Search results for 'Chemistry' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. J. van Brakel (2010). Chemistry and Physics: No Need for Metaphysical Glue. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (2):123-136.score: 27.0
    Using the notorious bridge law “water is H 2 O” and the relation between molecular structure and quantum mechanics as examples, I argue that it doesn’t make sense to aim for specific definition(s) of intertheoretical or interdiscourse relation(s) between chemistry and physics (reduction, supervenience, what have you). Proposed definitions of interdiscourse and part-whole relations are interesting only if they provide insight in the variegated interconnected patchwork of theories and beliefs. There is “automatically” some sort of interdiscourse relation if different (...)
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  2. Gerald F. Thomas (2012). The Emancipation of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (2):109-155.score: 27.0
    In his classic work The Mind and its Place in Nature published in 1925 at the height of the development of quantum mechanics but several years after the chemists Lewis and Langmuir had already laid the foundations of the modern theory of valence with the introduction of the covalent bond, the analytic philosopher C. D. Broad argued for the emancipation of chemistry from the crass physicalism that led physicists then and later—with support from a rabblement of philosophers who knew (...)
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  3. Hinne Hettema (2009). Explanation and Theory Formation in Quantum Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (3):145-174.score: 27.0
    In this paper I expand Eric Scerri’s notion of Popper’s naturalised approach to reduction in chemistry and investigate what its consequences might be. I will argue that Popper’s naturalised approach to reduction has a number of interesting consequences when applied to the reduction of chemistry to physics. One of them is that it prompts us to look at a ‘bootstrap’ approach to quantum chemistry, which is based on specific quantum theoretical theorems and practical considerations that turn quantum (...)
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  4. Rein Vihalemm (2011). The Autonomy of Chemistry: Old and New Problems. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):97-107.score: 27.0
    The autonomy of chemistry and the legitimacy of the philosophy of chemistry are usually discussed in the context of the issue of reduction of chemistry to physics, and defended making use of the failure of reductionistic claims. Until quite recent times a rather widespread viewpoint was, however, that the failure of reductionistic claims concerns actually epistemological aspect of reduction only, but the ontological reduction of chemistry to physics cannot be denied. The new problems of the autonomy (...)
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  5. Rom Harré (2009). Trope Theory and the Ontology of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):93-103.score: 27.0
    The traditional ontology within which chemistry has developed involved various versions of a general substance/attribute scheme. Recently this has been challenged by two versions of Dynamism. One version is derived from the writings of A. N. Whitehead and the other from several sources, including G. Leibniz and I. Kant. Both involve the idea of flux of actual occasions. Unlike the former scheme, the latter involves a foundation of causal powers and the energetics of field theory. The situation has been (...)
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  6. J. A. Linthorst (2010). An Overview: Origins and Development of Green Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):55-68.score: 27.0
    This article provides an overview of the origins and development of green chemistry. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of green chemistry, basically from a historical point of view, this overview argues that contextual influences and the user friendliness of the term are drivers for the explosive growth of green chemistry. It is observed that political support for its development has been significant, in which the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 was a formal political starting-point, but informally (...)
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  7. Giovanni Villani (2014). Structured System in Chemistry: Comparison with Mechanics and Biology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):107-123.score: 27.0
    The fundamental concept of structured chemical system has been introduced and analysed in this paper. This concept, as in biology but not in physics, is very important in chemistry. In fact, the main chemical concepts (molecule and compound) have been identified as systemic concepts and their use in chemical explanation can only be justified in this approach. The fundamental concept of “environment” has been considered and then the system concept in mechanics, chemistry and biology. The differences and the (...)
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  8. Gabor Pallo (2011). Early Impact of Quantum Physics on Chemistry: George Hevesy's Work on Rare Earth Elements and Michael Polanyi's Absorption Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):51-61.score: 27.0
    After Heitler and London published their pioneering work on the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry in 1927, it became an almost unquestioned dogma that chemistry would soon disappear as a discipline of its own rights. Reductionism felt victorious in the hope of analytically describing the chemical bond and the structure of molecules. The old quantum theory has already produced a widely applied model for the structure of atoms and the explanation of the periodic system. This paper will (...)
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  9. W. M. Goodwin (2008). Structural Formulas and Explanation in Organic Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):117-127.score: 27.0
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is diagrams, and in particular structural formulas and potential energy diagrams, that carry the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic (...)
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  10. Guillermo Restrepo (2013). To Mathematize, or Not to Mathematize Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):185-197.score: 27.0
    By analysing a contemporary criticism to the so called “mathematical chemistry”, we discuss what we understand by mathematizing chemistry and its implications. We then pass to ponder on some positions on the subject by considering the cases of Laszlo, Venel and Diderot, opponents to the idea of mathematization of chemistry. In contrast, we analyse some scholars’ ideas on the fruitful relationship between mathematics and chemistry; here Dirac and Brown are considered. Finally, we mention that the mathematical– (...) relationship should be considered beyond the mere aspect of whether chemistry is or not able to be mathematized. This discussion is based upon opinions by Kant and Comte, the first one having two positions on chemistry based upon mathematics and the latter mooting the idea of doing chemistry with mathematical spirit. (shrink)
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  11. Jean-Pierre Llored (2012). Emergence and Quantum Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):245-274.score: 27.0
    This paper first queries what type of concept of emergence, if any, could be connected with the different chemical activities subsumed under the label ‘quantum chemistry’. In line with Roald Hoffmann, we propose a ‘rotation to research laboratory’ in order to point out how practitioners hold a molecular whole, its parts, and the surroundings together within their various methods when exploring chemical transformation. We then identify some requisite contents that a concept of emergence must incorporate in order to be (...)
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  12. Carlos Alberto Marques & Adélio A. S. C. Machado (2014). Environmental Sustainability: Implications and Limitations to Green Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):125-147.score: 27.0
    This study discusses the relationship between Green Chemistry and Environmental Sustainability as expressed in textbooks and articles on Green Chemistry authored by their promoters. It was found that although the Brundtland concept of Sustainable Development/Sustainability has been mentioned often by green chemists, a full analysis of that relationship was almost never attempted. In particular, green chemists have paid scarce attention to the importance of The Second Law of thermodynamics on Environmental Sustainability and the consequences of the limitations it (...)
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  13. Olimpia Lombardi (2014). Linking Chemistry with Physics: Arguments and Counterarguments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):181-192.score: 27.0
    The many-faced relationship between chemistry and physics is one of the most discussed topics in the philosophy of chemistry. In his recent book Reducing Chemistry to Physics. Limits, Models, Consequences, Hinne Hettema (Reducing chemistry to physics. Limits, models, consequences, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen, 2012) conceives this relationship as a reduction link, and devotes his work to defend this position on the basis of a “naturalized” concept of reduction. In the present paper I critically review three kinds of (...)
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  14. Giuliano Moretti (forthcoming). The “Extent of Reaction”: A Powerful Concept to Study Chemical Transformations at the First-Year General Chemistry Courses. Foundations of Chemistry:1-9.score: 27.0
    The concept of extent of reaction was discussed many times in physical chemistry journals and books. This contribution strongly suggests the use of the extent of reaction as standard basic tool in teaching stoichiometry. The same idea was suggested several times in the past without success because the concept of extent of reaction is still not presented in the first-year general chemistry textbooks. It is also remarked that the concept of extent of reaction represents a simple example of (...)
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  15. Hinne Hettema (2012). Reducing Chemistry to Physics: Limits, Models, Consequences. Createspace.score: 24.0
    Chemistry and physics are two sciences that are hard to connect. Yet there is significant overlap in their aims, methods, and theoretical approaches. In this book, the reduction of chemistry to physics is defended from the viewpoint of a naturalised Nagelian reduction, which is based on a close reading of Nagel's original text. This naturalised notion of reduction is capable of characterising the inter-theory relationships between theories of chemistry and theories of physics. The reconsideration of reduction also (...)
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  16. Lee McIntyre (2007). Emergence and Reduction in Chemistry: Ontological or Epistemological Concepts? Synthese 155 (3):337-343.score: 24.0
    In this paper I argue that the ontological interpretation of the concepts of reduction and emergence is often misleading in the philosophy of science and should nearly always be eschewed in favor of an epistemological interpretation. As a paradigm case, an example is drawn from the philosophy of chemistry to illustrate the drawbacks of “ontological reduction” and “ontological emergence,” and the virtues of an epistemological interpretation of these concepts.
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  17. Joseph Earley (2008). How Philosophy of Mind Needs Philosophy of Chemistry. Hyle 14 (1):1 - 26.score: 24.0
    By the 1960s many, perhaps most, philosophers had adopted 'physicalism' – the view that physical causes fully account for mental activities. However, controversy persists about what counts as 'physical causes'. 'Reductive' physicalists recognize only microphysical (elementary-particle-level) causality. Many, perhaps most, physicalists are 'non-reductive' – they hold that entities considered by other 'special' sciences have causal powers. Philosophy of chemistry can help resolve main issues in philosophy of mind in three ways: developing an extended mereology applicable to chemical combination; testing (...)
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  18. Davis Baird, Eric R. Scerri & Lee C. McIntyre (eds.) (2006). Philosophy of Chemistry: Synthesis of a New Discipline. Springer.score: 24.0
    This comprehensive volume marks a new standard in scholarship in the still emerging field of the philosophy of chemistry. With selections drawn from a wide range of scholarly disciplines, philosophers, chemists, and historians of science here converge to ask some of the most fundamental questions about the relationship between philosophy and chemistry. What can chemistry teach us about longstanding disputes in the philosophy of science over such issues as reductionism, autonomy, and supervenience? And what new issues may (...)
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  19. Nathaniel Logar (2011). Chemistry, Green Chemistry, and the Instrumental Valuation of Sustainability. Minerva 49 (1):113-136.score: 24.0
    Using the Public Value Mapping framework, I address the values successes and failures of chemistry as compared to the emerging field of green chemistry, in which the promoters attempt to incorporate new and expanded values, such as health, safety, and environmental sustainability, to the processes of prioritizing and conducting chemistry research. I document how such values are becoming increasingly public. Moreover, analysis of the relations among the multiple values associated with green chemistry displays a greater internal (...)
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  20. Eric Scerri (2005). Some Aspects of the Metaphysics of Chemistry and the Nature of the Elements. Hyle 11 (2):127 - 145.score: 24.0
    There is now a considerable body of published work on the epistemology of modern chemistry, especially with regard to the nature of quantum chemistry. In addition, the question of the metaphysical underpinnings of chemistry has received a good deal of attention. The present article concentrates on metaphysical considerations including the question of whether elements and groups of elements are natural kinds. It is also argued that an appeal to the metaphysical nature of elements can help clarify the (...)
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  21. Ágnes Kovács (2012). Gender in the Substance of Chemistry, Part 1: The Ideal Gas. Hyle 18 (2):95 - 120.score: 24.0
    This two-part paper is about the possibility of analyzing the content of chemistry from a gender perspective. The first part provides an example of what such an analysis would look like. The second part is an outline of the theoretical perspective that makes the analysis possible. The example is the model of the ideal gas, the cornerstone of the theory of matter in chemical thermodynamics. I argue that this model is built on fundamental philosophical assumptions (Platonic idealism, hierarchy among (...)
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  22. Joachim Schummer (1998). The Chemical Core of Chemistry I: A Conceptual Approach. Hyle 4 (2):129 - 162.score: 24.0
    Given the rich diversity of research fields usually ascribed to chemistry in a broad sense, the present paper tries to dig our characteristic parts of chemistry that can be conceptually distinguished from interdisciplinary, applied, and specialized subfields of chemistry, and that may be called chemistry in a very narrow sense, or 'the chemical core of chemistry'. Unlike historical, ontological, and 'anti-reductive' approaches, I use a conceptual approach together with some methodological implications that allow to develop (...)
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  23. Nalini Bhushan & Stuart M. Rosenfeld (eds.) (2000). Of Minds and Molecules: New Philosophical Perspectives on Chemistry. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Of Minds and Molecules is the first anthology devoted exclusively to work in the philosophy of chemistry. The essays, written by both chemists and philosophers, adopt distinctive philosophical perspectives on chemistry and collectively offer both a conceptualization of and a justification for this emerging field.
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  24. Joachim Schummer (1997). Towards a Philosophy of Chemistry. A Short Extract of This Paper Was First Read at the 10th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Florence, August 19–25, 1995. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 28 (2):307-336.score: 24.0
    The paper shows epistemological, methodological and ontological peculiarities of chemistry taken as a classificatory science of materials using experimental methods. Without succumbing to standard interpretations of physical science, chemical methods of experimental investigation, classification, reference, theorizing, prediction and production of new entities are developed one by one as first steps towards a philosophy of chemistry. Chemistry challenges traditional concepts of empirical object, empirical predicate, reference frame and theory, but also the distinction commonly drawn between natural science and (...)
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  25. Rein Vihalemm (2007). Philosophy of Chemistry and the Image of Science. Foundations of Science 12 (3):223-234.score: 24.0
    The philosophical analysis of chemistry has advanced at such a pace during the last dozen years that the existence of philosophy of chemistry as an autonomous discipline cannot be doubted any more. The present paper will attempt to analyse the experience of philosophy of chemistry at the, so to say, meta-level. Philosophers of chemistry have especially stressed that all sciences need not be similar to physics. They have tried to argue for chemistry as its own (...)
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  26. Laurens Hessels & Harro van Lente (2011). Practical Applications as a Source of Credibility: A Comparison of Three Fields of Dutch Academic Chemistry. [REVIEW] Minerva 49 (2):215-240.score: 24.0
    In many Western science systems, funding structures increasingly stimulate academic research to contribute to practical applications, but at the same time the rise of bibliometric performance assessments have strengthened the pressure on academics to conduct excellent basic research that can be published in scholarly literature. We analyze the interplay between these two developments in a set of three case studies of fields of chemistry in the Netherlands. First, we describe how the conditions under which academic chemists work have changed (...)
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  27. Addy Pross (2012). What is Life?: How Chemistry Becomes Biology. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Livings things are so very strange -- The quest for a theory of life -- Understanding 'understanding' -- Stability and instability -- The knotty origin of life problem -- Biology's crisis of identity -- Biology is chemistry -- What is life?
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  28. Kostas Gavroglu & Ana Simões (2012). From Physical Chemistry to Quantum Chemistry: How Chemists Dealt with Mathematics. Hyle 18 (1):45 - 69.score: 24.0
    Discussing the relationship of mathematics to chemistry is closely related to the emergence of physical chemistry and of quantum chemistry. We argue that, perhaps, the most significant issue that the 'mathematization of chemistry' has historically raised is not so much methodological, as it is philosophical: the discussion over the ontological status of theoretical entities which were introduced in the process. A systematic study of such an approach to the mathematization of chemistry may, perhaps, contribute to (...)
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  29. Michael Bennett McNulty (2014). Kant on Chemistry and the Application of Mathematics in Natural Science. Kantian Review 19 (3):393-418.score: 24.0
    In his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, Kant claims that chemistry is a science, but not a proper science (like physics), because it does not adequately allow for the application of mathematics to its objects. This paper argues that the application of mathematics to a proper science is best thought of as depending upon a coordination between mathematically constructible concepts and those of the science. In physics, the proper science that exhausts the a priori knowledge of objects of the outer (...)
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  30. Nikos Psarros (1997). Critical Rationalism in the Test Tube? Lecture Given at the ''International Summer School on the Philosophy of Chemistry and Biochemistry'', Bradford & Ilkley Community College, 11. – 14. July 1994. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 28 (2):297-305.score: 24.0
    Popper's critical rationalism is widely accepted under scientists and philosophers of science as a proper method for the reconstruction of scientific theories. On occasion of the application of the Popperian ideas for the reconstruction of chemistry by Akeroyd the flaws of the critical rationalist approach are criticised and a methodical alternative is proposed, involving the operational definition of scientific terms.
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  31. Joachim Schummer (1997). Challenging Standard Distinctions Between Science and Technology: The Case of Preparative Chemistry. Hyle 3 (1):81 - 94.score: 24.0
    Part I presents a quantitative-empirical outline of chemistry, esp. preparative chemistry, concerning its dominant role in today's science, its dynamics, and its methods and aims. Emphasis is laid on the poietical character of chemistry for which a methodological model is derived. Part II discusses standard distinction between science and technology, from Aristotle (whose theses are reconsidered in the light of modern sciences) to modern philosophy of technology. Against the background of results of Part I, it is argued (...)
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  32. Vuk Uskoković (2010). Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General. Foundations of Science 15 (4):303-344.score: 24.0
    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability (...)
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  33. Hinne Hettema (2012). The Unity of Chemistry and Physics: Absolute Reaction Rate Theory. Hyle 18 (2):145 - 173.score: 24.0
    Henry Eyring's absolute rate theory explains the size of chemical reaction rate constants in terms of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum chemistry. In addition it uses a number of unique concepts such as the 'transition state'. A key feature of the theory is that the explanation it provides relies on the comparison of reaction rate constant expressions derived from these individual theories. In this paper, the example is used to develop a naturalized notion of reduction and the unity of (...)
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  34. Roald Hoffmann, Vladimir I. Minkin & Barry K. Carpenter (1997). Ockham's Razor and Chemistry. Hyle 3 (1):3 - 28.score: 24.0
    We begin by presenting William of Ockham's various formulations of his principle of parsimony, Ockham's Razor. We then define a reaction mechanism and tell a personal story of how Ockham's Razor entered the study of one such mechanism. A small history of methodologies related to Ockham's Razor, least action and least motion, follows. This is all done in the context of the chemical (and scientific) community's almost unthinking acceptance of the principle as heuristically valuable. Which is not matched, to put (...)
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  35. Klaus Mainzer (1999). Computational Models and Virtual Reality. New Perspectives of Research in Chemistry. Hyle 5 (2):135 - 144.score: 24.0
    Molecular models are typical topics of chemical research depending on the technical standards of observation, computation, and representation. Mathematically, molecular structures have been represented by means of graph theory, topology, differential equations, and numerical procedures. With the increasing capabilities of computer networks, computational models and computer-assisted visualization become an essential part of chemical research. Object-oriented programming languages create a virtual reality of chemical structures opening new avenues of exploration and collaboration in chemistry. From an epistemic point of view, virtual (...)
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  36. Guillermo Restrepo & José L. Villaveces (2012). Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry. Hyle 18 (1):3 - 22.score: 24.0
    Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity (...)
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  37. D. Robert Lloyd (2007). The Chemistry of Platonic Triangles. Hyle 13 (2):99 - 118.score: 24.0
    Plato's geometrical theory of what we now call chemistry, set out in the Timaeus, uses triangles, his stoicheia, as the fundamental units with which he constructs his four elements. A paper claiming that these triangles can be divided indefinitely is criticized; the claim of an error here in the commentary by F.M. Cornford is unfounded. Plato's constructions of the elements are analyzed using simple point group theory. His procedure generates fully symmetric polyhedra, but Cornford's 'simpler' alternatives generate polyhedra with (...)
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  38. Alexandru Manafu (forthcoming). How Much Philosophy in the Philosophy of Chemistry? Journal for General Philosophy of Science:1-12.score: 24.0
    This paper aims to show that there is a lot of philosophy in the philosophy of chemistry—not only in the problems and questions specific to chemistry, which this science brings up in philosophical discussions, but also in the topics of wider interest like reductionism and emergence, for which chemistry proves to be an ideal case study. The fact that chemical entities and properties are amenable to a quantitative understanding, to measurement and experiment to a greater extent than (...)
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  39. Karen R. Zwier (2011). John Dalton's Puzzles: From Meteorology to Chemistry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):58-66.score: 24.0
    Historical research on John Dalton has been dominated by an attempt to reconstruct the origins of his so-called "chemical atomic theory". I show that Dalton's theory is difficult to define in any concise manner, and that there has been no consensus as to its unique content among his contemporaries, later chemists, and modern historians. I propose an approach which, instead of attempting to work backward from Dalton's theory, works forward, by identifying the research questions that Dalton posed to himself and (...)
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  40. F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). Why Was a Fuzzy Model so Successful in Physical Organic Chemistry? Hyle 6 (2):161 - 173.score: 24.0
    This paper examines a facet of the rise of the Hughes-Ingold Theory of Nucleophilic Substitution in Organic Chemistry 1933-1942, arguing that the SN1/SN2 model of reaction mechanism used by Hughes and Ingold is an example of a fuzzy model. Many real world 'Fuzzy Logic' Controlling Devices gave better results compared to classical logic controlling devices in the period 1975-1985. I propose that the adoption of fuzzy principles in the Hughes-Ingold program 1933-1940 led to scientific advance at a time when (...)
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  41. Roald Hoffmann (2012). Roald Hoffmann on the Philosophy, Art, and Science of Chemistry. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Machine generated contents note: -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction, by Michael Weisberg and Jeffrey Kovac. -- 1 Trying to Understand, Making Bonds, by Roald Hoffmann -- Part 1: Chemical Reasoning and Explanation -- 2. Why Buy That Theory?, by Roald Hoffmann. -- 3. What Might Philosophy of Science Look Like If Chemists Built It?, by Roald Hoffmann -- 4. Unstable, by Roald Hoffmann -- 5. Nearly Circular Reasoning, by Roald Hoffmann -- 6. Ockham's Razor and Chemistry, by Roald (...)
     
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  42. William T. Lynch (forthcoming). Second-Guessing Scientists and Engineers: Post Hoc Criticism and the Reform of Practice in Green Chemistry and Engineering. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-24.score: 24.0
    The article examines and extends work bringing together engineering ethics and Science and Technology Studies, which had built upon Diane Vaughan’s analysis of the Challenger shuttle accident as a test case. Reconsidering the use of her term “normalization of deviance,” the article argues for a middle path between moralizing against and excusing away engineering practices contributing to engineering disaster. To explore an illustrative pedagogical case and to suggest avenues for constructive research developing this middle path, it examines the emergence of (...)
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  43. Pier Luigi Luisi (2002). Emergence in Chemistry: Chemistry as the Embodiment of Emergence. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):183-200.score: 21.0
    The main aim of the paper is to reinforce the notion that emergence is a basic characteristic of the molecular sciences in general and chemistry in particular. Although this point is well accepted, even in the primary reference on emergence, the keyword emergence is rarely utilized by chemists and molecular biologists and chemistry textbooks for undergraduates. The possible reasons for this situation are discussed. The paper first re-introduces the concept of emergence based on very simple geometrical forms; and (...)
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  44. R. Vihalemm (2003). Are Laws of Nature and Scientific Theories Peculiar in Chemistry? Scrutinizing Mendeleev's Discovery. Foundations of Chemistry 5 (1):7-22.score: 21.0
    The problem of the peculiarcharacter of chemical laws and theories is a central topic in philosophy of chemistry. Oneof the most characteristic and, at the sametime, most puzzling examples in discussions onchemical laws and theories is Mendeleev''speriodic law. This law seems to be essentiallydifferent in its nature from the exact laws ofclassical physics, the latter being usuallyregarded as a paradigm of science byphilosophers. In this paper the main argumentsconcerning the peculiar character of chemicallaws and theories are examined. The laws (...)
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  45. Richard Bader (2011). On the Non-Existence of Parallel Universes in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):11-37.score: 21.0
    This treatise presents thoughts on the divide that exists in chemistry between those who seek their understanding within a universe wherein the laws of physics apply and those who prefer alternative universes wherein the laws are suspended or ‘bent’ to suit preconceived ideas. The former approach is embodied in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), a theory based upon the properties of a system’s observable distribution of charge. Science is experimental observation followed by appeal to theory that, (...)
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  46. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2011). Ontological Tensions in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (3):173-186.score: 21.0
    The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marks a period of transition between the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy and the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper will focus on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of sixteenth and seventeenth century chemistry and chemical philosophy, particularly in the works of Paracelsus, Jan Baptista Van Helmont, Robert Fludd, and Robert Boyle. Rather than argue that (...)
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  47. N. Sukumar (2013). The Atom in a Molecule as a Mereological Construct in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):303-309.score: 21.0
    In this paper I discuss some consequences and manifestations of a mereology of structured wholes in chemistry, with particular reference to the concept of atoms in molecules.
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  48. Rosária S. Justi & John K. Gilbert (2002). Philosophy of Chemistry in University Chemical Education: The Case of Models and Modelling. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):213-240.score: 21.0
    If chemistry is to be taught successfully, teachers must have a good subject matter knowledge (SK) of the ideas with which they are dealing, the nature of this falling within the orbit of philosophy of chemistry. They must also have a good pedagogic content knowledge (PCK), the ability to communicate SK to students, the nature of this falling within the philosophy and psychology of chemical education. Taking the case of models and modelling, important themes in the philosophy of (...)
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  49. Pedro J. Sánchez Gómez (2013). The Semantics of Chemical Education: Constructivism, Externalism and the Language of Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):103-116.score: 21.0
    In this paper we present a semantic analysis of the application of didactic constructivism to chemical education. We show that the psychological basis of constructivism yield, when applied to chemistry, an internalist semantics for the chemical names. Since these names have been presented as typical examples of an externalism for kind terms, a fundamental incompatibility ensues. We study this situation, to conclude that it affects chemical education at every level. Finally, we present a preliminary analysis of this problem from (...)
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  50. Joseph E. Earley (2009). How Chemistry Shifts Horizons: Element, Substance, and the Essential. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):65-77.score: 21.0
    In 1931 eminent chemist Fritz Paneth maintained that the modern notion of “element” is closely related to (and as “metaphysical” as) the concept of element used by the ancients (e.g., Aristotle). On that basis, the element chlorine (properly so-called) is not the elementary substance dichlorine, but rather chlorine as it is in carbon tetrachloride. The fact that pure chemicals are called “substances” in English (and closely related words are so used in other European languages) derives from philosophical compromises made by (...)
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