Search results for 'Causation History' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Indu Banga (ed.) (1992). Causation in History. Manohar Publications.score: 120.0
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  2. Morris Raphael Cohen (1942). Causation and its Application to History. [N. P..score: 120.0
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  3. John Collins, Ned Hall & L. A. Paul (2004). Counterfactuals and Causation: History, Problems, and Prospects. In John Collins, Ned Hall & Laurie Paul (eds.), Causation and Counterfactuals. The Mit Press. 1--57.score: 96.0
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  4. Galen Strawson (1989). The Secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume. Oxford University Press.score: 84.0
    It is widely supposed that David Hume invented and espoused the "regularity" theory of causation, holding that causal relations are nothing but a matter of one type of thing being regularly followed by another. It is also widely supposed that he was not only right about this, but that it was one of his greatest contributions to philosophy. Strawson here argues that the regularity theory of causation is indefensible, and that Hume never adopted it in any case. Strawson (...)
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  5. Keith Allen & Tom Stoneham (eds.) (2011). Causation and Modern Philosophy. Routledge.score: 84.0
    A collection of new essays on causation in the period from Galileo to Lady Mary Shepherd (roughly 1600-1850). Contributors: David Wootton, Tad Schmaltz, William Eaton and Robert Higgerson, Eric Schliesser, Pauline Phemister, Timothy Stanton, Peter Millican, Constantine Sandis, Boris Hennig, Angela Breitenbach, Stathis Psillos, and Martha Brandt Bolton.
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  6. R. J. Hankinson (1998). Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought. Oxford University Press.score: 84.0
    R. J. Hankinson traces the history of ancient Greek thinking about causation and explanation, from its earliest beginnings through more than a thousand years to the middle of the first millennium of the Christian era. He examines ways in which the Ancient Greeks dealt with questions about how and why things happen as and when they do, about the basic constitution and structure of things, about function and purpose, laws of nature, chance, coincidence, and responsibility.
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  7. Carl Hammer (2008). Explication, Explanation, and History. History and Theory 47 (2):183–199.score: 78.0
    To date, no satisfactory account of the connection between natural-scientific and historical explanation has been given, and philosophers seem to have largely given up on the problem. This paper is an attempt to resolve this old issue and to sort out and clarify some areas of historical explanation by developing and applying a method that will be called “pragmatic explication” involving the construction of definitions that are justified on pragmatic grounds. Explanations in general can be divided into “dynamic” and “static” (...)
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  8. Robert S. Cohen (1970). Causation in History. In. In Hermann Bondi, Wolfgang Yourgrau & Allen duPont Breck (eds.), Physics, Logic, and History. New York,Plenum Press. 231--251.score: 78.0
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  9. Raghwendra Pratap Singh (2000). Freedom and Causation: With Special Reference to Hegel's Overcoming of Kant. Om Publications.score: 78.0
  10. Richard Scheines (2002). Computation and Causation. In James Moor & Terrell Ward Bynum (eds.), Cyberphilosophy: The Intersection of Philosophy and Computing. Blackwell Pub.. 158-180.score: 72.0
    In 1982, when computers were just becoming widely available, I was a graduate student beginning my work with Clark Glymour on a PhD thesis entitled: “Causality in the Social Sciences.” Dazed and confused by the vast philosophical literature on causation, I found relative solace in the clarity of Structural Equation Models (SEMs), a form of statistical model used commonly by practicing sociologists, political scientists, etc., to model causal hypotheses with which associations among measured variables might be explained. The statistical (...)
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  11. Lawrence K. Frank (1934). Causation: An Episode in the History of Thought. Journal of Philosophy 31 (16):421-428.score: 72.0
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  12. Mendel F. Cohen (1987). Causation in History. Philosophy 62 (241):341 - 360.score: 72.0
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  13. E. J. Tapp (1952). Some Aspects of Causation in History. Journal of Philosophy 49 (3):67-79.score: 72.0
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  14. Kevin Falvey (1999). A Natural History of Belief. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 80 (4):324-345.score: 66.0
    Contemporary philosophy of mind is dominated by a conception of our propositional attitude concepts as comprising a proto-scientific causal-explanatory theory of behavior. This conception has given rise to a spate of recent worries about the prospects for “naturalizing” the theory. In this paper I return to the roots of the “theory-theory” of the attitudes in Wilfrid Sellars’s classic “Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind.” I present an alternative to the theory-theory’s account of belief in the form of a parody of (...)
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  15. Derk Pereboom (2000). Alternative Possibilities and Causal Histories. Philosopical Perspectives 14 (s14):119-138.score: 66.0
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  16. Maurice Mandelbaum (1942). Causal Analysis in History. [N. P..score: 66.0
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  17. Frederick John Teggart (1942). Causation in Historical Events. [N. P..score: 66.0
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  18. J. A. van Ruler (1995). The Crisis of Causality: Voetius and Descartes on God, Nature, and Change. E.J. Brill.score: 60.0
    This study on the reception of Cartesianism is the result of a four-year fellowship as assistant-in-training at the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Groningen. Zie: Preface.
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  19. Eric Watkins (ed.) (2009). Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    Provides English translations of texts that form the essential background to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.
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  20. Martin A. Bertman (1991). Body and Cause in Hobbes: Natural and Political. Longman Academic.score: 60.0
  21. Thomas Brown (1806/1983). The Doctrine of Mr. Hume: Concerning the Relation of Cause and Effect. Garland Pub..score: 60.0
     
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  22. Francesco Cerrato (2008). Cause E Nozioni Comuni Nella Filosofia di Spinoza. Quodlibet.score: 60.0
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  23. David Robb (1997). The Properties of Mental Causation. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (187):178-94.score: 54.0
    Recent discussions of mental causation have focused on three principles: (1) Mental properties are (sometimes) causally relevant to physical effects; (2) mental properties are not physical properties; (3) every physical event has in its causal history only physical events and physical properties. Since these principles seem to be inconsistent, solutions have focused on rejecting one or more of them. But I argue that, in spite of appearances, (1)–(3) are not inconsistent. The reason is that 'properties' is used in (...)
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  24. Max Kistler (2007). Causation and Laws of Nature. In Michael Beaney (ed.), The Analytic Turn: Analysis in Early Analytic Philosophy and Phenomenology. Routledge.score: 54.0
    Causation is important. It is, as Hume said, the cement of the universe, and lies at the heart of our conceptual structure. Causation is one of the most fundamental tools we have for organizing our apprehension of the external world and ourselves. But philosophers' disagreement about the correct interpretation of causation is as limitless as their agreement about its importance. The history of attempts to elucidate the nature of this concept and to situate it with respect (...)
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  25. Robert C. Koons (1998). Teleology as Higher-Order Causation: A Situation-Theoretic Account. Minds and Machines 8 (4):559-585.score: 54.0
    Situation theory, as developed by Barwise and his collaborators, is used to demonstrate the possibility of defining teleology (and related notions, like that of proper or biological function) in terms of higher order causation, along the lines suggested by Taylor and Wright. This definition avoids the excessive narrowness that results from trying to define teleology in terms of evolutionary history or the effects of natural selection. By legitimating the concept of teleology, this definition also provides promising new avenues (...)
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  26. Brendan Clarke (2011). Causation and Melanoma Classification. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (1):19-32.score: 54.0
    In this article, I begin by giving a brief history of melanoma causation. I then discuss the current manner in which malignant melanoma is classified. In general, these systems of classification do not take account of the manner of tumour causation. Instead, they are based on phenomenological features of the tumour, such as size, spread, and morphology. I go on to suggest that misclassification of melanoma is a major problem in clinical practice. I therefore outline an alternative (...)
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  27. C. Behan McCullagh (1998). The Truth of History. Routledge.score: 54.0
    The Truth of History questions how modern historians, confined by the concepts of their own cultures, can still discover truths about the past. Through an examination of the constraints of history, accounts of causation and causal interpretations, C. Behan McCullagh argues that although historical descriptions do not mirror the past, they can correlate with it in a regular and definable way. Far from debating only in the abstract and philosophical, the author constructs his argument in numerous concrete (...)
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  28. Daniel Kodaj (2014). Intrinsic Causation in Humean Supervenience. Ratio 27 (2).score: 54.0
    The paper investigates whether causation is extrinsic in Humean Supervenience (HS) in the sense that being caused by is an intrinsic relation between token causes and effects. The underlying goal is to test whether causality is extrinsic for Humeans and intrinsic for anti-Humeans in this sense. I argue that causation is typically extrinsic in HS, but it is intrinsic to event pairs that collectively exhaust almost the whole of history.
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  29. Weyma Lübbe (1993). Die Theorie -der Adäquaten Verursachung. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 24 (1):87 - 102.score: 54.0
    The Adequate Cause Theory: On the relation of Philosophical and Legal Concepts of Causality. The paper discusses the first explicit and logically convincing introduction of a concept of probabilistic causality into legal theories of causation in Germany by Johannes von Kries (1888). First, it is shown how this step was prepared by the failure of the philosophical analysis of causation which took its leading examples from physics to overcome the difficulties which presented themselves in cases of "irreducible multicausality". (...)
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  30. Kari Vepsäläinen & John R. Spence (2000). Generalization in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: From Hypothesis to Paradigm. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (2):211-238.score: 50.0
    We argue that broad, simplegeneralizations, not specifically linked tocontingencies, will rarely approach truth in ecologyand evolutionary biology. This is because mostinteresting phenomena have multiple, interactingcauses. Instead of looking for single universaltheories to explain the great diversity of naturalsystems, we suggest that it would be profitable todevelop general explanatory frameworks. A frameworkshould clearly specify focal levels. The process orpattern that we wish to study defines our level offocus. The set of potential and actual states at thefocal level interacts with conditions at (...)
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  31. Susanne Bobzien (1998). Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 48.0
    Bobzien presents the definitive study of one of the most interesting intellectual legacies of the ancient Greeks: the Stoic theory of causal determinism. She explains what it was, how the Stoics justified it, and how it relates to their views on possibility, action, freedom, moral responsibility, moral character, fatalism, logical determinism and many other topics. She demonstrates the considerable philosophical richness and power that these ideas retain today.
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  32. Thomas Junker (1996). Factors Shaping Ernst Mayr's Concepts in the History of Biology. Journal of the History of Biology 29 (1):29 - 77.score: 48.0
    As frequently pointed out in this discussion, one of the most characteristic features of Mayr's approach to the history of biology stems from the fact that he is dealing to a considerable degree with his own professional history. Furthermore, his main criterion for the selection of historical episodes is their relevance for modern biological theory. As W. F. Bynum and others have noted, the general impression of his reviewers is that “one of the towering figures of evolutionary biology (...)
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  33. Robert Guralnick (2002). A Recapitulation of the Rise and Fall of the Cell Lineage Research Program: The Evolutionary-Developmental Relationship of Cleavage to Homology, Body Plans and Life History. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):537 - 567.score: 48.0
    American biologists in the late nineteenth century pioneered the descriptive-comparative study of all cell divisions from zygote to gastrulation -- the cell lineage. Data from cell lineages were crucial to evolutionary and developmental questions of the day. One of the main questions was the ultimate causation of developmental patterns -- historical or mechanical. E. B. Wilson's groundbreaking lineage work on the polychaete worm Nereis in 1892 set the stage for (1) an attack on Haeckel's phylogenetic-historical notion of recapitulation and (...)
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  34. Charles Bonnet (2005). Charles Bonnets Systemtheorie Und Philosophie Organisierter Körper. Deutsch.score: 48.0
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  35. Tim De Mey & Erik Weber (2003). Explanation And Thought Experiments In History. History and Theory 42 (1):28-38.score: 48.0
    Although interest in them is clearly growing, most professional historians do not accept thought experiments as appropriate tools. Advocates of the deliberate use of thought experiments in history argue that without counterfactuals, causal attributions in history do not make sense. Whereas such arguments play upon the meaning of causation in history, this article focuses on the reasoning processes by which historians arrive at causal explanations. First, we discuss the roles thought experiments play in arriving at explanations (...)
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  36. William A. Wallace (1974). Classical and Contemporary Science. Ann Arbor,University of Michigan Press.score: 48.0
     
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  37. William A. Wallace (1972). Causality and Scientific Explanation. Ann Arbor,University of Michigan Press.score: 48.0
    v. 1. Medieval and early classical science.--v. 2. Classical and contemporary science.
     
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  38. Anton Froeyman (2009). Concepts of Causation in Historiography. Historical Methods 42 (3):116-128.score: 42.0
    This paper aims to apply contemporary theories of causation to historiography. The main purpose is to show that historians can use the concept of causation in a variety of ways, each of which is associated with different historiographical claims and different kinds of argumentation. Through this application, it will also become clear, contrary to what is often stated, that historical narratives are (in a specific way) causal, and that micro-history can be seen as a response to a (...)
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  39. Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2012). “Inherence, Causation, and Conceivability in Spinoza”. Journal of the History of Philosophy.score: 42.0
    In this paper I suggest a new interpretation of the relations of inherence, causation and conception in Spinoza. I discuss the views of Don Garrett on this issue and argue against Della Rocca's recent suggestion that a strict endorsement of the PSR leads necessarily to the identification of the relations of inherence, causation and conception. I argue that (1) Spinoza never endorsed this identity, and (2) that Della Rocca's suggestion could not be considered as a legitimate reconstruction or (...)
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  40. Julian Reiss (2009). Counterfactuals, Thought Experiments, and Singular Causal Analysis in History. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):712-723.score: 42.0
    Thought experiments are ubiquitous in science and especially prominent in domains in which experimental and observational evidence is scarce. One such domain is the causal analysis of singular events in history. A long‐standing tradition that goes back to Max Weber addresses the issue by means of ‘what‐if’ counterfactuals. In this paper I give a descriptive account of this widely used method and argue that historians following it examine difference makers rather than causes in the philosopher’s sense. While difference making (...)
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  41. Denis M. Walsh (2010). Not a Sure Thing: Fitness, Probability, and Causation. Philosophy of Science 77 (2):147-171.score: 42.0
    In evolutionary biology changes in population structure are explained by citing trait fitness distribution. I distinguish three interpretations of fitness explanations—the Two‐Factor Model, the Single‐Factor Model, and the Statistical Interpretation—and argue for the last of these. These interpretations differ in their degrees of causal commitment. The first two hold that trait fitness distribution causes population change. Trait fitness explanations, according to these interpretations, are causal explanations. The last maintains that trait fitness distribution correlates with population change but does not cause (...)
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  42. Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.) (2009). The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.score: 42.0
    Causation is a central topic in many areas of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, ethics, history of philosophy, and philosophy ...
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  43. Phil Dowe, The Power of Possible Causation.score: 42.0
    In this paper I consider possible causation, specifically, would-cause counterfactuals of the form ‘had an event of kind A occurred, it would have caused an event of kind B’. I outline some difficulties for the Lewis program for understanding would-cause counterfactuals, and canvass an alternative. I then spell out a view on their significance, in relation to (i) absence causation, where claims such as ‘A’s not occurring caused B’s not occurring’ seem to make sense when understood in terms (...)
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  44. Dcwtd S. Oderberg, A Brief History of Cosmological Arguments.score: 42.0
    There is no such thing as the cosmological argument. Rather, there are several arguments that all proceed from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or Hnitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it. From them, and from general principles said to govern them, one is led to deduce or infer as highly probable the existence of a cause of the universe (as opposed, say, to a designer or a source of value). (...))
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  45. Christophe Malaterre (2011). Making Sense of Downward Causation in Manipulationism (with Illustrations From Cancer Research). History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences (33):537-562.score: 42.0
    Many researchers consider cancer to have molecular causes, namely mutated genes that result in abnormal cell proliferation (e.g. Weinberg 1998). For others, the causes of cancer are to be found not at the molecular level but at the tissue level where carcinogenesis consists of disrupted tissue organization with downward causation effects on cells and cellular components (e.g. Sonnenschein and Soto 2008). In this contribution, I ponder how to make sense of such downward causation claims. Adopting a manipulationist account (...)
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  46. Bert Leuridan & Anton Froeyman (2012). On Lawfulness in History and Historiography. History and Theory 51 (2):172-192.score: 42.0
    The use of general and universal laws in historiography has been the subject of debate ever since the end of the nineteenth century. Since the 1970s there has been a growing consensus that general laws such as those in the natural sciences are not applicable in the scientific writing of history. We will argue against this consensus view, not by claiming that the underlying conception of what historiography is—or should be—is wrong, but by contending that it is based on (...)
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  47. Peter Menzies (1999). Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Conceptions of Causation. In H. Sankey (ed.), Laws and Causation: Australasian Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Kluwer. 313-329.score: 42.0
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  48. Robert Northcott (2008). Weighted Explanations in History. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (1):76-96.score: 42.0
    , whereby some causes are deemed more important than others, are ubiquitous in historical studies. Drawing from influential recent work on causation, I develop a definition of causal-explanatory strength. This makes clear exactly which aspects of explanatory weighting are subjective and which objective. It also sheds new light on several traditional issues, showing for instance that: underlying causes need not be more important than proximate ones; several different causes can each be responsible for most of an effect; small causes (...)
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  49. Pablo Razeto-Barry & Ramiro Frick (2011). Probabilistic Causation and the Explanatory Role of Natural Selection. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (3):344-355.score: 36.0
    The explanatory role of natural selection is one of the long-term debates in evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, the consensus has been slippery because conceptual confusions and the absence of a unified, formal causal model that integrates different explanatory scopes of natural selection. In this study we attempt to examine two questions: (i) What can the theory of natural selection explain? and (ii) Is there a causal or explanatory model that integrates all natural selection explananda? For the first question, we argue that (...)
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  50. George Botterill (2010). Two Kinds of Causal Explanation. Theoria 76 (4):287-313.score: 36.0
    To give a causal explanation is to give information about causal history. But a vast amount of causal history lies behind anything that happens, far too much to be included in any intelligible explanation. This is the Problem of Limitation for explanatory information. To cope with this problem, explanations must select for what is relevant to and adequate for answering particular inquiries. In the present paper this idea is used in order to distinguish two kinds of causal explanation, (...)
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