Search results for 'Cause' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Katsuaki Higashi (2008). The Limits of Common Cause Approach to EPR Correlation. Foundations of Physics 38 (7):591-609.score: 24.0
    It is often argued that no local common cause models of EPR correlation exist. However, Szabó and Rédei pointed out that such arguments have the tacit assumption that plural correlations have the same common causes. Furthermore, Szabó showed that for EPR correlation a local common cause model in his sense exists. One of his requirements is that common cause events are statistically independent of apparatus settings on each side. However, as Szabó knows, to meet this requirement does (...)
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  2. Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Miklós Rédei (2006). Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems of Arbitrary Finite Size Exist. Foundations of Physics 36 (5):745-756.score: 24.0
    A partition $\{C_i\}_{i\in I}$ of a Boolean algebra Ω in a probability measure space (Ω, p) is called a Reichenbachian common cause system for the correlation between a pair A,B of events in Ω if any two elements in the partition behave like a Reichenbachian common cause and its complement; the cardinality of the index set I is called the size of the common cause system. It is shown that given any non-strict correlation in (Ω, p), and (...)
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  3. Uwe Steinhoff (2014). Just Cause and 'Right Intention'. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (1):32-48.score: 24.0
    I argue that the criterion of just cause is not independent of proportionality and other valid jus ad bellum criteria. One cannot know whether there is a just cause without knowing whether the other (valid) criteria (apart from ‘right intention’) are satisfied. The advantage of this account is that it is applicable to all wars, even to wars where nobody will be killed or where the enemy has not committed a rights violation but can be justifiably warred against (...)
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  4. T. L. Short (2002). Darwin's Concept of Final Cause: Neither New nor Trivial. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 17 (3):323-340.score: 24.0
    Darwin'suse of final cause accords with the Aristotelian idea of finalcauses as explanatory types – as opposed to mechanical causes, which arealways particulars. In Wright's consequence etiology, anadaptation is explained by particular events, namely, its past consequences;hence, that etiology is mechanistic at bottom. This justifies Ghiselin'scharge that such versions of teleology trivialize the subject, But a purelymechanistic explanation of an adaptation allows it to appear coincidental.Patterns of outcome, whether biological or thermodynamic, cannot be explainedbytracing causal chains, even were that (...)
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  5. Jae-Eun Kim & Kim K. P. Johnson (2013). The Impact of Moral Emotions on Cause-Related Marketing Campaigns: A Cross-Cultural Examination. Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):79-90.score: 24.0
    This research was focused on investigating why some consumers might support cause-related marketing campaigns for reasons other than personal benefit by examining the influence of moral emotions and cultural orientation. The authors investigated the extent to which moral emotions operate differently across a cultural variable (US versus Korea) and an individual difference variable (self-construal). A survey method was utilised. Data were collected from a convenience sample of US ( n = 180) and Korean ( n = 191) undergraduates. Moral (...)
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  6. Mark Harcourt, Maureen Hannay & Helen Lam (2013). Distributive Justice, Employment-at-Will and Just-Cause Dismissal. Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):311-325.score: 24.0
    Dismissal is a major issue for distributive justice at work, because it normally has a drastic impact on an employee’s livelihood, self-esteem and future career. This article examines distributive justice under the US’s employment-at-will (EAW) system and New Zealand’s just-cause dismissal system, focusing on the three main categories of dismissal, namely misconduct, poor performance and redundancy. Under EAW, employees have limited protection from dismissal and remedies are restricted to just a few so-called exceptions. Comparatively, New Zealand’s just-cause system (...)
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  7. Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Péter Vecsernyés (2012). Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory with Locally Finite Degrees of Freedom. Foundations of Physics 42 (2):241-255.score: 24.0
    In the paper it will be shown that Reichenbach’s Weak Common Cause Principle is not valid in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom in general. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated double cones ${\mathcal{O}}_{a}$ and ${\mathcal{O}}_{b}$ , respectively, a correlating state can be given for which there is no nontrivial common cause (system) located in the union of the backward light cones of ${\mathcal{O}}_{a}$ and ${\mathcal{O}}_{b}$ and commuting with (...)
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  8. Joëlle Vanhamme, Adam Lindgreen, Jon Reast & Nathalie Popering (2012). To Do Well by Doing Good: Improving Corporate Image Through Cause-Related Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 109 (3):259-274.score: 24.0
    As part of their corporate social responsibility, many organizations practice cause-related marketing, in which organizations donate to a chosen cause with every consumer purchase. The extant literature has identified the importance of the fit between the organization and the nature of the cause in influencing corporate image, as well as the influence of a connection between the cause and consumer preferences on brand attitudes and brand choice. However, prior research has not addressed which cause composition (...)
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  9. Igal Kvart (2002). Probabilistic Cause and the Thirsty Traveler. Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (2):139-179.score: 24.0
    In this paper I start by briefly presenting an analysis of token cause and of token causal relevance that I developed elsewhere, and then apply it to the famous thirsty traveler riddle. One general outcome of the analysis of causal relevance employed here is that in preemption cases (early or late) the preempted cause is not a cause since it is causally irrelevant to the effect. I consider several variations of the thirsty traveler riddle. In the first (...)
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  10. Iñaki San Pedro (2011). Venetian Sea Levels, British Bread Prices and the Principle of the Common Cause: A Reassessment. In H. de Regt, S. Okasha & S. Hartmann (eds.), EPSA Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer. 341-354.score: 24.0
    It is still a controversial issue whether Reichenbach’s Principle of the Common Cause (RPCC) is a sound method for causal inference. In fact, the status of the principle has been a subject of intense philosophical debate. An extensive literature has been thus generated both with arguments in favor and against the adequacy of the principle. A remarkable argument against the principle, first proposed by Elliott Sober (Sober, 1987, 2001), consists on a counterexample which involves corelations between bread prices in (...)
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  11. Andrew Ward (2007). The Social Epidemiologic Concept of Fundamental Cause. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (6):465-485.score: 24.0
    The goal of research in social epidemiology is not simply conceptual clarification or theoretical understanding, but more importantly it is to contribute to, and enhance the health of populations (and so, too, the people who constitute those populations). Undoubtedly, understanding how various individual risk factors such as smoking and obesity affect the health of people does contribute to this goal. However, what is distinctive of much on-going work in social epidemiology is the view that analyses making use of individual-level variables (...)
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  12. Christopher Byrne (2001). Matter and Aristotle's Material Cause. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):85-111.score: 24.0
    In his metaphysics and natural philosophy, Aristotle uses the concept of a material cause,i.e., that from which something can be made or generated. This paper argues that Aristotle also has a concept of matter in the sense of physical stuff. Aristotle develops this concept of matter in the course of investigating the material causes of perceptible substances. Because of the requirements for change, locomotion, and the physical interaction of material objects, Aristotle holds that all perceptible substances must be extended (...)
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  13. Igor Hanzel (2012). Causation, Principle of Common Cause and Theoretical Explanation: Wesley C. Salmon and G. W. F. Hegel. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (1):29-44.score: 24.0
    The aim of this article is to analyze the main contributions of Wesley C. Salmon to the philosophy of science, that is, his concepts of causation, common cause, and theoretical explanation, and to provide a critique of them. This critique will be based on a comparison of Salmon's concepts with categories developed by Hegel in his Science of Logic, and which can be applied to the issues treated by Salmon by means of the above given three concepts. It is (...)
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  14. Miklos Redei & Stephen J. Summers (2002). Local Primitive Causality and the Common Cause Principle in Quantum Field Theory. Foundations of Physics 32 (3):335-355.score: 24.0
    If $\mathcal{A}$ (V) is a net of local von Neumann algebras satisfying standard axioms of algebraic relativistic quantum field theory and V 1 and V 2 are spacelike separated spacetime regions, then the system ( $\mathcal{A}$ (V 1 ), $\mathcal{A}$ (V 2 ), φ) is said to satisfy the Weak Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle iff for every pair of projections A∈ $\mathcal{A}$ (V 1 ), B∈ $\mathcal{A}$ (V 2 ) correlated in the normal state φ there exists a projection (...)
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  15. Gordon Liu (2013). Impacts of Instrumental Versus Relational Centered Logic on Cause-Related Marketing Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):243-263.score: 24.0
    The purpose of cause-related marketing is to capitalise on a firm’s social engagement initiatives to achieve a positive return on a firm’s social investment. This article discusses two strategic perspectives of cause-related marketing and their impact on a firm’s decision-making regarding campaign development. The instrumental dominant logic of cause-related marketing focuses on attracting customers’ attention in order to generate sales. The relational dominant logic of cause-related marketing focuses on building relationships with the target stakeholders through the (...)
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  16. Claudio Mazzola (2013). Correlations, Deviations and Expectations: The Extended Principle of the Common Cause. Synthese 190 (14):2853-2866.score: 24.0
    The Principle of the Common Cause is usually understood to provide causal explanations for probabilistic correlations obtaining between causally unrelated events. In this study, an extended interpretation of the principle is proposed, according to which common causes should be invoked to explain positive correlations whose values depart from the ones that one would expect to obtain in accordance to her probabilistic expectations. In addition, a probabilistic model for common causes is tailored which satisfies the generalized version of the principle, (...)
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  17. Leszek Wroński & Michał Marczyk (2010). Only Countable Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems Exist. Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1155-1160.score: 24.0
    In this paper we give a positive answer to a problem posed by Hofer-Szabó and Rédei (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 43:1819–1826, 2004) regarding the existence of infinite Reichenbachian common cause systems (RCCSs). An example of a countably infinite RCCS is presented. It is also determined that no RCCSs of greater cardinality exist.
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  18. Gábor Hofer-Szabó (2007). Separate- Versus Common -Common-Cause-Type Derivations of the Bell Inequalities. Synthese 163 (2):199 - 215.score: 24.0
    Standard derivations of the Bell inequalities assume a common common cause system that is a common screener-off for all correlations and some additional assumptions concerning locality and no-conspiracy. In a recent paper (Grasshoff et al., 2005) Bell inequalities have been derived via separate common causes assuming perfect correlations between the events. In the paper it will be shown that the assumptions of this separate-common-cause-type derivation of the Bell inequalities in the case of perfect correlations can be reduced to (...)
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  19. Claudio Mazzola (2012). Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems Revisited. Foundations of Physics 42 (4):512-523.score: 24.0
    According to Reichenbach’s principle of common cause, positive statistical correlations for which no straightforward causal explanation is available should be explained by invoking the action of a hidden conjunctive common cause. Hofer-Szabó and Rédei’s notion of a Reichenbachian common cause system is meant to generalize Reichenbach’s conjunctive fork model to fit those cases in which two or more common causes cooperate in order to produce a positive statistical correlation. Such a generalization is proved to be unsatisfactory in (...)
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  20. Gordon Liu, Catherine Liston-Heyes & Wai-Wai Ko (2010). Employee Participation in Cause-Related Marketing Strategies: A Study of Management Perceptions From British Consumer Service Industries. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):195 - 210.score: 24.0
    The purpose of cause-related marketing (CRM) is to publicise and capitalise on a firm's corporate social performance (CSP) by enhancing its legitimacy in the eyes of its stakeholders. This study focuses on the firm's internal stakeholders - i.e. its employees - and the extent of their involvement in the selection of social campaigns. Whilst the difficulties of managing a firm that has lost or damaged its legitimacy in the eyes of its employees are well known, little is understood about (...)
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  21. Graham Parsons (2013). What is the Classical Theory of Just Cause? A Response to Reichberg. Journal of Military Ethics 12 (4):357-369.score: 24.0
    Gregory Reichberg’s argument against my reading of the classical just war theorists falsely assumes that if just cause is unilateral, then there is no moral equality of combatants. This assumption is plausible if we assume an individualist framework. However, the classical theorists accepted quasi-Aristotelian, communitarian social ontologies and theories of justice. For them, the political community is ontologically and morally prior to the private individual. The classical just war theorists build their theories within this framework. They argue that just (...)
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  22. Gordon Liu & Wai-Wai Ko (2011). An Analysis of Cause-Related Marketing Implementation Strategies Through Social Alliance: Partnership Conditions and Strategic Objectives. Journal of Business Ethics 100 (2):253-281.score: 24.0
    Cause-related marketing (CRM) is an effective marketing tool for promoting corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and the bulk of campaigns are designed and delivered through collaborative 'social' alliances with non-profit organisations (NPOs). The authors seek to uncover some of the factors that explain how firms and NPOs choose their potential partners in the development of their CRM strategy. The rationales for the observed patterns are investigated through semistructured interviews conducted with managers employed by the UK-based firms and NPOs. The (...)
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  23. Joëlle Vanhamme, Adam Lindgreen, Jon Reast & Nathalie van Popering (2012). To Do Well by Doing Good: Improving Corporate Image Through Cause-Related Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 109 (3):259-274.score: 24.0
    As part of their corporate social responsibility, many organizations practice cause-related marketing, in which organizations donate to a chosen cause with every consumer purchase. The extant literature has identified the importance of the fit between the organization and the nature of the cause in influencing corporate image, as well as the influence of a connection between the cause and consumer preferences on brand attitudes and brand choice. However, prior research has not addressed which cause composition (...)
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  24. Iñaki San Pedro & Mauricio Suárez (2009). Reichenbach’s Common Cause Principle and Indeterminism: A Review. In José Luis González Recio (ed.), Philosophical Essays on Physics and Biology. Georg Olms Verlag. 223-250.score: 24.0
    We offer a review of some of the most influential views on the status of Reichenbach’s Principle of the Common Cause (RPCC) for genuinely indeterministic systems. We first argue that the RPCC is properly a conjunction of two distinct claims, one metaphysical and another methodological. Both claims can and have been contested in the literature, but here we simply assume that the metaphysical claim is correct, in order to focus our analysis on the status of the methodological claim. We (...)
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  25. Aaron Smuts (2013). Reply to Elliott: In Defense of the Good Cause Account. Film and Philosophy 17:47-57.score: 24.0
    Jay Elliott raises an important objection to the central claim of my paper "It’s a Wonderful Life: Pottersville and the Meaning of Life.” There I defend the good cause account (GCA) of the meaning of life. GCA holds that one's life is meaningful to the extent that one is causally responsible for objective good. Elliott argues that although GCA correctly implies that George Bailey lives a meaningful life, it might also imply that Potter's life is meaningful. But this is (...)
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  26. Rich Cameron (2003). The Ontology of Aristotle's Final Cause. Apeiron 35 (2):153-79.score: 22.0
    Modern philosophy is, for what appear to be good reasons, uniformly hostile to sui generis final causes. And motivated to develop philosophically and scientifically plausible interpretations, scholars have increasingly offered reductivist and eliminitivist accounts of Aristotle's teleological commitment. This trend in contemporary scholarship is misguided. We have strong grounds to believe Aristotle accepted unreduced sui generis teleology, and reductivist and eliminitivist accounts face insurmountable textual and philosophical difficulties. We offer Aristotelians cold comfort by replacing his apparent view with failed accounts. (...)
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  27. Lisa Gannett (1999). What's in a Cause?: The Pragmatic Dimensions of Genetic Explanations. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (3):349-373.score: 22.0
    The paper argues for a pragmatic account of genetic explanation. This is to say that when a disease or other trait is termed genetic, the reasons for singling out genes as causes over other, also necessary, genetic and nongenetic conditions are not wholly theoretical but include pragmatic dimensions. Whether the explanation is the presence of a trait in an individual or differences in a trait among individuals, genetic explanations are context-dependent in three ways: they are relative to a causal background (...)
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  28. Sydney Shoemaker (2004). Identity, Cause, and Mind: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    Since the appearance of a widely influential book, Self-Knowledge and Self-ldentity, Sydney Shoemaker has continued to work on a series of interrelated issues in the philosophy of mind and metaphysics. This volume contains a collection of the most important essays he has published since then. The topics that he deals with here include, among others, the nature of personal and other forms of identity, the relation of time to change, the nature of properties and causality and the relation between the (...)
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  29. Donald Davidson (1995). Laws and Cause. Dialectica 49 (2-4):263-79.score: 21.0
  30. Simon Burgess (2012). Newcomb's Problem and its Conditional Evidence: A Common Cause of Confusion. Synthese 184 (3):319-339.score: 21.0
    This paper aims to make three contributions to decision theory. First there is the hope that it will help to re-establish the legitimacy of the problem, pace various recent analyses provided by Maitzen and Wilson, Slezak and Priest. Second, after pointing out that analyses of the problem have generally relied upon evidence that is conditional on the taking of one particular option, this paper argues that certain assumptions implicit in those analyses are subtly flawed. As a third contribution, the piece (...)
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  31. Mariusz Tabaczek (2013). The Metaphysics of Downward Causation: Rediscovering the Formal Cause. Zygon 48 (2):380-404.score: 21.0
    The methodological nonreductionism of contemporary biology opens an interesting discussion on the level of ontology and the philosophy of nature. The theory of emergence (EM), and downward causation (DC) in particular, bring a new set of arguments challenging not only methodological, but also ontological and causal reductionism. This argumentation provides a crucial philosophical foundation for the science/theology dialogue. However, a closer examination shows that proponents of EM do not present a unified and consistent definition of DC. Moreover, they find it (...)
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  32. John Lachs (1963). Epiphenomenalism and the Notion of Cause. Journal of Philosophy 60 (March):141-45.score: 21.0
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  33. Dave Elder-Vass (2005). Emergence and the Realist Account of Cause. Journal of Critical Realism 4 (2):315-338.score: 21.0
    This paper aims to improve critical realism's understanding of emergence by discussing, first, what emergence is and how it works; second, the need for a compositional account of emergence; and third, the implications of emergence for causation. It goes on to argue that the theory of emergence leads to the recognition of certain hitherto neglected similarities between real causal powers and actual causation. (edited).
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  34. Jenny Teichman (1961). Mental Cause and Effect. Mind 70 (January):36-52.score: 21.0
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  35. Nigel Mackay (1999). Reason, Cause, and Rationality in Psychological Explanation. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):1-21.score: 21.0
  36. Steffen Ducheyne (2011). Newton on Action at a Distance and the Cause of Gravity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):154-159.score: 21.0
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  37. Roger A. Shiner (1975). Wilson on Emotion, Object, and Cause. Metaphilosophy 6 (January):72-96.score: 21.0
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  38. Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2006). Inherence and the Immanent Cause in Spinoza. Leibniz Review 16:43-52.score: 21.0
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  39. Steven Sloman, Aron K. Barbey & Jared M. Hotaling (2009). A Causal Model Theory of the Meaning of Cause, Enable, and Prevent. Cognitive Science 33 (1):21-50.score: 21.0
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  40. Matthias Egg & Michael Esfeld (2014). Non-Local Common Cause Explanations for EPR. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2):181-196.score: 20.0
    The paper argues that a causal explanation of the correlated outcomes of EPR-type experiments is desirable and possible. It shows how Bohmian mechanics and the GRW mass density theory offer such an explanation in terms of a non-local common cause.
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  41. David Haig (2014). Fighting the Good Cause: Meaning, Purpose, Difference, and Choice. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):675-697.score: 20.0
    Concepts of cause, choice, and information are closely related. A cause is a choice that can be held responsible. It is a difference that makes a difference. Information about past causes and their effects is a valuable commodity because it can be used to guide future choices. Information about criteria of choice is generated by choosing a subset from an ensemble for ‘reasons’ and has meaning for an interpreter when it is used to achieve an end. Natural selection (...)
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  42. Benjamin Smart, A Critique of Humean and Anti-Humean Metaphysics of Cause and Law.score: 18.0
    This book is written by someone who holds that physics and the metaphysics of cause and law broadly strive to achieve a common goal: to undstand what our physical system is constituted by, and both how, and why it evolves in the way that it does. It seems to me that the primary tools of the scientist are empirical evidence, mathematics, and although this is perhaps less appreciated, imagination - these are fundamental to any great scientific breakthrough. For us, (...)
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  43. Benjamin Smart, A Critique of Humean and Anti-Humean Metaphysics of Cause and Law - Final Version.score: 18.0
    Metaphysicians play an important role in our understanding of the universe. In recent years, physicists have focussed on finding accurate mathematical formalisms of the evolution of our physical system - if a metaphysician can uncover the metaphysical underpinnings of these formalisms; that is, why these formalisms seem to consistently map the universe, then our understanding of the world and the things in it is greatly enhanced. Science, then, plays a very important role in our project, as the best scientific formalisms (...)
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  44. Aaron Smuts (2013). The Good Cause Account of the Meaning of Life. Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (4):536-562.score: 18.0
    I defend the theory that one's life is meaningful to the extent that one promotes the good. Call this the good cause account (GCA) of the meaning of life. It holds that the good effects that count towards the meaning of one's life need not be intentional. Nor must one be aware of the effects. Nor does it matter whether the same good would have resulted if one had not existed. What matters is that one is causally responsible for (...)
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  45. Mauricio Suarez, Experimental Realism Defended: How Inference to the Most Likely Cause Might Be Sound.score: 18.0
    On a purely epistemic understanding of experimental realism, manipulation affords a particularly robust kind of causal warrant, which is – like any other warrant – defeasible. I defend a version of Nancy Cartwright’s inference to the most likely cause, and I conclude that this minimally epistemic version of experimental realism is a coherent, adequate and plausible epistemology for science.
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  46. Mauricio Suárez, Experimental Realism Defended : How Inference to the Most Likely Cause Might Be Sound.score: 18.0
    On a purely epistemic understanding of experimental realism, manipulation affords a particularly robust kind of causal warrant, which is – like any other warrant – defeasible. I defend a version of Nancy Cartwright’s inference to the most likely cause, and I conclude that this minimally epistemic version of experimental realism is a coherent, adequate and plausible epistemology for science.
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  47. Diego Fernandez-Duque (2002). Cause and Effect Theories of Attention: The Role of Conceptual Metaphors. Review of General Psychology 6 (2):153-165.score: 18.0
    Scientific concepts are defined by metaphors. These metaphors determine what atten- tion is and what count as adequate explanations of the phenomenon. The authors analyze these metaphors within 3 types of attention theories: (a) --cause-- theories, in which attention is presumed to modulate information processing (e.g., attention as a spotlight; attention as a limited resource); (b) --effect-- theories, in which attention is considered to be a by-product of information processing (e.g., the competition meta- phor); and (c) hybrid theories that (...)
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  48. Stephen Yablo (1992). Cause and Essence. Synthese 93 (3):403 - 449.score: 18.0
    Essence and causation are fundamental in metaphysics, but little is said about their relations. Some essential properties are of course causal, as it is essential to footprints to have been caused by feet. But I am interested less in causation's role in essence than the reverse: the bearing a thing's essence has on its causal powers. That essencemight make a causal contribution is hinted already by the counterfactual element in causation; and the hint is confirmed by the explanation essence offers (...)
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  49. Steffen Ducheyne (2006). Galileo's Interventionist Notion of "Cause&Quot. Journal of the History of Ideas 67 (3):443-464.score: 18.0
    In this essay, I shall take up the theme of Galileo’s notion of cause, which has already received considerable attention. I shall argue that the participants in the debate as it stands have overlooked a striking and essential feature of Galileo’s notion of cause. Galileo not only reformed natural philosophy, he also – as I shall defend – introduced a new notion of causality and integrated it in his scientific practice (hence, this new notion also has its methodological (...)
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  50. James F. Woodward & Thomas Mahood (1999). What is the Cause of Inertia? Foundations of Physics 29 (6):899-930.score: 18.0
    The question of the cause of inertial reaction forces and the validity of “Mach's principle” are investigated. A recent claim that the cause of inertial reaction forces can be attributed to an interaction of the electrical charge of elementary particles with the hypothetical quantum mechanical “zero-point” fluctuation electromagnetic field is shown to be untenable. It fails to correspond to reality because the coupling of electric charge to the electromagnetic field cannot be made to mimic plausibly the universal coupling (...)
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