All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public (...) as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19 th to the first half of the 20 th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective. Content Type Journal Article Pages 20-26 Authors Güvercin CH, Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, Ankara University Health Sciences Institute, Turkey Arda B, School of Medicine, Ankara University, Turkey Journal Human Reproduction & Genetic Ethics Online ISSN 2043-0469 Print ISSN 1028-7825 Journal Volume Volume 14 Journal Issue Volume 14, Number 2 / 2008. (shrink)
Ai Ssu-ch'i is a little known but very important figure in the introduction of Marxism-Leninism into China. This first article provides a brief biography of Ai Ssu-ch'i as well as a detailed account of his activities as teacher, author and propagandist. Among his other services to the cause of Marxism-Leninism in China, one has to stress Ai Ssu-ch'i's systematic opposition to Yeh Ch'ing and to the non-Communist interpretation of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People. (cf.SST 10 (1970), 138–166.).
In Ai Ssu-ch'i is exemplified and substantiated the Soviet influence on the official definition of philosophy in the history of Communist Party of China, i.e., the assertion about and the method for knowledge of the world. Such a philosophical knowledge has as its formal object the most fundamental laws of the universe.In order to acquire such a genuine philosophical knowledge, one needs a desire to change the world and a proletarian point of view. For only by aiming at changing (...) the world is inevitability reflected; only in the proletarian viewpoint are the objective laws reflected. In order to substantiate these assertions, one has to point out that, first, man's thinking is determined by his social relations (economic relationships) and, secondly, social relations are determined by practice. Since the proletariat is in the right kind of practice, it is both in the proper locus of social relations and, therefore, it perceives both inevitability and objectivity. Yet, due to man's subjective dynamism, it is possible for other classes to adopt the standpoint of the proletariat. (shrink)
How the Tao applies to the ecological understanding of the human environment for the purpose of human well-being as well as for the hannony of nature is an interesting and crucial issue for both environmentalists and philosophers of the Tao. I formulate five basic axioms for an environmental ethic of the Tao: (1) the axiom of total interpenetration; (2) the axiom of self-transformation; (3) the axiom of creative spontaneity; (4) the axiom of a will not to will; and (5) the (...) axiom of non-attaching attachment. I show that each axiom generates important consequences for environmental ethics and that together they provide a necessary foundation for environmental ethics. (shrink)
Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A vinda da Ordem Redentorista para o estado de Goiás, em 1894, revela um contexto político, econômico e religioso peculiar vivido pelo estado, em que, com o fim do regime de padroado, o controle das romarias populares, tanto quanto das manifestações religiosas não-católicas, foram de fundamental importância para a manutenção da hegemonia católica local. O papel desempenhado pelos redentoristas em Goiás, tanto no controle da romaria de Trindade, quanto no combate às religiões e (...) religiosidades não-católicas, teve importante reflexo na edição do jornal “Santuário da Trindade”, através do qual os religiosos incentivavam a participação popular na romaria, e, especialmente, intentavam a formação catequética dos fiéis católicos contra as “falsas religiões”. Este posicionamento redentorista diante das demais religiões, a partir do referido jornal, não condiz, no entanto, com as posições adotadas pelos religiosos da primeira geração, vinda ao estado em 1894, o que nos remete a mudanças significativas em sua postura política e religiosa que merecem ser interrogadas e investigadas. Destarte, o presente artigo objetiva uma análise histórica das mudanças de posicionamento da Ordem Redentorista em Goiás nas primeiras décadas do período pós-padroado, tomando como principal objeto de pesquisa o jornal “Santuário da Trindade”, publicado entre 1922 e 1931. Palavras-chave: Ultramontanismo. Ordem Redentorista. Goiás.The coming of the Redemptorist Order to the State of Goiás, in Brazil, in 1894, reveals a political, economic and religious peculiar context lived by the State. The end of the system of patronage and the control of popular pilgrimages, like non-Catholic religious manifestations, were of fundamental importance for the maintenance of local Catholic hegemony. The role played by the Redemptorists in Goiás, in the control of the pilgrimage of the Trinity or in conflict with non-Catholic religions and beliefs, influenced the journal "Santuário da Trindade", through which the Catholics encouraged popular participation in the pilgrimage, and especially encouraged the catechetical formation of Catholics against the so called "false religions”. Such positioning was contrary to the positions adopted by the religious of the first generation that arrived in Goiás in the year of 1894, which refers to significant changes in religious and political diverse posture that deserve to be questioned and investigated. Thus, this article aims to examine the positioning changes of the Redemptorist Order in Goiás in the first decades of the pós-padroado period, taking as its principal object the research journal "Shrine of the Trinity", published between 1922 and 1931. Keywords : Ultramontanism. Redemptorist Order. Goiás. (shrink)
O Comentário ao Liber De Causis pertence à última fase das obras de Santo Tomás. Foi escrito, com toda segurança, no primeiro semestre de 1272, em Paris, como testemunha uma cópia parisiense da obra. O De Causis trata das primeiras causas das coisas, que estão constituídas em três ordens, e da distinção e dependência das causas entre si. O texto de Santo Tomás segue passo a passo as proposições em que a obra se divide, que são trinta e duas. Estas (...) trinta de duas proposições são verdadeiros capítulos desenvolvidos a partir de uma tese central. Santo Tomás expõem-nas a modo de lições. (shrink)