Search results for 'Cheating (Education' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    Aditya Simha, Josh P. Armstrong & Joseph F. Albert (2012). Attitudes and Behaviors of Academic Dishonesty and Cheating—Do Ethics Education and Ethics Training Affect Either Attitudes or Behaviors? Journal of Business Ethics Education 9:129-144.
    Academic dishonesty and cheating by students has become endemic in higher education. In this article, we conducted a study on undergraduate business students (n = 162) to examine the impact of business ethics education and ethics training on student attitudes towards academic dishonesty as well as their cheating behaviors. We found that business ethics education in conjunction with business ethics training had a positive impact on students’ attitudes towardsacademic dishonesty and cheating; however there was no significant impact (...)
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  2.  7
    Dorit Alt (2014). Assessing the Connection Between Students’ Justice Experience and Attitudes Toward Academic Cheating in Higher Education New Learning Environments. Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (2):113-127.
    The present study is aimed at comprehensively assess tendency to neutralize (justify) academic cheating as a function of individual experience of teachers’ just behavior and new learning environments (NLE), while considering the Belief in a Just World (BJW) as a personal resource that has the potential to enhance those experiences. Data were collected from a sample of 193 second-year undergraduate college students. Path analysis main results showed that students who evaluated their teachers’ behavior toward them personally as just, held (...)
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  3.  2
    Dorit Alt (2015). Assessing the Connection Between Self-Efficacy for Learning and Justifying Academic Cheating in Higher Education Learning Environments. Journal of Academic Ethics 13 (1):77-90.
    This study was aimed at formulating a model to examine the potential value of perceived constructivist pedagogical practices in decreasing tendency to neutralize academic cheating through a psychological outcome of academic self-efficacy, in three academic learning settings: new learning environments, traditional face-to-face learning environments and distance learning environments. Data were collected from a sample of 289 undergraduate college students. Path analysis main results showed positive connections between the extent to which constructivist practices are present in the learning settings, as (...)
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  4.  12
    Robert Liebler (2010). Action and Ethics Education. Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (2):153-160.
    This paper provides a model for testing the relation between a particular action (cheating) and ethics education. The test is for a difference in the incidence of cheating (answer copying) between two groups: students who have and students who have not taken a course in ethics. The model facilitates testing by obtaining a relation between the unobservable variable (cheating) and an observable variable (a wrong answer on the target question which is the same as the answer of (...)
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  5.  10
    Kathleen K. Molnar & Marilyn G. Kletke (2012). Does the Type of Cheating Influence Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Cheating? Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (3):201-212.
    There has been a plethora of studies outlying the various factors which may affect undergraduate student cheating, generally focusing on individual, situational and deterrent factors. But beyond these factors, does the type of cheating affect students’ perceptions of cheating? We found that there were differences in regards to gradable cheating such as cheating on homework, tests and papers versus non-gradable cheating such as illegally downloading software/music from the Internet or photocopying materials which violate the (...)
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  6. Tricia Bertram Gallant (ed.) (2011). Creating the Ethical Academy: A Systems Approach to Understanding Misconduct and Empowering Change in Higher Education. Routledge.
     
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  7. Austen Ike Onyechere (ed.) (1997). Promoting Examination Ethics: The Challenge of a Collective Responsibility: Proceedings of National Conference Organised by Federal Ministry of Education in Collaboration with Potomac Consulting Group. Published by Potomac Books for Exam Ethics Project.
     
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  8.  20
    S. R. Premeaux (2005). Undergraduate Student Perceptions Regarding Cheating: Tier 1 Versus Tier 2 AACSB Accredited Business Schools. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 62 (4):407 - 418.
    Cheating is fairly commonplace at both Tiers 1 and 2 AACSB accredited business schools. Distinct differences exist between Tiers 1 and 2 students with regard to cheating. Tier 1 students are more likely to cheat on written assignments, they believe sanctions impact cheating, and that a stigma is attached to cheating. Tier 2 students are more likely to cheat on exams, and nearly as likely to cheat on written assignments. Tier 2 students accept the notion that (...)
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  9.  30
    Helen A. Klein, Nancy M. Levenburg, Marie McKendall & William Mothersell (2007). Cheating During the College Years: How Do Business School Students Compare? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 72 (2):197 - 206.
    When it comes to cheating in higher education, business school students have often been accused of being the worst offenders; if true, this may be a contributing factor in the kinds of fraud that have plagued the business community in recent years. We examined the issue of cheating in the business school by surveying 268 students in business and other professional schools on their attitudes about, and experiences with, cheating. We found that while business school students actually (...)
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  10.  22
    Donald L. McCabe (1997). Classroom Cheating Among Natural Science and Engineering Majors. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (4):433-445.
    The topic of cheating among college students has received considerable attention in the education and psychology literatures. But most of this research has been conducted with relatively small samples and individual projects have generally focused on students from a single campus. These studies have improved our understanding of cheating in college, but it is difficult to generalize their findings and it is also difficult to develop a good understanding of the differences that exist among different academic majors. Understanding (...)
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  11.  16
    Mark Baetz, Lucia Zivcakova, Eileen Wood, Amanda Nosko, Domenica de Pasquale & Karin Archer (2011). Encouraging Active Classroom Discussion of Academic Integrity and Misconduct in Higher Education Business Contexts. Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (3):217-234.
    The present study assessed business students’ responses to an innovative interactive presentation on academic integrity that employed quoted material from previous students as launching points for discussion. In total, 15 business classes ( n = 412 students) including 2nd, 3rd and 4th year level students participated in the presentations as part of the ethics component of ongoing courses. Students’ perceptions of the importance of academic integrity, self-reports of cheating behaviors, and factors contributing to misconduct were examined along with perceptions (...)
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  12.  18
    Anastasios A. Zopiatis & Maria Krambia-Kapardis (2008). Ethical Behaviour of Tertiary Education Students in Cyprus. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):647 - 663.
    The purpose of this research was to investigate, for the first time, tertiary education students’ ethical judgements in the Republic of Cyprus academic environment. The authors developed and administered a quantitative questionnaire to a sample of 1,000 individuals currently pursuing accredited degrees at two tertiary institutions. Statistical analysis revealed four factors, named violation of school regulations, selfishness, cheating, and computer ethics that describe students’ ethical judgements in the academic environment. The results indicate that students exhibit the lowest tolerance with (...)
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  13.  4
    Alan Fask, Fred Englander & Zhaobo Wang (2014). Do Online Exams Facilitate Cheating? An Experiment Designed to Separate Possible Cheating From the Effect of the Online Test Taking Environment. Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (2):101-112.
    Despite recent growth in distance education, there has been relatively little research on whether online examinations facilitate student cheating. The present paper utilizes an experimental design to assess the difference in student performance between students taking a traditional, proctored exam and those taking an online, unproctored exam. This difference in performance is examined in a manner which considers both the effect of the different physical test environments and the possible effect of a difference in the opportunity for (...)
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  14.  8
    Tricia Bertram Gallant, Lelli Van Den Einde, Scott Ouellette & Sam Lee (2014). A Systemic Analysis of Cheating in an Undergraduate Engineering Mechanics Course. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):277-298.
    Cheating in the undergraduate classroom is not a new problem, and it is recognized as one that is endemic to the education system. This paper examines the highly normative behavior of using unauthorized assistance (e.g., a solutions manual or a friend) on an individual assignment within the context of an upper division undergraduate course in engineering mechanics. The findings indicate that there are varying levels of accepting responsibility among the students (from denial to tempered to full) and that acceptance (...)
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  15.  27
    Mary Walker & Cynthia Townley (2012). Contract Cheating: A New Challenge for Academic Honesty? [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (1):27-44.
    ‘Contract cheating’ has recently emerged as a form of academic dishonesty. It involves students contracting out their coursework to writers in order to submit the purchased assignments as their own work, usually via the internet. This form of cheating involves epistemic and ethical problems that are continuous with older forms of cheating, but which it also casts in a new form. It is a concern to educators because it is very difficult to detect, because it is arguably (...)
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  16.  4
    Audrey J. Burnett, Theresa M. Enyeart Smith & Maria T. Wessel (2016). Use of the Social Cognitive Theory to Frame University Students’ Perceptions of Cheating. Journal of Academic Ethics 14 (1):49-69.
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perceptions related to ethics and cheating among a representative sample of primarily female undergraduate students, compared to trends reported in the literature. Focus groups were organized to discuss nine scripted questions. Transcripts and audiotapes were analyzed and four main themes emerged: demographics of those who cheat, students’ perceptions of cheating, the role of technology in cheating, and consequences of cheating, including students’ attitudes and behaviors related to (...)
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  17.  3
    Tricia Bertram Gallant, Nancy Binkin & Michael Donohue (2015). Students at Risk for Being Reported for Cheating. Journal of Academic Ethics 13 (3):217-228.
    Student cheating has always been a problem in higher education, but detection of cheating has become easier with technology. As a result, more students are being caught and reported for cheating. While reporting cheating is not a negative, the rippling effects of reported cheating may be felt by some populations more than others. Thus, preventing cheating would be a preferable option for all involved.Identifying those at risk for being reported for cheating is a (...)
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  18.  12
    Marek Preiss, Helen A. Klein, Nancy M. Levenburg & Alena Nohavova (2013). A Cross-Country Evaluation of Cheating in Academia—A Comparison of Data From the US and the Czech Republic. Journal of Academic Ethics 11 (2):157-167.
    In this study, we examine differences in cheating behaviors in higher education between two countries, namely the United States and the Czech Republic, which differ in many social, cultural and political aspects. We compare a recent (2011) Czech Republic survey of 291 students to that of 268 students in the US (Klein et al., 2007). For all items surveyed, CR students showed a higher propensity to engage in cheating. Additionally, we found more forms of serious cheating present (...)
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  19.  14
    Matt Lamkin (2012). Cognitive Enhancements and the Values of Higher Education. Health Care Analysis 20 (4):347-355.
    Drugs developed to treat cognitive impairments are proving popular with healthy college students seeking to boost their focus and productivity. Concerned observers have called these practices a form of cheating akin to athletes’ use of steroids, with some proposing testing students’ urine to deter “academic doping.” The ease with which critics analogize the academic enterprise to competitive sport, and the impulse to crack down on students using study drugs, reflect the same social influences and trends that spur demand for (...)
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  20. Tricia Bertram Gallant (ed.) (2011). Creating the Ethical Academy: A Systems Approach to Understanding Misconduct and Empowering Change. Routledge.
     
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  21. Batur Laha Gbenda (2008). New Perspectives in Examination Malpractices in Nigeria. Selfers Academic Press Limited.
     
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  22. Lars-Eric Nilsson (2008). "But Can't You See They Are Lying": Student Moral Positions and Ethical Practices in the Wake of Technological Change. Distribution, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
     
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  23. David B. Wangaard & Jason M. Stephens (2011). Creating a Culture of Academic Integrity: A Toolkit for Secondary Schools. Search Institute Press.
     
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  24.  12
    Donald D. Carpenter, Trevor S. Harding, Cynthia J. Finelli & Honor J. Passow (2004). Does Academic Dishonesty Relate to Unethical Behavior in Professional Practice? An Exploratory Study. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):311-324.
    Previous research indicates that students in engineering self-report cheating in college at higher rates than those in most other disciplines. Prior work also suggests that participation in one deviant behavior is a reasonable predictor of future deviant behavior. This combination of factors leads to a situation where engineering students who frequently participate in academic dishonesty are more likely to make unethical decisions in professional practice. To investigate this scenario, we propose the hypotheses that (1) there are similarities in the (...)
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  25.  25
    M. Schermer (2008). On the Argument That Enhancement is "Cheating". Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (2):85-88.
    One frequently used argument in the discussion on human enhancement is that enhancement is a form of cheating. This argument is well-known in relation to doping in sports, but recently it has also been used with regard to cognitive enhancement in the context of education and exams. This paper analyses the enhancement-is-cheating argument by comparing sports and education, and by evaluating how the argument can be interpreted in both contexts. If cheating is understood as breaking the rules (...)
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  26.  35
    Stuart P. Green (2004). Cheating. Law and Philosophy 23 (2):137-185.
    The concept of cheating is ubiquitous in ourmoral lives: It occurs in contexts as varied asbusiness, sports, taxpaying, education,marriage, politics, and the practice of law. Yet despite its seeming importance, it is aconcept that has been almost completely ignoredby moral theorists, usually regarded either asa morally neutral synonym for non-cooperativebehavior, or as a generalized, unreflectiveterm of moral disapprobation. This articleoffers a ``normative reconstruction'''' of theconcept of cheating by showing both whatvarious cases of cheating have in common, andhow (...)
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  27.  28
    Raef A. Lawson (2004). Is Classroom Cheating Related to Business Students' Propensity to Cheat in the "Real World"? Journal of Business Ethics 49 (2):189-199.
    Previous studies have reportedstudents' widely held belief that they are moreethical than businessmen. On the other hand,widespread cheating among college students hasbeen reported. This paper examines thisinconsistency between the beliefs of collegestudent regarding the need for ethical behaviorin a business setting and their actions in anacademic setting.The results of this study indicate that whilestudents are generally upset with cheating intheir class, a large proportion of themnonetheless engage in such behavior. It wasfurther found that students have a goodunderstanding of (...)
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  28.  37
    Deborah F. Crown & M. Shane Spiller (1998). Learning From the Literature on Collegiate Cheating: A Review of Empirical Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):229-246.
    The role demographic, personality, and situational factors play in the ethical decision making process has received a significant amount of attention (Ford and Richardson, 1994). However, the empirical research on students' decisions to engage in collegiate cheating has not been included in this literature. This paper reviews the last 25 years of empirical research on collegiate cheating. The individual/situational factor typology from Ford and Richardson's review (1994) is used to compare the two literatures. In addition, issues pertaining to (...)
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  29.  16
    Stephen B. Salter, Daryl M. Guffey & Jeffrey J. McMillan (2001). Truth, Consequences and Culture: A Comparative Examination of Cheating and Attitudes About Cheating Among U.S. And U.K. Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 31 (1):37-50.
    As Post observes, accounting firms are unique among multinationals. They are more likely than firms in almost any other category to go abroad. They also have less choice in location as their expansion is determined largely by the desired locations of their clients. Given the widespread global presence of such firms, it can be argued that the global audit firm is uniquely at risk from variations in ethical perceptions across nations. This study extends the U.S. accounting literature on determinants of (...)
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  30.  16
    Mathieu Bouville (2010). Why is Cheating Wrong? Studies in Philosophy and Education 29 (1):67-76.
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  31.  6
    Nina C. Heckler & David R. Forde (2015). The Role of Cultural Values in Plagiarism in Higher Education. Journal of Academic Ethics 13 (1):61-75.
    Student plagiarism is a rampant practice and major concern in higher education. How students perceive the overarching American cultural values and their impact on the practice will inform educators and help them to better combat the practice. It is also valuable for educators to know whether the students perceive the practice to be part of the dominant culture, currently, on college campuses. This study reports perceptions of plagiarism by students in an introductory sociology course. Open-ended questions explored perceptions of extent, (...)
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  32.  13
    Dean E. Allmon, Diana Page & Ralph Rpberts (2000). Determinants of Perceptions of Cheating: Ethical Orientation, Personality and Demographics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 23 (4):411 - 422.
    A sample of 227 business students from the United States and Australia was used to evaluate factors that impact business students' ethical orientation and factors that impact students' perceptions of ethical classroom behaviors. Perceptions of classroom behaviors was considered a surrogate for future perceptions of business behaviors. Independent factors included age, gender, religious orientation, country of origin, personality, and ethical orientation. A number of factors were related to ethical orientation, but only age and religious orientation exhibited much impact upon perceptions (...)
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  33.  3
    Douglas P. Fry & Geneviève Souillac (2013). The Relevance of Nomadic Forager Studies to Moral Foundations Theory: Moral Education and Global Ethics in the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):346-359.
    Moral foundations theory (MFT) proposes the existence of innate psychological systems, which would have been subjected to selective forces over the course of evolution. One approach for evaluating MFT, therefore, is to consider the proposed psychological foundations in relation to the reconstructed Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. This study draws upon ethnographic data on nomadic forager societies to evaluate MFT. Moral foundations theory receives support only regarding the Caring/harm and Fairness/cheating foundations but not regarding the proposed Loyalty/betrayal and Authority/subversion foundations. (...)
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  34.  11
    D. Kay Johnston (1991). Cheating: Reflections on a Moral Dilemma. Journal of Moral Education 20 (3):283-291.
    Abstract This essay tells my story of using the moral orientations of justice and care to help me think about an incident of cheating in a seminar I taught. My story takes as a starting point the idea that teaching is a relational activity and that morality fundamentally concerns relations among people. These moral orientations gave me options to think about exploring, with my students, what it means to make moral choices in our everyday life. This narrative is about (...)
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  35.  6
    D. Kay Johnston (1996). Cheating: Limits of Individual Integrity. Journal of Moral Education 25 (2):159-171.
    Abstract Cheating is an issue with which most students deal in their school years. In this paper, college students who have taken a mid?term exam in which cheating occurred are interviewed about their views of this incident. Their words reveal not only their individual responses and solutions to this dilemma, but also their views of what teachers can and could do. They also reveal the limitations of seeing the dilemma only in dichotomous terms, cheaters vs. non?cheaters, teacher vs. (...)
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  36. Terry F. Pettijohn Ii & Arsida Ndoni (2013). Imagined Infidelity Scenario Forgiveness and Distress: The Role of Method of Discovery and Specific Cheating Behavior. Science and Education 1 (2):11-14.
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  37.  38
    Soheila Mirshekary & Ann D. K. Lawrence (2009). Academic and Business Ethical Misconduct and Cultural Values: A Cross National Comparison. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (3):141-157.
    Efforts to promote ethical behaviour in business and academic contexts have raised awareness of the need for an ethical orientation in business students. This study examines the similarities and differences between the personal values of Iranian and Australian business students and their attitudes to cheating behaviour in universities and unethical practices in business settings. Exploratory factory analysis provided support for three distinct ethics factors—serious academic ethical misconduct, minor academic ethical misconduct, and business ethical misconduct. Results reveal statistically significant differences (...)
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  38.  26
    Gavin G. Enck (2013). Ideals of Student Excellence and Enhancement. Neuroethics 6 (1):155-164.
    Discussions about the permissibility of students using enhancements in education are often framed by the question, “Is a student who uses cognitive-enhancing drugs cheating?” While the question of cheating is interesting, it is but only one question concerning the permissibility of enhancement in education. Another interesting question is, “What kinds of students do we want in our academic institutions?” I suggest that one plausible answer to this question concerns the ideals of human excellence or virtues. The students we (...)
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  39.  14
    Aurora A. C. Teixeira & Maria Fátima Oliveira Rochdea (2010). Academic Misconduct in Portugal: Results From a Large Scale Survey to University Economics/Business Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (1):21-41.
    The phenomenon of cheating in higher education is of overwhelming importance in that the students engaging in these acts are unlikely to have the skills necessary for their future professional life. Despite its relevance, the empirical evaluation of cheating in universities has been almost exclusively focused on the US context. Little is known about cheating at the European level, let alone in Portugal. Even less is explored at the regional level. In this paper we present evidence on (...)
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  40. J. J. Sierra & M. R. Hyman (2006). A Dual-Process Model of Cheating Intentions. Journal of Marketing Education 28 (3):193--204.
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  41.  4
    Kevin Curran, Gary Middleton & Ciaran Doherty (2011). Cheating in Exams with Technology. International Journal of Cyber Ethics in Education 1 (2):54-62.
  42.  3
    Aditya Simha & John B. Cullen (2012). A Comprehensive Literature Review on Cheating. International Journal of Cyber Ethics in Education 2 (4):24-44.
  43.  6
    Michalinos Zembylas (2002). Michel Serres: A Troubadour for Science, Philosophy and Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 34 (4):477–502.
    When all the people of the world finally speak the same language and commune in the same message or the same norm of reason, we will descend, idiot imbeciles, lower than rats, more stupidly than lizards. The same maniacal language and science, the same repetitions of the same in all latitudes–an earth covered with screeching parrots. The goal of instruction is the end of instruction, that is to say invention. Invention is the only true intellectual act, the only act of (...)
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  44.  17
    Trevor S. Harding, Matthew J. Mayhew, Cynthia J. Finelli & Donald D. Carpenter (2007). The Theory of Planned Behavior as a Model of Academic Dishonesty in Engineering and Humanities Undergraduates. Ethics and Behavior 17 (3):255 – 279.
    This study examines the use of a modified form of the theory of planned behavior in understanding the decisions of undergraduate students in engineering and humanities to engage in cheating. We surveyed 527 randomly selected students from three academic institutions. Results supported the use of the model in predicting ethical decision-making regarding cheating. In particular, the model demonstrated how certain variables (gender, discipline, high school cheating, education level, international student status, participation in Greek organizations or other clubs) (...)
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  45.  10
    Teressa L. Elliott, Linda M. Marquis & Catherine S. Neal (2013). Business Ethics Perspectives: Faculty Plagiarism and Fraud. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):91-99.
    Faculty plagiarism and fraud are widely documented occurrences but little analysis has been conducted. This article addresses the question of why faculty plagiarism and fraud occurs and suggests approaches on how to develop an environment where faculty misconduct is socially inappropriate. The authors review relevant literature, primarily in business ethics and student cheating, developing action steps that could be applied to higher education. Based upon research in these areas, the authors posit some actions that would be appropriate in higher (...)
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  46. S. Kukolja Taradi, M. Taradi, T. Knezevic & Z. Dogas (2010). Students Come to Medical Schools Prepared to Cheat: A Multi-Campus Investigation. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (11):666-670.
    Objectives To investigate high school cheating experiences and attitudes towards academic misconduct of freshmen at all four medical schools in Croatia, as a post-communist country in transition, with intention of raising awareness of academic (dis)honesty. Design and method Students were given an anonymous questionnaire containing 22 questions on the atmosphere of integrity at their high school, self-reported educational dishonesty, their evaluation of cheating behaviour, and on their expectations about the atmosphere of integrity at their university. Setting All schools (...)
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  47.  19
    Marlene A. Dixon, Brian A. Turner, Donna L. Pastore & Daniel F. Mahony (2003). Rule Violations in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Qualitative Investigation Utilizing an Organizational Justice Framework. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (1):59-90.
    Cheating and rule violations in intercollegiate athletics continue to be relevant issues in many institutions of higher education because they reflect upon the integrity of the institutions in which they are housed, causing concern among many faculty members, administrators, and trustees. Although a great deal of research has documented the numerous rule violations in NCAA intercollegiate athletics, much of it has failed to combine sound theory with practical solutions. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible extensions (...)
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  48.  2
    Sunčana Kukolja Taradi, Milan Taradi, Tin Knežević & Zoran Đogaš (2010). Students Come to Medical Schools Prepared to Cheat: A Multi-Campus Investigation. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (11):666-670.
    Objectives To investigate high school cheating experiences and attitudes towards academic misconduct of freshmen at all four medical schools in Croatia, as a post-communist country in transition, with intention of raising awareness of academic honesty. Design and method Students were given an anonymous questionnaire containing 22 questions on the atmosphere of integrity at their high school, self-reported educational dishonesty, their evaluation of cheating behaviour, and on their expectations about the atmosphere of integrity at their university. Setting All schools (...)
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  49. Bas Olthof, Anco Peeters, Kimberly Schelle & Pim Haselager (2013). If You're Smart, We'll Make You Smarter. Applying the Reasoning Behind the Development of Honours Programmes to Other Forms of Cognitive Enhancement. In Federica Lucivero & Anton Vedder (eds.), Beyond Therapy v. Enhancement? Multidisciplinary analyses of a heated debate. Pisa University Press 117-142.
    Students using Ritalin in preparation for their exams is a hotly debated issue, while meditating or drinking coffee before those same exams is deemed uncontroversial. However, taking Ritalin, meditating and drinking coffee or even education in general, can all be considered forms of cognitive enhancement. Although social acceptance might change in the future, it is interesting to examine the current reasons that are used to distinguish cases deemed problematic or unproblematic. Why are some forms of cognitive enhancement considered problematic, while (...)
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  50.  59
    Rooplekha Khuntia & Damodar Suar (2004). A Scale to Assess Ethical Leadership of Indian Private and Public Sector Managers. Journal of Business Ethics 49 (1):13-26.
    Three hundred forty middle-level managers from two private and two public sector manufacturing companies in India rated their superiors on 22 items of ethical leadership. Factor analysis of the scores on such items yielded two dimensions of ethical leadership: (a) empowerment, and (b) motive and character. Items of the scale had high reliability, validity, and discriminative power. On two dimensions of ethical leadership, the superiors self-rated themselves more favorably than their subordinates rated them. This justified the proposal to consider the (...)
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