuet's "Discourse in universal history," by P.J.Barry.- Giambattista Vico, philosopher-historian, by P.C.Perrotta.- Christian thought and economic policy, by C.E.McGuire.
McGovern, Kevin In recent years, some speakers at Catholic conferences and a few articles on Catholic websites and in Catholic newspapers have claimed that brain death is not really death. Some Catholics may be confused by this - particularly if they are asked to agree to the removal of mechanical ventilation or the procurement of organs from a relative or friend who has been declared brain dead. At the same time, these claims might damage the reputation of (...) the Church within the scientific and health care communities. This article reviews what brain death is, and then details Catholic investigations and statements about this concept. (shrink)
I describe an ethic for business administration based on the social tradition of the CatholicChurch. I find that much current thinking about business falters for its conceit of truth. Abstractions such as the shareholder-value model contain truth - namely, that business is an economic enterprise to manage for the wealth of its owners. But, as in all abstractions, this truth comes at the expense of falsehood -namely, that persons are assets to deploy on behalf of owners. This (...) last is "wrong" in both senses of the word - it is factually wrong in that persons are far more than business assets, they are supernatural beings, children of God; and it is morally wrong in that it is an injustice to treat them as the former when they are the latter. I draw upon the social tradition of the CatholicChurch to recognize that the business of business is not business, but is instead the human person. Following Church teachings, I describe a person-centered ethic of business based upon eight social principles that both correct and enlarge the shareholder-centered ethic of much current business thinking. I discuss implications of this person-centered ethic for business administration. (shrink)
This paper is an analysis of the relationship of social ethics and bioethics in Roman Catholic theology. The argument of the paper is that the character of both Catholic moral theology and ecclesiology shape the broadly defined interest of the church in bioethics. The paper examines the common elements of social ethics and bioethics in Catholic teaching, describes how ecclesiology shapes Catholic public policy and uses the examples of abortion and health care to illustrate the (...) relationship of Catholic social thought and bioethics. In developing the relationship of these two dimensions of Catholic moral argument the article highlights how the appeal to natural law categories differs in social ethics and bioethics and how the two topics are received differently in the theological community. It also seeks to illustrate how the premises of Catholic social ethics remain central to public positions taken on bioethics. Keywords: ecclesiology, moral theology, natural law, social ethics CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
Kavanagh, Aengus Review(s) of: Our fathers: What Australian Catholic priests really think about their lives and their Church, Chris McGillion and John Carroll, Mulgrave: John Garratt Publishing, 2011, pp.200, $29.95.