120 found
Sort by:
See also:
Profile: Charles Sayward (University of Nebraska, Lincoln)
  1. George Englebretsen & Charles Sayward (2010). Philosophical Logic: An Introduction to Advanced Topics. continuum.
    This title introduces students to non-classical logic, syllogistic, to quantificational and modal logic. The book includes exercises throughout and a glossary of terms and symbols. Taking students beyond classical mathematical logic, "Philosophical Logic" is a wide-ranging introduction to more advanced topics in the study of philosophical logic. Starting by contrasting familiar classical logic with constructivist or intuitionist logic, the book goes on to offer concise but easy-to-read introductions to such subjects as quantificational and syllogistic logic, modal logic and set theory. (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Charles Sayward (2010). Dialogues Concerning Natural Numbers. Peter Lang.
    Two philosophical theories, mathematical Platonism and nominalism, are the background of six dialogues in this book. There are five characters in these dialogues: three are nominalists; the fourth is a Platonist; the main character is somewhat skeptical on most issues in the philosophy of mathematics, and is particularly skeptical regarding the two background theories.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Charles Sayward (2007). Quine and His Critics on Truth-Functionality and Extensionality. Logic and Logical Philosophy 16 (1):45-63.
    Quine argues that if sentences that are set theoretically equivalent are interchangeable salva veritate, then all transparent operators are truth-functional. Criticisms of this argument fail to take into account the conditional character of the conclusion. Quine also argues that, for any person P with minimal logical acuity, if ‘belief’ has a sense in which it is a transparent operator, then, in that sense of the word, P believes everything if P believes anything. The suggestion is made that he intends that (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (2006). Arithmetic and Ontology: A Non-Realist Philosophy of Arithmetic. rodopi.
    In this book a non-realist philosophy of mathematics is presented. Two ideas are essential to its conception. These ideas are (i) that pure mathematics--taken in isolation from the use of mathematical signs in empirical judgement--is an activity for which a formalist account is roughly correct, and (ii) that mathematical signs nonetheless have a sense, but only in and through belonging to a system of signs with empirical application. This conception is argued by the two authors and is critically discussed by (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (2006). Replies to Commentaries. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 90 (1):369-386.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Charles Sayward (2006). What Truth is There in Psychological Egoism? Facta Philosophica 8 (1-2):145-159.
    Psychological egoism says that a purposive action is self-interested in a certain sense. The trick is to say in what sense. On the one hand, the psychological egoist wants to avoid a thesis that can be falsified by trivial examples. On the other hand, what is wanted is a thesis that lacks vacuity. The paper’s purpose is to arrive at such a thesis and show that it is a reasonable guess with empirical content.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Charles Sayward (2006). What is the Logic of Propositional Identity? Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (1):3-15.
    Propositional identity is not expressed by a predicate. So its logic is not given by the ordinary first order axioms for identity. What are the logical axioms governing this concept, then? Some axioms in addition to those proposed by Arthur Prior are proposed.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Charles Sayward (2005). A Wittgensteinian Philosophy of Mathematics. Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (2):55-69.
    Three theses are gleaned from Wittgenstein’s writing. First, extra-mathematical uses of mathematical expressions are not referential uses. Second, the senses of the expressions of pure mathematics are to be found in their uses outside of mathematics. Third, mathematical truth is fixed by mathematical proof. These theses are defended. The philosophy of mathematics defined by the three theses is compared with realism, nominalism, and formalism.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Charles Sayward (2005). Steiner Versus Wittgenstein: Remarks on Differing Views of Mathematical Truth. Theoria 20 (3):347-352.
    Mark Steiner criticizes some remarks Wittgenstein makes about Gödel. Steiner takes Wittgenstein to be disputing a mathematical result. The paper argues that Wittgenstein does no such thing. The contrast between the realist and the demonstrativist concerning mathematical truth is examined. Wittgenstein is held to side with neither camp. Rather, his point is that a realist argument is inconclusive.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Charles Sayward (2005). Steiner Versus Wittgenstein. Theoria 20 (3):347-352.
    Mark Steiner criticizes some remarks Wittgenstein makes about Gödel. Steiner takes Wittgenstein to be disputing a mathematical result. The paper argues that Wittgenstein does no such thing. The contrast between the realist and the demonstrativist concerning mathematical truth is examined. Wittgenstein is held to side with neither camp. Rather, his point is that a realist argument is inconclusive.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Charles Sayward (2005). Thompson Clarke and the Problem of Other Minds. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 13 (1):1-14.
    The force of sceptical inquiries into out knowledge of other people is a paradigm of the force that philosophical views can have. Sceptical views arise out of philosophical inquiries that are identical in all major respects with inquiries that we employ in ordinary cases. These inquiries employ perfectly mundane methods of making and assessing claims to know. This paper tries to show that these inquiries are conducted in cases that lack certain contextual ingredients found in ordinary cases. The paper concludes (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Charles Sayward (2005). Why Axiomatize Arithmetic? Sorites 16:54-61.
    This is a dialogue in the philosophy of mathematics that focuses on these issues: Are the Peano axioms for arithmetic epistemologically irrelevant? What is the source of our knowledge of these axioms? What is the epistemological relationship between arithmetical laws and the particularities of number?
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Charles Sayward (2004). Malcolm on Criteria. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):349-358.
    Consider the general proposition that normally when people pain-behave they are in pain. Where a traditional philosopher like Mill tries to give an empirical proof of this proposition (the argument from analogy), Malcolm tries to give a transcendental proof. Malcolm’s argument is transcendental in that he tries to show that the very conditions under which we can have a concept provide for the application of the concept and the knowledge that the concept is truly as well as properly applied. The (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Charles Sayward (2004). Roman Suzuko on Situational Identity. Sorites 15:42-49.
    This paper gives a semantical account for the (i)ordinary propositional calculus, enriched with quantifiers binding variables standing for sentences, and with an identity-function with sentences as arguments; (ii)the ordinary theory of quantification applied to the special quantifiers; and (iii)ordinary laws of identity applied to the special function. The account includes some thoughts of Roman Suszko as well as some thoughts of Wittgenstein's Tractatus.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Charles Sayward (2003). A Defense of Mill on Other Minds. Dialectica 57 (3):315–322.
    This paper seeks to explain why the argument from analogy seems strong to an analogist such as Mill and weak to the skeptic. The inference from observed behavior to the existence of feelings, sensations, etc., in other subjects is justified, but its justification depends on taking observed behavior and feelings, sensations, and so on, to be not merely correlated, but connected. It is claimed that this is what Mill had in mind.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Charles Sayward (2003). Applying the Concept of Pain. Iyyun 52 (July):290-300.
    This paper reaches the conclusion that, while there are ordinary cases in which the pretending possibility is reasonable, these cases always contain some element that makes it reasonable. This will be the element we ask for when we ask why pretending possibility is raised. Knowledge that someone else is in pain is a matter of eliminating the proposed element or neutralizing its pain-negating aspect.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Charles Sayward (2003). Does Scientific Realism Entail Mathematical Realism? Facta Philosophica 5:173-182.
    Hilary Putnam suggests that the essence of the realist conception of mathematics is that the statements of mathematics are objective so that the true ones are objectively true. An argument for mathematical realism, thus conceived, is implicit in Putnam's writing. The first premise is that within currently accepted science there are objective truths. Next is the premise that some of these statements logically imply statements of pure mathematics. The conclusion drawn is that some statements of pure mathematics are objectively true. (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Charles Sayward (2003). Notes and Discussions. Dialectica 57 (3):315-322.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (2002). There Is A Problem with Substitutional Quantification. Theoria 68 (1):4-12.
    Whereas arithmetical quantification is substitutional in the sense that a some-quantification is true only if some instance of it is true, it does not follow (and, in fact, is not true) that an account of the truth-conditions of the sentences of the language of arithmetic can be given by a substitutional semantics. A substitutional semantics fails in a most fundamental fashion: it fails to articulate the truth-conditions of the quantifications with which it is concerned. This is what is defended in (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Charles Sayward (2002). A Conversation About Numbers. Philosophia 29 (1-4):191-209.
    This is a dialogue in which five characters are involved. Various issues in the philosophy of mathematics are discussed. Among those issues are these: numbers as abstract objects, our knowledge of numbers as abstract objects, a proof as showing a mathematical statement to be true as opposed to the statement being true in virtue of having a proof.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Charles Sayward (2002). A Conversation About Numbers and Knowledge. American Philosophical Quarterly 39 (3):275-287.
    This is a dialogue in the philosophy of mathematics. The dialogue descends from the confident assertion that there are infinitely many numbers to an unresolved bewilderment about how we can know there are any numbers at all. At every turn the dialogue brings us only to realize more fully how little is clear to us in our thinking about mathematics.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Charles Sayward (2002). Convention T and Basic Law V. Analysis 62 (4):289–292.
    It is argued that Convention T and Basic Law V of Frege’s Grungesetze share three striking similarities. First, they are universal generalizations that are intuitively plausible because they have so many obvious instances. Second, both are false because they yield contradictions. Third, neither gives rise to a paradox.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Charles Sayward (2002). Geach on Generalization. Dialogue 41 (02):221-.
    There are plausible objections to substitutional construals of generalization. But these objections do not apply to a substitutional construal of generalization proposed by Peter Geach several years ago. This paper examines Geach’s conception.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Charles Sayward (2002). Is an Unpictorial Mathematical Platonism Possible? Journal of Philosophical Research 27:199-212.
    In his book 'Wittgenstein on the foundations of Mathematics', Crispin Wright notes that remarkably little has been done to provide an unpictorial, substantial account of what mathematical platoninism comes to. Wright proposes to investigate whether there is not some more substantial doctrine than the familiar images underpinning the platonist view. He begins with the suggestion that the essential element in the platonist claim is that mathematical truth is objective. Although he does not demarcate them as such, Wright proposes several different (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Charles Sayward (2001). Austin and Perception. Acta Analytica 16 (27):169-193.
    Some of Austin's general statements about the doctrines of sense-datum philosophy are reviewed. It is concluded that Austin thought that in these doctrines "directly see" is given a new but inadequately explained and defined use. Were this so, the philosophical use of "directly see" would lack a definite sense and this would correspondingly affect the doctrines. They would lack definite truth-value. Against this, it is argued that the philosopher's use of "directly see" does not support Austin's general thesis that the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Charles Sayward (2001). On Some Much Maligned Remarks of Wittgenstein on Gödel. Philosophical Investigations 24 (3):262–270.
    In "Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics" Wittgenstein discusses an argument that goes from Gödel’s incompleteness result to the conclusion that some truths of mathematics are unprovable. Wittgenstein takes issue with this argument. Wittgenstein’s remarks in this connection have received very negative reaction from some very prominent people, for example, Gödel and Dummett. The paper is a defense of what Wittgenstein has to say about the argument in question.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (2000). Frege on Identities. History and Philosophy of Logic 21 (3):195-205.
    The idea underlying the Begriffsschrift account of identities was that the content of a sentence is a function of the things it is about. If so, then if an identity a=b is about the content of its contained terms and is true, then a=a and a=b have the same content. But they do not have the same content; so, Frege concluded, identities are not about the contents of their contained terms. The way Frege regarded the matter is that in an (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Charles Sayward (2000). Remarks on Peano Arithmetic. Russell 20:27-32.
    Russell held that the theory of natural numbers could be derived from three primitive concepts: number, successor and zero. This leaves out multiplication and addition. Russell introduces these concepts by recursive definition. It is argued that this does not render addition or multiplication any less primitive than the other three. To this it might be replied that any recursive definition can be transformed into a complete or explicit definition with the help of a little set theory. But that is a (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Charles Sayward (2000). Understanding Sentences. Philosophical Investigations 23 (1):48–53.
    Doubts are raised about the claim that on mastering a finite vocabulary and a finitely stated set of rules we are prepared to understand a potential infinitude of sentences. One doubt is about understanding a potential infinitude of sentences. A second doubt is about the assumption that understanding a sentence must be a matter of figuring out its meaning from an antecedent knowledge of the meaning of its words and applying rules.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1999). Did the Greeks Discover the Irrationals? Philosophy 74 (2):169-176.
    A popular view is that the great discovery of Pythagoras was that there are irrational numbers, e.g., the positive square root of two. Against this it is argued that mathematics and geometry, together with their applications, do not show that there are irrational numbers or compel assent to that proposition.
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1999). Null Sentences. Iyyun, The Jewish Philosophical Quarterly 48:23-36.
    In Tractatus, Wittgenstein held that there are null sentences – prominently including logical truths and the truths of mathematics. He says that such sentences are without sense (sinnlos), that they say nothing; he also denies that they are nonsensical (unsinning). Surely it is what a sentence says which is true or false. So if a sentence says nothing, how can it be true or false? The paper discusses the issue.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1998). A Fregean Principle. History and Philosophy of Logic 19 (3):125-135.
    Frege held that the result of applying a predicate to names lacks reference if any of the names lack reference. We defend the principle against a number of plausible objections. We put forth an account of consequence for a first-order language with identity in which the principle holds.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1998). Kripke on Necessity and Identity. Philosophical Papers 27 (3):151-159.
    It may be that all that matters for the modalities, possibility and necessity, is the object named by the proper name, not which proper name names it. An influential defender of this view is Saul Kripke. Kripke’s defense is criticized in the paper.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1996). Intentionality and Truth: An Essay on the Philosophy of Arthur Prior. kluwer.
    This book says Prior claims: (1) that a sentence never names; (2) what a sentence says cannot be otherwise signified; and (3) that a sentence says what it says whatever the type of its occurrence; (4) and that quantifications binding sentential variables are neither eliminable, substitutional, nor referential. The book develops and defends (1)-(3). It also defends (4) against the sorts of strictures on quantification of such philosophers as Quine and Davidson.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1995). What’s So Special About Sentences? Communication and Cognition 28 (4):409-25.
    This paper is a discussion of Frege's maxim that it is only in the context of a sentence that a word has a meaning. Quine reads the maxim as saying that the sentence is the fundamental unit of significance. Dummett rejects this as a truism. But it is not a truism since it stands in opposition to a conception of meaning held by John Locke and others. The maxim denies that a word has a sense independently of any sentence in (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Charles Sayward (1995). Taking Actions Seriously. Behavior and Philosophy 23 (24):51-60.
    Two kinds of functionalism are distinguished: intensional and extensional. The former is argued to be superior to the latter. The former is also defended against two objections independently put forth by Ned Block and John Searle.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1994). Quantifying Over the Reals. Synthese 101 (1):53 - 64.
    Peter Geach proposed a substitutional construal of quantification over thirty years ago. It is not standardly substitutional since it is not tied to those substitution instances currently available to us; rather, it is pegged to possible substitution instances. We argue that (i) quantification over the real numbers can be construed substitutionally following Geach's idea; (ii) a price to be paid, if it is that, is intuitionism; (iii) quantification, thus conceived, does not in itself relieve us of ontological commitment to real (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1994). The Internal/External Question. Grazier Philosophishe Studien 47:31-41.
    For Rudolf Carnap the question ‘Do numbers exist?’ does not have just one sense. Asked from within mathematics, it has a trivial answer that could not possibly divide philosophers of mathematics. Asked from outside of mathematics, it lacks meaning. This paper discusses Carnap’s distinction and defends much of what he has to say.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1993). Two Concepts of Truth. Philosophical Studies 70 (1):35 - 58.
    In this paper the authors recapitulate, justify, and defend against criticism the extension of the redundancy theory of truth to cover a wide range of uses of ‘true’ and ‘false’. In this they are guided by the work of A. N. Prior. They argue Prior was right about the scope and limits of the redundancy theory and that the line he drew between those uses of ‘true’ which are and are not susceptible to treatment via redundancy serves to distinguish two (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1993). The Disquotational Theory of Truth is False. Philosophia 22 (3-4):331-339.
    It is argued that if there are truth-value gaps then the disquotational theory of truth is false. Secondly, it is argued that the same conclusion can be reached even without the assumption that there are truth-value gaps.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1993). Theories of Truth and Truth-Value Gaps. Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (6):551 - 559.
    The fact that a group of axioms use the word 'true' does not guarantee that that group of axioms yields a theory of truth. For Davidson the derivability of certain biconditionals from the axioms is what guarantees this. We argue that the test does not work. In particular, we argue that if the object language has truth-value gaps, the result of applying Davidson''s definition of a theory of truth is that no correct theory of truth for the language is possible.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Charles Sayward (1993). Definite Descriptions, Negation and Necessitation. Russell 13:36-47.
    The principal question asked in this paper is: in the case of attributive usage, is the definite description to be analyzed as Russell said or is it to be treated as a referring expression, functioning semantically as a proper name? It answers by defending the former alternative.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1992). Classical Logic and Truth-Value Gaps. Philosophical Papers 21 (2):141-150.
    An account of the logic of bivalent languages with truth-value gaps is given. This account is keyed to the use of tables introduced by S. C. Kleene. The account has two guiding ideas. First, that the bivalence property insures that the language satisfies classical logic. Second, that the general concepts of a valid sentence and an inconsistent sentence are, respectively, as sentences which are not false in any model and sentences which are not true in any model. What recommends this (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1992). Redundant Truth. Ratio 5 (1):24-37.
    A strong and weak version of the redundancy theory of truth are distinguished. An argument put forth by Michael Dummett concludes that the weak version is vitiated by truth-value gaps. The weak version is defended against this argument. The strong version, however, is vitiated by truth-value gaps.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Kai Nielsen, Michael Pendlebury, Philip Percival, Mark Sainsbury, David Sapire, Charles Sayward, Philip Hugly, Mark Timmons & Terence Horgan (1992). MILLER, Seumas Joint Action. Philosophical Papers 1 (259):65.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1991). Prior and Lorenzen on Quantification. Grazer Philosophishe Studien 41:150-173.
    A case against Prior’s theory of propositions goes thus: (1) everyday propositional generalizations are not substitutional; (2) Priorean quantifications are not objectual; (3) quantifications are substitutional if not objectual; (4) thus, Priorean quantifications are substitutional; (5) thus that Priorean quantifications are not ontologically committed to propositions provides no basis for a similar claim about our everyday propositional generalizations. Prior agrees with (1) and (2). He rejects (3), but fails to support that rejection with an account of quantification on which there (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Wayne Wasserman & Charles Sayward (1991). Nagel, Internalism, and Relativism. Journal of Philosophical Research 16:309-319.
    In this paper we (1) give a new interpretation to Thomas Nagel’s The Possibility of Altruism, and (2) use that account to show how internalism and anti-relativism are compatible, despite appearances to the contrary.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1990). Moral Relativism and Deontic Logic. Synthese 85 (1):139 - 152.
    If a native of India asserts "Killing cattle is wrong" and a Nebraskan asserts "Killing cattle is not wrong", and both judgments agree with their respective moralities and both moralities are internally consistent, then the moral relativist says both judgments are fully correct. At this point relativism bifurcates. One branch which we call content relativism denies that the two people are contradicting each other. The idea is that the content of a moral judgment is a function of the overall moral (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 120