Search results for 'Cerebral' (try it on Scholar)

564 found
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  1.  65
    Lucina Q. Uddin, Jan Rayman & Eran Zaidel (2005). Split-Brain Reveals Separate but Equal Self-Recognition in the Two Cerebral Hemispheres. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):633-640.
    To assess the ability of the disconnected cerebral hemispheres to recognize images of the self, a split-brain patient was tested using morphed self-face images presented to one visual hemifield at a time while making “self/other” judgments. The performance of the right and left hemispheres of this patient as assessed by a signal detection method was not significantly different, though a measure of bias did reveal hemispheric differences. The right and left hemispheres of this patient independently and equally possessed (...)
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  2.  14
    Stephen C. Fowler (2000). Behavioral Tolerance (Contingent Tolerance) Ismediated in Part by Variations in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. Brain and Mind 1 (1):45-57.
    Concepts and experimental results taken frombehavioral pharmacology, functional brain imaging,brain physiology, and behavioral neuroscience, wereused to develop the hypothesis that behavioraltolerance can, in part, be attributed to cellulartolerance. It is argued that task specific activationof circumscribed neuronal populations gives rise tocorresponding increases in regional cerebral bloodflow such that neurons related to task performance areexposed to higher effective doses of blood-borne drugthan neuronal groups not highly activated by thebehavioral task. Through this cerebral hemodynamicregulatory mechanism cellular tolerance phenomena canat least (...)
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  3.  24
    Sigrid Schmitz (2012). The Neurotechnological Cerebral Subject: Persistence of Implicit and Explicit Gender Norms in a Network of Change. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 5 (3):261-274.
    Abstract Under the realm of neurocultures the concept of the cerebral subject emerges as the central category to define the self, socio-cultural interaction and behaviour. The brain is the reference for explaining cognitive processes and behaviour but at the same time the plastic brain is situated in current paradigms of (self)optimization on the market of meritocracy by means of neurotechnologies. This paper explores whether neurotechnological apparatuses may—due to their hybridity and malleability—bear potentials for a change in gender based attributions (...)
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  4.  7
    Louise Bøttcher (2010). An Eye for Possibilities in the Development of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Neurobiology and Neuropsychology in a Cultural-Historical Dynamic Understanding. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 12 (1):3-23.
    Taking children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) as an example, the article seeks an understanding of children with disabilities that connects neuropsychological theories of neural development with the situated cognition perspective and the child as an active participant in its social practices. The early brain lesion of CP is reconceptualised as a neurobiological constraint that exists in the relations between the neural, cognitive and social levels. Through a multi-method study of two children with CP, it is analysed how neurobiological constraints (...)
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  5. Dan Ryder & Oleg Favorov (2001). The New Associationism: A Neural Explanation of the Predictive Powers of the Cerebral Cortex. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 2 (2):161-194.
    The ability to predict is the most importantability of the brain. Somehow, the cortex isable to extract regularities from theenvironment and use those regularities as abasis for prediction. This is a most remarkableskill, considering that behaviourallysignificant environmental regularities are noteasy to discern: they operate not only betweenpairs of simple environmental conditions, astraditional associationism has assumed, butamong complex functions of conditions that areorders of complexity removed from raw sensoryinputs. We propose that the brain's basicmechanism for discovering such complexregularities is implemented in (...)
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  6.  54
    Lawrence H. Davis (1997). Cerebral Hemispheres. Philosophical Studies 87 (2):207-22.
  7.  64
    Marcel Kinsbourne (2000). How is Consciousness Expressed in the Cerebral Activation Manifold? Brain and Mind 1 (2):265-74.
    I dispute that consciousness is generated by core circuitry in the forebrain, with predominance of motor areas, as Cotterillproposes in Enchanted Looms and other theorists do also. Ipropose instead that conscious contents are the momentary modeof action of the integrated cortical field, expressed as a point vector ( dominant focus ), to which, in varying degree, allsectors of the network contribute. Consciousness is the brain''saccess to its own activity space, and is identical with the moment''sdominant mode of activity. The dominant (...)
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  8.  2
    S. I. Franz (1933). The Inadequacy of the Concept of Unilateral Cerebral Dominance in Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (6):873.
  9.  2
    F. O. Smith (1938). An Experimental Study of the Reaction Time of the Cerebral Hemispheres in Relation to Handedness and Eyedness. Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (1):75.
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  10.  3
    G. A. Kelly (1935). Some Observations on the Relation of the Principle of Physiological Polarity and Symmetry and the Doctrine of Cerebral Dominance to the Perception of Symbols. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (2):202.
  11.  2
    Alberto Barbieri, Cristina Pinna, Gian Paolo Basso, Rosella Molinari, Enrico Giuliani, Luca Fruggeri & Massimo Nolli (2009). Specificity and Reliability of Prognostic Indexes in Intensive Care Evaluation: The Spontaneous Cerebral Haemorrhage Case. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (2):242-245.
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  12.  2
    A. L. Loomis, E. N. Harvey & G. A. Hobart (1937). Cerebral States During Sleep, as Studied by Human Brain Potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (2):127.
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  13.  2
    J. A. Gengerelli (1948). Apparent Movement in Relation to Homonymous and Heteronymous Stimulation of the Cerebral Hemispheres. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (5):592.
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  14.  2
    Karl U. Smith (1947). Bilateral Integrative Action of the Cerebral Cortex in Man in Verbal Association and Sensori-Motor Coordination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (5):367.
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  15.  2
    J. W. Nygard (1939). Cerebral Circulation Prevailing During Sleep and Hypnosis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (1):1.
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  16.  1
    J. R. Knott (1939). Some Effects of 'Mental Set' on the Electrophysiological Processes of the Human Cerebral Cortex. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (4):384.
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  17. Shepherd Ivory Franz (1916). On Certain Fluctuations in Cerebral Function in Aphasics. Journal of Experimental Psychology 1 (4):355.
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  18. H. H. Jasper, C. S. Bridgman & L. Carmichael (1937). An Ontogenetic Study of Cerebral Electrical Potentials in the Guinea Pig. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (1):63.
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  19. D. B. Lindsley (1940). Bilateral Differences in Brain Potentials From the Two Cerebral Hemispheres in Relation to Laterality and Stuttering. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (2):211.
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  20. Benjamin W. Libet (1985). Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):529-66.
    Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about200 ms. Control experiments, in which a skin stimulus was timed (S), helped evaluate each subject's error in reporting the clock times for awareness of any perceived event.
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  21.  76
    Arnaud Destrebecqz, Philippe Peigneux, Steven Laureys, Christian Degueldre, Guy Del Fiore, Joel Aerts, Andre Luxen, Martial van der Linden, Axel Cleeremans & Pierre Maquet (2003). Cerebral Correlates of Explicit Sequence Learning. Cognitive Brain Research 16 (3):391-398.
    Using positron emission tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements, we investigated the cerebral correlates of consciousness in a sequence learning task through a novel application of the Process Dissociation Procedure, a behavioral paradigm that makes it possible to separately assess conscious and unconscious contributions to performance. Results show that the metabolic response in the anterior cingulate / mesial prefrontal cortex (ACC / MPFC) is exclusively and specifically correlated with the explicit component of performance during recollection (...)
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  22.  10
    Lucina Q. Uddin (2011). Brain Connectivity and the Self: The Case of Cerebral Disconnection. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):94.
    Over the past several years, the study of self-related cognition has garnered increasing interest amongst psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists. Concomitantly, lesion and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the importance of intact cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections for supporting high-level cognitive functions. Commissurotomy or “split-brain” patients provide unique insights into the role of the cerebral commissures in maintaining an individual’s sense of self, as well as into the unique self-representation capabilities of each cerebral hemisphere. Here we review empirical work examining the (...)
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  23.  17
    Andrew B. Newberg, Nancy Wintering, Mark R. Waldman, Daniel Amen, Dharma S. Khalsa & Abass Alavi (2010). Cerebral Blood Flow Differences Between Long-Term Meditators and Non-Meditators. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):899-905.
    We have studied a number of long-term meditators in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in baseline brain function of experienced meditators compared to non-meditators. All subjects were recruited as part of an ongoing study of different meditation practices. We evaluated 12 advanced meditators and 14 non-meditators with cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging at rest. Images were analyzed with both region of interest and statistical parametric mapping. The CBF of long-term meditators (...)
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  24.  24
    Axel Cleeremans, Learned Material Content and Acquisition Level Modulate Cerebral Reactivation During Posttraining Rapid-Eye-Movements Sleep.
    We have previously shown that several brain areas are activated both during sequence learning at wake and during subsequent rapid-eye-movements (REM) sleep (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 831– 836), suggesting that REM sleep participates in the reprocessing of recent memory traces in humans. However, the nature of the reprocessed information remains open. Here, we show that regional cerebral reactivation during posttraining REM sleep is not merely related to the acquisition of basic visuomotor skills during prior practice of the serial reaction (...)
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  25.  10
    S. Goldman, Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Akinetic Catatonia and After Remission.
    K L Kahlbaum published in 1874 the first recorded description of catatonia. Akinetic catatonia is now defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome principally characterised by akinesia, mutism, stupor, and catalepsy. 1 Even if some advances have been made in the recognition of catatonia, in particular by the development of different rating scales, 1 the pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clearly established. A right handed 14 year old girl presented with akinetic catatonia during an episode of depression in the context of (...)
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  26.  18
    Christophe Phillips, The Effect of Clonidine Infusion on Distribution of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Volunteers.
    BACKGROUND: Through their action on the locus coeruleus, ␣ 2-adrenoceptor agonists induce rapidly reversible sedation while partially preserving cognitive brain functions. Our goal in this observational study was to map brain regions whose activity is modified by clonidine infusion so as to better understand its loci of action, especially in relation to sedation. METHODS: Six ASA I–II right-handed volunteers were recruited. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was monitored continuously. After a baseline H215O activation scan, clonidine infusion was started at a rate ranging from (...)
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  27.  29
    Janniko R. Georgiadis (2012). Doing It . . . Wild? On the Role of the Cerebral Cortex in Human Sexual Activity. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.
    Background: We like to think about sexual activity as something fixed, basic and primal. However, this does not seem to fully capture reality. Even when we relish sex, we may be capable of mentalizing, talking, voluntarily postponing orgasm, and much more. This might indicate that the central control mechanisms of sexual activity are quite flexible and susceptible to learning mechanisms, and that cortical brain areas play a critical part. Objective: This study aimed to identify those cortical areas and mechanisms most (...)
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  28.  15
    E. A. Maguire (1997). The Cerebral Representation of Space: Insights From Functional Imaging Data. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (2):62-68.
    Functional imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, present a unique opportunity to examine, in humans, the cerebral representation of space in vivo. Space is ubiquitous and not a unitary phenomenon, and the brain uses visual, vestibular and proprioceptive inputs to produce multiple representations of space subserving spatial cognition, ranging from gaze control to remembering multiple complex large-scale environments. Functional imaging studies have shown the importance of the parietal cortex in perceptual, motor, attention and (...)
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  29. M. Kinsbourne (1974). Cerebral Control and Mental Evolution. In Marcel Kinsbourne & W. Smith (eds.), Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Charles C 286--289.
     
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  30. Jerre Levy (1974). Cerebral Asymmetries as Manifested in Split-Brain Man. In Marcel Kinsbourne & W. Smith (eds.), Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Charles C
     
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  31.  21
    Timothy J. Crow (2005). The Cerebral Torque and Directional Asymmetry for Hand Use Are Correlates of the Capacity for Language in Homo Sapiens. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):595-596.
    The claim of consistent hemispheric specialisations across classes of chordates is undermined by the absence of population-based directional asymmetry of paw/hand use in rodents and primates. No homologue of the cerebral torque from right frontal to left occipital has been established in a nonhuman species. The null hypothesis that the torque is the sapiens-specific neural basis of language has not been disproved.
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  32.  23
    Eike-Henner W. Kluge (1984). Cerebral Death. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (2).
    The notion of cerebral death is examined in relation to those of cardiopulmonary and whole-brain death. It is argued that rather than being a new concept of death, it is merely a new criterion that leaves the old concept — death as loss of personhood — intact. The argument begins on a theoretical level with the distinction between criteria and concepts, places both into context with the notion of a conceptual framework in its relation to empirical reality, and then (...)
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  33.  18
    R. W. Kentridge (1999). When is Information Represented Explicitly in Blindsight and Cerebral Achromatopsia? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):156-157.
    Discrimination of forms defined solely by color and discrimination of hue are dissociated in cerebral achromatopsia. Both must be based on potentially explicit information derived from differentially color-sensitive photoreceptors, yet only one gives rise to phenomenal experience of color. By analogy, visual information may be used to form explicit representations for action without giving rise to any phenomenal experience other than that of making the action.
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  34.  12
    Yves Burnod (1991). Organizational Levels of the Cerebral Cortex: An Integrated Model. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (3-4):351-361.
    We propose a theoretical model of the cerebral cortex which is based on its cellular components and integrates its different levels of organization: (1) cells have general adaptive and memorization properties; (2) cortical columns are repetitive interneuronal circuits which determine an adaptive processing specific to the cerebral cortex; (3) cortical maps effect selective combinations which are very efficient to learn basic behaviourial adaptations such as invariant recognition of forms, visually-guided hand movements, or execution of structured motor programs; (4) (...)
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  35.  12
    N. Galldiks, A. Thiel, C. Haense, G. R. Fink & R. Hilker (2008). 11 C-Flumazenil Positron Emission Tomography Demonstrates Reduction of Both Global and Local Cerebral Benzodiazepine Receptor Binding in a Patient with Stiff Person Syndrome. Journal of Neurology 255 (9).
    Stiff Person Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder associated with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase, the key enzyme in γ -aminobutyric acid synthesis. In order to investigate the role of cerebral benzodiazepinereceptor binding in SPS, we performed [ 11 C]flumazenil positron emission tomography in a female patient with SPS compared to nine healthy controls. FMZ is a radioligand to the postsynaptic central benzodiazepine receptor which is co-localized with the GABA-A receptor. In the SPS patient, we found a global reduction (...)
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  36.  4
    Robert William Kentridge (2007). Incomplete Stimulus Representations and the Loss of Cognitive Access in Cerebral Achromatopsia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):508-509.
    When processing of stimuli occurs without attention, phenomenal experience, as well as cognitive access, may be lost. Sensory representations are, however, constructed by neural machinery extending far beyond sensory receptors. In conditions such as cerebral achromatopsia incomplete sensory representations may still elicit phenomenal experience but these representations might be too aberrant to be integrated into the wider cognitive workspace.
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  37.  3
    T. J. Crow (1996). All Sex Differences in Cognitive Ability May Be Explained by an X-Y Homologous Gene Determining Degrees of Cerebral Asymmetry. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):249-250.
    Male superiority in mathematical ability (along with female superiority in verbal fluency) may reflect the operation of an X-Y homologous gene (the right-shift-factor) influencing the relative rates of development of the cerebral hemispheres. Alleles at the locus on the Y chromosome will be selected at a later mean age than alleles on the X, and only by females.
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  38.  6
    Onur Güntürkün (2005). Darwin's Legacy and the Evolution of Cerebral Asymmetries. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):599-600.
    Vallortigara & Rogers (V&R) assume that the alignment of escape responses in gregarious species is the central evolutionary organizer of a wide range of cerebral asymmetries. Although it is indeed likely that the benefits of a population asymmetry in social species outweigh its costs, it is hard to see (a) why the population should not oscillate between two subgroups with mirror-image asymmetries, (b) why solitary animals should keep their inherited population asymmetry despite a resulting fitness reduction, and (c) and (...)
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  39.  6
    Jechil Sieratzki & Bencie Woll (2005). Cerebral Asymmetry: From Survival Strategies to Social Behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):613-614.
    We describe a possible link between coordinated lateralised group behaviour serving species survival in lower vertebrates and a striking lateralisation phenomenon found in human social behaviour: the universal preference for cradling a young infant on the left side. Our exploration offers a different perspective on the role of cerebral asymmetry for the survival of both the individual and the species.
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  40.  1
    William O'Grady (2000). Language, Mathematics, and Cerebral Distinctness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):45-45.
    The cerebral distinctness of the linguistic and mathematical faculties does not entail their functional independence. Approaches to language that posit a common foundation for the two make claims about design features, not location, and are thus not affected by the finding that one ability can be spared by a neurological accident that compromises the other.
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  41. Glenn Austin, W. Hayward & S. Rouhe (1974). A Note on the Problem of Conscious Man and Cerebral Disconnection by Hemispherectomy. In Marcel Kinsbourne & W. Smith (eds.), Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Charles C
     
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  42. George Austin, William Hayward & Stanley Rouhe (1974). A Note on the Problem of Conscious Man and Cerebral Disconnection by Hemispherectomy. In Marcel Kinsbourne & W. Smith (eds.), Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Charles C 95.
     
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  43.  12
    William H. Calvin (1996). The Cerebral Code. MIT Press.
    In "The Cerebral Code," he has solidly embedded his ideas in experimental neurophysiology and neuropharmacology, deriving from his decades in the laboratory.
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  44. John C. Eccles (1987). The Effect of Silent Thinking on the Cerebral Cortex. In B. Gulyas (ed.), The Brain-Mind Problem: Philosophical and Neurophysiological Approaches. Leuven University Press
    The materialist critics argue that insuperable difficulties are encountered by the hypothesis that immaterial mental events such as thinking can act in any way on material structures such as neurons of the cerebral cortex, as is diagrammed in Fig. 8. Such a presumed action is alleged to be incompatible with the conservation laws of physics, in particular of the First Law of Thermodynamics. This objection would certainly be sustained by 19th century physicists and by neuroscientists and philosophers who are (...)
     
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  45. I. Chapter Xiv (1974). Cerebral Control and Mental Evolution. In Marcel Kinsbourne & W. Smith (eds.), Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Charles C 286.
     
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  46.  85
    Benjamin Libet, C. Gleason, E. Wright & D. Pearl (1983). Time of Conscious Intention to Act in Relation to Onset of Cerebral Activity (Readiness-Potential). The Unconscious Initiation of a Freely Voluntary Act. Brain 106:623--664.
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  47.  85
    Stanislas Dehaene, Lionel Naccache, L. Jonathan Cohen, Denis Le Bihan, Jean-Francois Mangin, Jean-Baptiste Poline & Denis Rivière (2001). Cerebral Mechanisms of Word Masking and Unconscious Repetition Priming. Nature Neuroscience 4 (7):752-758.
  48.  73
    William H. Calvin (1990). The Cerebral Symphony: Seashore Reflections on the Structure of Consciousness. Bantam.
  49.  6
    P. E. Roland (1978). Sensory Feedback to the Cerebral Cortex During Voluntary Movement in Man. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):129.
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  50. P. A. Buser & A. Rougeul-Buser (1978). Cerebral Correlates of Conscious Experience. Elsevier.
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