Search results for 'Chemistry' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Pier Luigi Luisi (2002). Emergence in Chemistry: Chemistry as the Embodiment of Emergence. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):183-200.
    The main aim of the paper is to reinforce the notion that emergence is a basic characteristic of the molecular sciences in general and chemistry in particular. Although this point is well accepted, even in the primary reference on emergence, the keyword emergence is rarely utilized by chemists and molecular biologists and chemistry textbooks for undergraduates. The possible reasons for this situation are discussed. The paper first re-introduces the concept of emergence based on very simple geometrical forms; and (...)
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  2.  20
    Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino & Jean Pierre Noël Llored (2016). Reality Without Reification: Philosophy of Chemistry’s Contribution to Philosophy of Mind. In Grant Fisher Eric Scerri (ed.), Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry. Oxford University Press 83-110.
    In this essay, we argue that there exist obvious parallels between questions that inform philosophy of chemistry and the so-called hard problem of consciousness in philosophy of mind. These include questions regarding the emergence of higher-level phenomena from lower-level physical states, the reduction of higher-level phenomena to lower-level physical states, and 'downward causation'. We, therefore, propose that the 'hard problem' of consciousness should be approached in a manner similar to that used to address parallel problems in philosophy of (...). Thus, our contribution begins by scrutinizing the ways chemists and quantum chemists think about and use different levels of organization and chemical relations and relata and then investigates the problem of 'downward causation' as it relates to the question of emergence. We demonstrate that the science of the transformation of 'substances', namely chemistry, enables us to go beyond substantialism and to develop, instead, a non-substantialist account of levels of reality. Similarly, the 'hard problem' of consciousness will require that we transcend traditional emergentism and its substantialist conception of mind. As with chemical phenomena, mental phenomena must be examined in terms of the relationality of wholes and parts, and this will require the development of a mereology that explains how parts and wholes may co-define each other. Like the non-classical and non-transitive mereology that has been proposed for quantum chemistry, an extended mereology for philosophy of mind must be one that entangles the whole, its parts, and the environment, thus rendering 'downward causation' into a relational concept. This proposal is neither a reductionist analysis that only needs the parts to define the whole, nor a merely holistic description within which the whole is necessary to define the parts. Rather, we propose that the parts, the whole, and the environment co-define each other so that our understanding of parts, wholes, and environment as independent concepts must itself be altered. (shrink)
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  3.  88
    Giovanni Villani (2014). Structured System in Chemistry: Comparison with Mechanics and Biology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):107-123.
    The fundamental concept of structured chemical system has been introduced and analysed in this paper. This concept, as in biology but not in physics, is very important in chemistry. In fact, the main chemical concepts (molecule and compound) have been identified as systemic concepts and their use in chemical explanation can only be justified in this approach. The fundamental concept of “environment” has been considered and then the system concept in mechanics, chemistry and biology. The differences and the (...)
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  4. J. van Brakel (2010). Chemistry and Physics: No Need for Metaphysical Glue. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (2):123-136.
    Using the notorious bridge law “water is H 2 O” and the relation between molecular structure and quantum mechanics as examples, I argue that it doesn’t make sense to aim for specific definition(s) of intertheoretical or interdiscourse relation(s) between chemistry and physics (reduction, supervenience, what have you). Proposed definitions of interdiscourse and part-whole relations are interesting only if they provide insight in the variegated interconnected patchwork of theories and beliefs. There is “automatically” some sort of interdiscourse relation if different (...)
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  5. R. Vihalemm (2003). Are Laws of Nature and Scientific Theories Peculiar in Chemistry? Scrutinizing Mendeleev's Discovery. Foundations of Chemistry 5 (1):7-22.
    The problem of the peculiarcharacter of chemical laws and theories is a central topic in philosophy of chemistry. Oneof the most characteristic and, at the sametime, most puzzling examples in discussions onchemical laws and theories is Mendeleev''speriodic law. This law seems to be essentiallydifferent in its nature from the exact laws ofclassical physics, the latter being usuallyregarded as a paradigm of science byphilosophers. In this paper the main argumentsconcerning the peculiar character of chemicallaws and theories are examined. The laws (...)
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  6. Gerald F. Thomas (2012). The Emancipation of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (2):109-155.
    In his classic work The Mind and its Place in Nature published in 1925 at the height of the development of quantum mechanics but several years after the chemists Lewis and Langmuir had already laid the foundations of the modern theory of valence with the introduction of the covalent bond, the analytic philosopher C. D. Broad argued for the emancipation of chemistry from the crass physicalism that led physicists then and later—with support from a rabblement of philosophers who knew (...)
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  7.  26
    Joachim Schummer (2006). Gestalt Switch in Molecular Image Perception: The Aesthetic Origin of Molecular Nanotechnology in Supramolecular Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):53-72.
    According to ‘standard histories’ of nanotechnology, the colorful pictures of atoms produced by scanning probe microscopists since the 1980s essentially inspired visions of molecular nanotechnology. In this paper, I provide an entirely different account that, nonetheless, refers to aesthetic inspiration, First, I argue that the basic idea of molecular nanotechnology, i.e., producing molecular devices, has been the goal of supramolecular chemistry that emerged earlier, without being called nanotechnology. Secondly, I argue that in supramolecular chemistry the production of molecular (...)
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  8.  24
    Joachim Schummer (2006). Gestalt Switch in Molecular Image Perception: The Aesthetic Origin of Molecular Nanotechnology in Supramolecular Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):53-72.
    According to ‘standard histories’ of nanotechnology, the colorful pictures of atoms produced by scanning probe microscopists since the 1980s essentially inspired visions of molecular nanotechnology. In this paper, I provide an entirely different account that, nonetheless, refers to aesthetic inspiration, First, I argue that the basic idea of molecular nanotechnology, i.e., producing molecular devices, has been the goal of supramolecular chemistry that emerged earlier, without being called nanotechnology. Secondly, I argue that in supramolecular chemistry the production of molecular (...)
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  9.  3
    Kostas Gavroglu (2015). E. Thomas Strom & Angela K. Wilson : "Pioneers of Quantum Chemistry". [REVIEW] Hyle: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 21 (1):61-63.
    Book Review of E. Thomas Strom & Angela K. Wilson : Pioneers of Quantum Chemistry, Washington/DC 2013.
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  10.  6
    Grant Fisher (forthcoming). Diagnostics in Computational Organic Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry:1-22.
    Focusing on computational studies of pericyclic reactions from the late twentieth century into the twenty-first century, this paper argues that computational diagnostics is a key methodological development that characterize the management and coordination of plural approximation methods in computational organic chemistry. Predictive divergence between semi-empirical and ab initio approximation methods in the study of pericyclic reactions has issued in epistemic dissent. This has resulted in the use of diagnostics to unpack computational greyboxes in order to critically assess the effect (...)
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  11. Hinne Hettema (2009). Explanation and Theory Formation in Quantum Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (3):145-174.
    In this paper I expand Eric Scerri’s notion of Popper’s naturalised approach to reduction in chemistry and investigate what its consequences might be. I will argue that Popper’s naturalised approach to reduction has a number of interesting consequences when applied to the reduction of chemistry to physics. One of them is that it prompts us to look at a ‘bootstrap’ approach to quantum chemistry, which is based on specific quantum theoretical theorems and practical considerations that turn quantum (...)
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  12. Rein Vihalemm (2011). The Autonomy of Chemistry: Old and New Problems. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):97-107.
    The autonomy of chemistry and the legitimacy of the philosophy of chemistry are usually discussed in the context of the issue of reduction of chemistry to physics, and defended making use of the failure of reductionistic claims. Until quite recent times a rather widespread viewpoint was, however, that the failure of reductionistic claims concerns actually epistemological aspect of reduction only, but the ontological reduction of chemistry to physics cannot be denied. The new problems of the autonomy (...)
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  13.  69
    J. A. Linthorst (2010). An Overview: Origins and Development of Green Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):55-68.
    This article provides an overview of the origins and development of green chemistry. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of green chemistry, basically from a historical point of view, this overview argues that contextual influences and the user friendliness of the term are drivers for the explosive growth of green chemistry. It is observed that political support for its development has been significant, in which the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 was a formal political starting-point, but informally (...)
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  14.  17
    Rein Vihalemm (2005). Chemistry and a Theoretical Model of Science: On the Occasion of a Recent Debate with the Christies. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 7 (2):171-182.
    In the philosophy of chemistry a view is developed according to which laws of nature and scientific theories are peculiar in chemistry. This view was criticized in an earlier issue of the Foundations of Chemistry (Vihalemm, Foundation of Chemistry 5(1): 7–22, 2003) referring to an essay by Maureen and John Christie (Christie and Christie, in N. Bushan and S. Rosenfeld (Eds.), Of Minds and Molecules: New Philosophical Perspectives on Chemistry. Oxford University Press, New York, 2000, (...)
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  15.  15
    Jean-Pierre Llored (2012). Emergence and Quantum Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):245-274.
    This paper first queries what type of concept of emergence, if any, could be connected with the different chemical activities subsumed under the label ‘quantum chemistry’. In line with Roald Hoffmann, we propose a ‘rotation to research laboratory’ in order to point out how practitioners hold a molecular whole, its parts, and the surroundings together within their various methods when exploring chemical transformation. We then identify some requisite contents that a concept of emergence must incorporate in order to be (...)
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  16.  65
    W. M. Goodwin (2008). Structural Formulas and Explanation in Organic Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):117-127.
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is diagrams, and in particular structural formulas and potential energy diagrams, that carry the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic (...)
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  17.  22
    R. J. Snooks (2006). Another Scientific Practice Separating Chemistry From Physics: Thought Experiments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (3):255-270.
    Thought experiments in the history of science display a striking asymmetry between chemistry and physics, namely that chemistry seems to lack well-known examples, whereas physics presents many famous examples. This asymmetry, I argue, is not independent data concerning the chemistry/physics distinction. The laws of chemistry such as the periodic table are incurably special, in that they make testable predictions only for a very restricted range of physical conditions in the universe which are necessarily conditioned by the (...)
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  18.  7
    Peeter Müürsepp (2016). Chemistry as a Practical Science: Edward Caldin Revisited. Foundations of Chemistry 18 (2):113-123.
    This is an attempt to take a look at chemistry from the point of view of practical realism. Besides its social–historical and normative aspects, the latter involves a direct reference to experimental research. According to Edward Caldin chemistry depends on our being able to isolate pure substances with reproducible properties. Thus, the very basis of chemistry is practical. Even the laws of chemistry are not stable but are subject to correction. At the same time, these statements (...)
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  19.  66
    Gabor Pallo (2011). Early Impact of Quantum Physics on Chemistry: George Hevesy's Work on Rare Earth Elements and Michael Polanyi's Absorption Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):51-61.
    After Heitler and London published their pioneering work on the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry in 1927, it became an almost unquestioned dogma that chemistry would soon disappear as a discipline of its own rights. Reductionism felt victorious in the hope of analytically describing the chemical bond and the structure of molecules. The old quantum theory has already produced a widely applied model for the structure of atoms and the explanation of the periodic system. This paper will (...)
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  20.  35
    F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). The Foundations of Modern Organic Chemistry: The Rise of the Highes and Ingold Theory From 1930–1942. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):99-125.
    The foundations of modern organic chemistry were laid by the seminal work of Hughes and Ingold. The rise from being an interesting alternative hypothesis in 1933 to being the leading theory (outside the USA) in 1942 was achieved by a multiplicity of methods. This include:the construction of a new scientific notation, the rationalisation of some seemingly contradictory reported data, the refutation of the experimental work of one of their persistent critics, the use of conceptual arguments and also the achievement (...)
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  21.  32
    J. van Brakel (1999). On the Neglect of the Philosophy of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 1 (2):111-174.
    In this paper I present a historiography of the recent emergence of philosophy of chemistry. Special attention is given to the interest in this domain in Eastern Europe before the collapse of the USSR. It is shown that the initial neglect of the philosophy of chemistry is due to the unanimous view in philosophy and philosophy of science that only physics is a proper science (to put in Kant's words). More recently, due to the common though incorrect assumption (...)
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  22.  78
    Rom Harré (2009). Trope Theory and the Ontology of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):93-103.
    The traditional ontology within which chemistry has developed involved various versions of a general substance/attribute scheme. Recently this has been challenged by two versions of Dynamism. One version is derived from the writings of A. N. Whitehead and the other from several sources, including G. Leibniz and I. Kant. Both involve the idea of flux of actual occasions. Unlike the former scheme, the latter involves a foundation of causal powers and the energetics of field theory. The situation has been (...)
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  23.  5
    Jean-Pierre Llored & Stéphane Sarrade (2016). Connecting the Philosophy of Chemistry, Green Chemistry, and Moral Philosophy. Foundations of Chemistry 18 (2):125-152.
    This paper aims to connect philosophy of chemistry, green chemistry, and moral philosophy. We first characterize chemistry by underlining how chemists: co-define chemical bodies, operations, and transformations; always refer to active and context-sensitive bodies to explain the reactions under study; and develop strategies that require and intertwine with a molecular whole, its parts, and the surroundings at the same time within an explanation. We will then point out how green chemists are transforming their current activities in order (...)
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  24.  22
    Theodor Benfey (2000). Reflections on the Philosophy of Chemistry and a Rallying Call for Our Discipline. Foundations of Chemistry 2 (3):195-205.
    Biology in the popular mind remains tied to the doctrines of the struggle forsurvival and the survival of the fittest. Physics is linked to the heat deathof the universe – the inexorable march towards greater disorder,increasing entropy. Our field, on the other hand, focuses on orderedstructures, molecules and crystals, and their aggregates, and what holdsthem together. The philosophy of chemistry is centered on affinity,cohesion, the architecture of the very small, attraction, harmony, and, ifyou permit, beauty. Our discipline is the (...)
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  25.  1
    Nuno Francisco, Carla Morais, João C. Paiva & Paula Gameiro (forthcoming). A Colourful Bond Between Art and Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry:1-14.
    How can a work of art give us clues about scientific aspects? How can chemistry help a painter enhance his creativity and, above all, preserve the original characteristics of his work? Does an artist require scientific knowledge to innovate or, at least, not to be faked? Other symbiotic fields between art and science are: tattoos, as body art with physical and chemical consequences; pigments, as basic materials with interesting historiographical preparations; spectroscopy diagnosis, as very broad and thorough method of (...)
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  26.  33
    A. T. Balaban (2005). Reflections About Mathematical Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 7 (3):289-306.
    A personal account is presented for the present status of mathematical chemistry, with emphasis on non-numerical applications. These use mainly graph-theoretical concepts. Most computational chemical applications involve quantum chemistry and are therefore largely reducible to physics, while discrete mathematical applications often do not. A survey is provided for opinions and definitions of mathematical chemistry, and then for journals, books and book series, as well as symposia of mathematical chemistry.
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  27.  31
    M. Kidwai & R. Mohan (2005). Green Chemistry: An Innovative Technology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 7 (3):269-287.
    The drive towards clean technology in the chemical industry with an increasing emphasis on the reduction of waste at source requires a level of innovation and new technology that the chemical industry is beginning to adopt. The green chemistry revolution provides an enormous number of opportunities to discover and apply new synthetic approaches using alternative feedstocks; ecofriendly reaction conditions, energy minimizations and the design of less toxic and inherently safer chemicals. In this review exciting opportunities and some successful examples (...)
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  28.  4
    Naum S. Imyanitov (2016). Dialectics and Synergetics in Chemistry. Periodic Table and Oscillating Reactions. Foundations of Chemistry 18 (1):21-56.
    This work utilizes examples from chemical sciences to present fundamentals of dialectics and synergetics. The laws of dialectics remain appropriate at the level of atoms, at the level of molecules, at the level of the reactions, and at the level of ideas. The law of the unity and conflict of opposites is seen, for instance, in the relationships between the ionization energy and electron affinity of atoms, between the forward and back reactions, as well as in the differentiation and integration (...)
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  29.  1
    Peeter Müürsepp (forthcoming). Chemistry as a Practical Science. Foundations of Chemistry:1-11.
    This is an attempt to take a look at chemistry from the point of view of practical realism. Besides its social–historical and normative aspects, the latter involves a direct reference to experimental research. According to Edward Caldin chemistry depends on our being able to isolate pure substances with reproducible properties. Thus, the very basis of chemistry is practical. Even the laws of chemistry are not stable but are subject to correction. At the same time, these statements (...)
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  30.  1
    Jaap van Brakel (2014). Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Chemistry. Hyle: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 20 (1):11-57.
    In this paper I assess the relation between philosophy of chemistry and philosophy of science, focusing on those themes in the philosophy of chemistry that may bring about major revisions or extensions of current philosophy of science. Three themes can claim to make a unique contribution to philosophy of science: first, the variety of materials in the world; second, extending the world by making new stuff; and, third, specific features of the relations between chemistry and physics.
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  31.  31
    Lee McIntyre (1999). The Emergence of the Philosophy of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 1 (1):57-63.
    After a long period of neglect, the philosophy of chemistry is slowly being recognized as a newly emerging branch of the philosophy of science. This paper endorses and defends this emergence given the difficulty of reducing all of the philosophical problems raised by chemistry to those already being considered within the philosophy of physics, and recognition that many of the phenomena in chemistry are epistemologically emergent.
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  32.  22
    Carlos Alberto Marques & Adélio A. S. C. Machado (2014). Environmental Sustainability: Implications and Limitations to Green Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):125-147.
    This study discusses the relationship between Green Chemistry and Environmental Sustainability as expressed in textbooks and articles on Green Chemistry authored by their promoters. It was found that although the Brundtland concept of Sustainable Development/Sustainability has been mentioned often by green chemists, a full analysis of that relationship was almost never attempted. In particular, green chemists have paid scarce attention to the importance of The Second Law of thermodynamics on Environmental Sustainability and the consequences of the limitations it (...)
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  33.  22
    Guillermo Restrepo (2013). To Mathematize, or Not to Mathematize Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):185-197.
    By analysing a contemporary criticism to the so called “mathematical chemistry”, we discuss what we understand by mathematizing chemistry and its implications. We then pass to ponder on some positions on the subject by considering the cases of Laszlo, Venel and Diderot, opponents to the idea of mathematization of chemistry. In contrast, we analyse some scholars’ ideas on the fruitful relationship between mathematics and chemistry; here Dirac and Brown are considered. Finally, we mention that the mathematical– (...) relationship should be considered beyond the mere aspect of whether chemistry is or not able to be mathematized. This discussion is based upon opinions by Kant and Comte, the first one having two positions on chemistry based upon mathematics and the latter mooting the idea of doing chemistry with mathematical spirit. (shrink)
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  34.  14
    Jeffrey Kovac (2000). Professionalism and Ethics in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 2 (3):207-219.
    This essay offers a preliminary philosophy ofchemistry as a profession focusing on professionalethics. First, I look at how well chemistry fits themodel of a liberal profession. I then explore therelationship between epistemology and ethics. Therelationship between chemistry and society isdiscussed in the context of the two-dimensionalclassification of research developed by Donald Stokesin his book Pasteur's Quadrant. Finally, Iraise the questions of an appropriate moral ideal forchemistry and the ethical conflicts that can occurwhen chemists simultaneously fulfill more than one (...)
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  35.  12
    Markus Reiher (2003). A Systems Theory for Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 5 (1):23-41.
    A systems theory for chemistry is proposed in order to provide a general framework, which covers different theoretical approaches used in the molecular sciences.The basic elements of systems theory are introduced and discussed.By construction, this systems chemistry offers classification and categorizationschemes that will help to identify the range of applicability of certain theoretical approachesas well as to find yet unanswered fundamental questions. Consequently, it will be of value not only to thosewho want to understand and study the structure (...)
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  36.  43
    Joseph E. Earley (2009). How Chemistry Shifts Horizons: Element, Substance, and the Essential. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):65-77.
    In 1931 eminent chemist Fritz Paneth maintained that the modern notion of “element” is closely related to (and as “metaphysical” as) the concept of element used by the ancients (e.g., Aristotle). On that basis, the element chlorine (properly so-called) is not the elementary substance dichlorine, but rather chlorine as it is in carbon tetrachloride. The fact that pure chemicals are called “substances” in English (and closely related words are so used in other European languages) derives from philosophical compromises made by (...)
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  37.  17
    Hrvoj VanČik (1999). Opus Magnum: An Outline for the Philosophy of Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 1 (3):239-254.
    This work explores the nature of chemistry as an autonomous science and philosophical consequences of generalizations of some chemical aspects. Chemistry is regarded in its distinction from physics, going back to the alchemical aim for the ultimate experiment rather than for all explaining theory. Topology, shape, valence etc. are identified as typically chemical concepts. The contribution of chemistry to the general theory of complexity is demonstrated by approach of diminishing interactions by which smaller and smaller energy increments (...)
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  38.  12
    Charles Seibert (2001). Charley Peirce's Head Start in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 3 (3):201-226.
    As a youngster of perhaps 8 years, Charles S. Peirce was given a chemistry laboratory in which he probably did experiments in qualitative analysis. These experiments were modeled on the hypothetico-deductive method of inquiry. I argue that this laboratory experience initiated Peirce’s life-long interest in logic and the logic of science, and flowered in his “pragmaticism.”.
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  39.  39
    Rosária S. Justi & John K. Gilbert (2002). Philosophy of Chemistry in University Chemical Education: The Case of Models and Modelling. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):213-240.
    If chemistry is to be taught successfully, teachers must have a good subject matter knowledge (SK) of the ideas with which they are dealing, the nature of this falling within the orbit of philosophy of chemistry. They must also have a good pedagogic content knowledge (PCK), the ability to communicate SK to students, the nature of this falling within the philosophy and psychology of chemical education. Taking the case of models and modelling, important themes in the philosophy of (...)
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  40.  11
    Olimpia Lombardi (2014). Linking Chemistry with Physics: Arguments and Counterarguments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):181-192.
    The many-faced relationship between chemistry and physics is one of the most discussed topics in the philosophy of chemistry. In his recent book Reducing Chemistry to Physics. Limits, Models, Consequences, Hinne Hettema conceives this relationship as a reduction link, and devotes his work to defend this position on the basis of a “naturalized” concept of reduction. In the present paper I critically review three kinds of issues stemming from Hettema’s argumentation: philosophical, scientific and methodological.
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  41.  26
    Donald J. Wink (2006). Connections Between Pedagogical and Epistemological Constructivism: Questions for Teaching and Research in Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (2):111-151.
    The rich and ongoing debate about constructivism in chemistry education includes questions about the relationship, for better or worse, between applications of the theory in pedagogy and in epistemology. This paper presents an examination of the potential to use connections of epistemological and pedagogical constructivism to one another. It examines connections linked to the content, processes, and premises of science with a goal of prompting further research in these areas.
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  42.  18
    R. Bruce King (2000). The Role of Mathematics in the Experimental/Theoretical/Computational Trichotomy of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 2 (3):221-236.
    The drastically increasing availability ofmodern computers coupled with the equally drasticallylower cost of a given amount of computer power inrecent years has resulted in the evolution of thetraditional experimental/theoretical dichotomy inchemistry into anexperimental/theoretical/computational trichotomy. This trichotomy can be schematically represented by atriangle with experimental,theoretical, and computational chemistry at the threevertices. The ET and EC edges of the ETC triangledepict the uses of theoretical and computationalchemistry, respectively, to predict and interpretexperimental results. The TC edge depicts therelationship between theoretical and computationalchemistry. (...)
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  43.  15
    Jeffrey Kovac (2002). Theoretical and Practical Reasoning in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 4 (2):163-171.
    Traditional philosophy of science regards theoretical reasoning, based on the example of Euclidian geometry, as the hallmark of a mature science. There is, however, a parallel tradition of practical reasoning based on specific cases that goes back to Aristotle. In this paper I argue that practical reasoning is an essential part of the practice of chemistry and should be understood and appreciated on its own merits rather than regarded as a symbol of the immaturity and inferiority of chemistry (...)
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  44.  14
    Peter H. Plesch (1999). On the Distinctness of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 1 (1):6-15.
    Chemistry is concerned with all aspects of the changing of one kind of matter into another. It has many parts and all but one of these are so different from all the adjacent sciences that their distinctness is obvious; the exception is physical chemistry. The activities of its practitioners resemble prima facie those of physicists. These however deal with unchanging matter that retains its chemical identity, and virtually all their experimental information is numerical. The physical chemist's concerns are (...)
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  45.  11
    Hrvoj Vanˇik (1999). Opus Magnum: An Outline for the Philosophy of Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 1 (3):239-254.
    This work explores the nature of chemistry as an autonomous science and philosophical consequences of generalizations of some chemical aspects. Chemistry is regarded in its distinction from physics, going back to the alchemical aim for the ultimate experiment rather than for all explaining theory. Topology, shape, valence etc. are identified as typically chemical concepts. The contribution of chemistry to the general theory of complexity is demonstrated by approach of diminishing interactions by which smaller and smaller energy increments (...)
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  46.  12
    Hrvoj Vančik (2003). Philosophy of Chemistry and Limits of Complexity. Foundations of Chemistry 5 (3):237-247.
    The problem of complexity is considered within the framework of concepts developed in recent studies in the philosophy of chemistry. According to previously expressed ideas about diminishing interactions (Vančik, 1999), as well as on the basis of the concept of levels of complexity, we speculate here that the complexity should approach its final limit. On the other hand, dynamical complexity may grow ad infinitum, and relativistic effects can only limit it. Impacts of these considerations on a possible change of (...)
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  47.  11
    Claus Jacob (2002). Philosophy and Biochemistry: Research at the Interface Between Chemistry and Biology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (2):97-125.
    This paper investigates the interface between philosophy and biochemistry. While it is problematic to justify the application of a particular philosophical model to biochemistry, it seems to be even more difficult to develop a special “Philosophy for Biochemistry”. Alternatively, philosophy can be used in biochemistry based on an alternative approach that involves an interdependent iteration process at a philosophical and (bio)chemical level (“Exeter Method”). This useful iteration method supplements more abstract approaches at the interface between philosophy and natural sciences, and (...)
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  48.  1
    Giuliano Moretti (2015). The “Extent of Reaction”: A Powerful Concept to Study Chemical Transformations at the First-Year General Chemistry Courses. Foundations of Chemistry 17 (2):107-115.
    The concept of extent of reaction was discussed many times in physical chemistry journals and books. This contribution strongly suggests the use of the extent of reaction as standard basic tool in teaching stoichiometry. The same idea was suggested several times in the past without success because the concept of extent of reaction is still not presented in the first-year general chemistry textbooks. It is also remarked that the concept of extent of reaction represents a simple example of (...)
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  49.  1
    Kevin Charles de Berg (2015). Foundations of and Challenges to Electrolyte Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 17 (1):33-48.
    Mathematics is so common-place in modern physics and chemistry that one may not realise how controversial its admittance was to these fields in the eightieth and ninetieth centuries respectively. This paper deals with the controversy during the formation of physical chemistry as a discipline in the late ninetieth and early twentieth centuries and sketches more recent criticisms of the way mathematics has been used in solution chemistry. The controversy initially related particularly to electrolyte chemistry and its (...)
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  50. Vijay M. Tangde (2015). Advances in Hadronic Chemistry and its Applications. Foundations of Chemistry 17 (2):163-179.
    In this paper, we outline the foundations of the time invariant, non-unitary covering of quantum chemistry known as hadronic chemistry, we illustrate its validity by reviewing the exact representations of the binding energies of the Hydrogen and water molecules, and present new advances.
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