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Profile: Chris Fox (University of Essex)
  1. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Achieving Expressive Completeness and Computational Efficiency for Underspecified Scope Representations.
    The tension between expressive power and computational tractability poses an acute problem for theories of underspecified semantic representation. In previous work we have presented an account of underspecified scope representations within Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order theory for natural language semantics. Here we show how filters applied to the underspecified-scope terms of PTCT permit both expressive completeness and the reduction of computational complexity in a significant class of non-worst case scenarios.
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  2. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, An Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing for Natural Language Semantics.
    We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a type-theoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine previous type-theoretic analyses (...)
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  3. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Briefly Noted.
    Intensional logic (IL) and its application to natural language, which the present monograph addresses, was first developed by Richard Montague in the late 1960s (e.g., Montague 1970a, 1970b). Through the efforts of (especially) Barbara Partee (e.g., Partee 1975, 1976), and Richmond Thomason, who edited the posthumous collection of Montague’s works (Thomason 1974), this became the main framework for those who aspired to a formal semantic theory for natural language, and these included computational linguists as early as Jerry Hobbs in the (...)
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  4. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Doing Natural Language Semantics in an Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing.
    A BSTRACT. We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a typetheoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine previous (...)
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  5. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, Expressiveness and Complexity in Underspecified Semantics.
    In this paper we address an important issue in the development of an adequate formal theory of underspecified semantics. The tension between expressive power and computational tractability poses an acute problem for any such theory. Generating the full set of resolved scope readings from an underspecified representation produces a combinatorial explosion that undermines the efficiency of these representations. Moreover, Ebert (2005) shows that most current theories of underspecified semantic representation suffer from expressive incompleteness. In previous work we present an account (...)
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  6. Chris Fox, Shalom Lappin & Carl Pollard, First-Order, Curry-Typed Logic for Natural Language Semantics.
    The paper presents Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT) where the language of terms and well-formed formulæ are joined by a language of types. In addition to supporting fine-grained intensionality, the basic theory is essentially first-order, so that implementations using the theory can apply standard first-order theorem proving techniques. The paper sketches a system of tableau rules that implement the theory. Some extensions to the type theory are discussed, including type polymorphism, which provides a useful analysis of conjunctive terms. (...)
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  7. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin (forthcoming). Type-Theoretic Logic with an Operational Account of Intensionality. Synthese:1-22.
    We formulate a Curry-typed logic with fine-grained intensionality within Turner’s typed predicate logic. This allows for an elegant presentation of a theory that corresponds to Fox and Lappin’s property theory with curry typing, but without the need for a federation of languages. We then consider how the fine-grained intensionality of this theory can be given an operational interpretation. This interpretation suggests itself as expressions in the theory can be viewed as terms in the untyped lambda-calculus, which provides a model of (...)
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  8. Christopher J. Md Phd Fox, Giuseppe Iaria, Bradley C. PhD Duchaine & Jason J. S. Md Phd Barton (2013). Residual fMRI Sensitivity for Identity Changes in Acquired Prosopagnosia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    While a network of cortical regions contribute to face processing, the lesions in acquired prosopagnosia are highly variable, and likely result in different combinations of spared and affected regions of this network. To assess the residual functional sensitivities of spared regions in prosopagnosia, we designed a rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that included pairs of faces with same or different identities and same or different expressions. By measuring the release from adaptation to these facial changes we determined (...)
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  9. Chris Fox (2012). Imperatives: A Judgemental Analysis. Studia Logica 100 (4):879-905.
    This paper proposes a framework for formalising intuitions about the behaviour of imperative commands. It seeks to capture notions of satisfaction and coherence. Rules are proposed to express key aspects of the general logical behaviour of imperative constructions. A key objective is for the framework to allow patterns of behaviour to be described while avoiding making any commitments about how commands, and their satisfaction criteria, are to be interpreted. We consider the status of some conundrums of imperative logic in the (...)
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  10. Chris Fox & Raymond Turner (2012). In Defence of Axiomatic Semantics. In Piotr Stalmaszcyzk (ed.), Philosophical and Formal Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Ontos Verlag. 145.
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  11. Christopher Fox (2012). The Novelty of Religion and the Religiosity of Substitution in Levinas and Agamben. Levinas Studies 6:131-158.
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  12. Chris Fox (2010). The Good Samaritan and the Hygienic Cook: A Cautionary Tale About Linguistic Data. In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Philosophy of Language and Linguistics. Ontos Verlag. 103.
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  13. Christopher Fox (2007). The Apotheosis of Apotheosis: Levinas's on Escape, Hegel's Unhappy Consciousness, and Us. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 12 (1):185-204.
    The recent translation of Emmanuel Levinas’s essay On Escape complicates our view of his relationship to Hegel, and reopens the ontological question of escape. The impetus for Levinas’s essay was National Socialism’s effort to reduce subjectivity to being qua biologistic. To resist this, Levinas enlists idealism as an ally. He affirms the idealist subject’s effort to escape being, but denies that it makes good its escape. I challenge this denial by comparing Levinas’s phenomenology of escape with Hegel’s phenomenology of unhappy (...)
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  14. Christopher A. Fox (2007). Real Subsumption, the Faith-Based Self, and Resistance. International Studies in Philosophy 39 (2):49-71.
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  15. Christopher A. Fox (2007). Sacrificial Pasts and Messianic Futures: Religion as a Political Prospect in René Girard and Giorgio Agamben. Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (5):563-595.
    Religion has become a vital resource for attempts to rethink the meaning of the political. This article rehearses the efforts of two recent figures, René Girard and Giorgio Agamben, to transform the political by renewing its connection to religion. Both thinkers struggle to escape politics as defined by Carl Schmitt's friend/enemy distinction. Girard and Agamben do clash ideologically, but their inquiries into sacrifice and messianism take similar courses. Regarding origins, Girard argues for the sacrificial crisis as the common parent to (...)
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  16. Chris Fox (2005). Foundations of Intensional Semantics. Blackwell Pub..
    This book provides a systematic study of three foundational issues in the semantics of natural language that have been relatively neglected in the past few decades. focuses on the formal characterization of intensions, the nature of an adequate type system for natural language semantics, and the formal power of the semantic representation language proposes a theory that offers a promising framework for developing a computational semantic system sufficiently expressive to capture the properties of natural language meaning while remaining computationally tractable (...)
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  17. Christopher Fox, Roy Porter, Robert Wokler & G. W. Stocking Jr (1997). Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth Century Domains. Annals of Science 54 (3):313-313.
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  18. Christopher Fox (1995). Introduction: How to Prepare a Noble Savage: The Spectacle of Human Science. In C. Fox, R. Porter & R. Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science. University of California Press. 1--30.
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  19. Eric Michaud & Christopher Fox (1993). National Socialist Architecture as an Acceleration of Time. Critical Inquiry 19 (2):220.
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  20. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin, A Type-Theoretic Approach to Anaphora and Ellipsis Resolution.
    We present an approach to anaphora and ellipsis resolution in which pronouns and elided structures are interpreted by the dynamic identification in discourse of type constraints on their semantic representations. The content of these conditions is recovered in context from an antecedent expression. The constraints define separation types (sub-types) in Property Theory with <span class='Hi'>Curry</span> Typing (PTCT), an expressive first-order logic with <span class='Hi'>Curry</span> typing that we have proposed as a formal framework for natural language semantics.
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