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Profile: Christian Miller (Wake Forest University)
  1. Christian Miller, Virtue as a Trait.
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  2. Jacek Brzozowski, Matthew Festenstein, Marek Kwiek, Patrick Lenta & Christian Miller (forthcoming). Deane-Peter Baker Lectures in Philosophy at the University of Natal, and is an Editor of Theoria. He is Currently Pursuing PhD Studies Through Macquarie University. Recent Publications Include 'Morality, Structure, Transcendence and Theism: A Response to Melissa Lane's Reading of Charles Taylor's Sources of the Self', Forthcoming in Inter. Theoria.
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  3. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Atheism and Theistic Belief. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion.
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  4. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Are Most of Us Honest People? Or Dishonest? Or Neither? In Artur Szutta & Natasza Szutta (eds.), W poszukiwaniu moralnego charakteru. Academicon Publishing House.
    In section one of this paper, I review some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in section two I do the same for cheating motivation. Section three then outlines several requirements for honesty and dishonesty, and I explain why, in light of the current psychological evidence, these requirements do not seem to be met. Finally in section four I step back and present some of the details of my Mixed Trait approach to thinking about the character traits which, (...)
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  5. Christian Miller (forthcoming). A New Approach to Character Traits in Light of Psychology. In Iskra Fileva (ed.), Character. Oxford University Press.
    The goal of this paper is to summarize a novel empirical framework that I have developed for thinking about the moral character traits which I claim are widely possessed by many people today. Given limitations of space, though, I will not be able to motivate or defend the framework. Instead I will simply outline some of the main ideas. Also, to help make the discussion less abstract, I will focus on harming motivation and behavior, but the framework is intended to (...)
     
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  6. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Blackwell International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell.
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  7. Christian Miller (ed.) (forthcoming). Character: New Directions From Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology. Oxford University Press.
    This collection of 31 papers primarily features the work funded by the Character Project's funding competitions (www.thecharacterproject.com). These papers represent some of the best and most innovative new work on character in the fields of psychology, philosophy, and theology.
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  8. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Empathy as the Only Hope for the Virtue of Compassion and as Support for a Limited Unity of the Virtues. Philosophy, Theology, and the Sciences.
    This paper claims that altruistic motivation is necessary for possessing the virtue of compassion, and that research on empathy (in particular, work by Dan Batson) has been the only promising source of evidence for such motivation. Challenges to using empathy as a means to cultivating compassion are also considered.
     
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  9. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Introduction to the Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology of Character. In Miller Christian (ed.), Character: New Directions from Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology. Oxford University Press.
    This introduction to our edited volume (Character: New Directions from Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology) provides background material on what I consider to be several of the fundamental questions about character, such as whether character traits exist, what their makeup is, and how they can be improved.
     
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  10. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Lack of Virtue and Vice: Studies of Aggression and Their Implications for the Empirical Adequacy of Character. In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    In two recent books, I have drawn on hundreds of studies in psychology in order to systematically develop and empirically support a new conception of the character traits which I claim most people possess. Here I will focus on just one underexplored area of the psychological literature – research on harmful as opposed to helpful behavior – and use it in a preliminary way to further support my positive view.
     
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  11. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Moral Realism and Anti-Realism. In Jerome Gellman (ed.), The History of Evil. Acumen Press.
    This chapter surveys work in meta-ethics in the past fifty years which explicitly deals with issues associated with evil. It discusses two examples from secular discussions: the argument developed by Gilbert Harman on the explanatory role of moral facts, and the argument developed by Gilbert Harman and John Doris on the empirical inadequacy of the virtues. The chapter then turns to two topics related to theistic meta-ethics: the problem of evil and moral realism, and theological voluntarism and evil.
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  12. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Naturalism and Ethics. In Kelly Clark (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Naturalism. Blackwell.
    In this chapter I consider the work of four leading naturalistic moral psychologists – Joshua Greene, Shaun Nichols, Jesse Prinz, and John Doris. Each of them draws a different meta-ethical conclusion, and they would likely disagree amongst themselves on a number of points. But here my goal is to consider, as much as space allows, whether the moral realist should feel threatened by the empirical work which they cite and the arguments which they base upon it.
     
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  13. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Russell on Acquring Virtue. In Alfano Mark (ed.), Current Controversies in Virtue Theory. Routledge.
    This is a response paper to Daniel Russell's paper in the same volume. I raise some challenges to Russell's model of virtue acquisition which draws extensively on the CAPS model in psychology and on parallels between virtues and skills.
     
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  14. Christian Miller (forthcoming). Situationism and Free Will. In Griffith Meghan, Timpe Kevin & Levy Neil (eds.), Routledge Companion to Free Will. Routledge.
    This handbook article reviews the situationist movements in psychology and philosophy, before turning to possible implications for issues about free will and moral responsibility. Particular attention is paid to possible threats to reasons-responsiveness and to agency.
     
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  15. Christian Miller (ed.) (forthcoming). The Character Project: New Perspectives in Psychology, Philosophy, and Theology. Oxford University Press.
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  16. Christian Miller (forthcoming). The Mixed Trait Model of Character Traits and the Moral Domains of Fairness and Stealing. In , Character: New Directions from Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper my goal is to extend my earlier discussion, at least in a preliminary way, to two additional areas – fairness and stealing. In doing so, I will consider whether the existing research is compatible with my Mixed Trait model, or whether instead it gives me reason to be concerned with how broadly applicable the model really is. My conclusion will be that the results are, so to speak, a mixed bag. With respect to fairness research, some careful (...)
     
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  17. Christian Miller (forthcoming). The Psychology of Virtue. In Alejo Sison (ed.), Handbook of Virtue Ethics in Business and Management. Springer.
    This chapter provides a brief overview of recent work in psychology on virtue, with a focus on the implications of that research for business. It begins by characterizing what is involved in having a virtuous character trait. It then reviews some of the claims made in two of the leading research traditions on traits in psychology: situationism and the Big Five model. Finally it ends with an application of research on the Big Five trait of conscientiousness to the business environment.
     
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  18. Christian Miller (forthcoming). A Satisfactory Definition of Post-Traumatic Growth Still Remains Elusive. European Journal of Personality.
    This is an invited target article commenting on a paper by Blackie and Jayawickreme on post-traumatic growth.
     
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  19. Christian Miller (2014). Character and Moral Psychology. Oxford University Press.
    This book first reviews Miller's theory of Mixed Traits, as developed in his 2013 book Moral Character: An Empirical Theory. It then engages extensively with situations, the CAPS model in social psychology, and the Big Five Model in personality psychology. It ends by taking up implications for his view in meta-ethics (a modified error theory) and normative ethics (a challenge for virtue ethics).
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  20. Christian Miller (2014). Furlong and Santos on Desire and Choice. In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology: Freedom and Responsibility. MIT Press. 367-374.
    Ellen Furlong and Laurie Santos helpfully summarize a number of fascinating studies of certain influences on both human and monkey behavior. As someone who works primarily in philosophy, I am not in a position to dispute the details of the studies themselves. But in this brief commentary I do want to raise some questions about the inferences Furlong and Santos make on the basis of those studies. In general, I worry that they may be overreaching beyond what their own data (...)
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  21. Christian Miller (2014). The Problem of Character. In van Hooft Stan (ed.), The Handbook of Virtue Ethics. Acumen Publishing. 418-429.
    I first summarize the main line of argument used by Harman and Doris against Aristotelian virtue ethics in particular. In section two I present what seems to me to be the most promising response to their argument. Finally in section three I briefly review and assess the other leading responses in the now sizable literature that has developed in this area.
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  22. Christian Miller (2014). The Real Challenge to Virtue Ethics From Psychology. In Snow Nancy & Trivigno Franco (eds.), The Philosophy and Psychology of Virtue: An Empirical Approach to Character and Happiness. Routledge. 15-34.
    In section one, I briefly review the Harman/Doris argument and outline the most promising response. Then in section two I develop what I take the real challenge to virtue ethics to be. The final section of the chapter suggests two strategies for beginning to address this challenge.
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  23. Christian Miller (2014). Virtue Epistemology and the Big Five. In Flanagan Owen & Fairweather Abrol (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press. 92-117.
    This paper connects work in psychology on the Big Five Model to the recent debate in philosophy on the empirical adequacy of virtue ethics and virtue epistemology.
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  24. Christian Miller (2013). Do People Have the Virtues or Vices? Some Results From Psychology. In Bradshaw David (ed.), Ethics and the Challenge of Secularism: Russian and Western Perspectives. Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. 63-88.
    This paper extends the recent discussion in philosophy of the empirical adequacy of traditional virtues and vices, to the area of work on cheating behavior and cheating motivation.
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  25. Christian Miller (2013). God and Moral Law: On the Theistic Explanation of Morality. By Mark C. Murphy. (Oxford UP, 2011. Pp. X + 192. Price £35.00.). [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 63 (251):398-400.
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  26. Christian Miller (2013). Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College. Journal of College and Character:213-222.
    Colleges and universities need to first develop an empirically informed understanding of their students when it comes to their honesty and cheating, so as to be in a better position to develop policies which can try to help them not become more disposed to cheat during their college years. In section one of this paper, I review some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in section two I do the same for cheating motivation. Section three then draws some (...)
     
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  27. Christian Miller (2013). Integrity. In Blackwell International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell. 1-11.
    Integrity is one of the leading normative concepts employed in our society. We frequently talk about the degree of integrity of community leaders and famous historical figures, and we highly value integrity in our elected public officials. But philosophers have had a difficult time arriving at consensus about what integrity consists in. Some claim that it is a purely formal relation of consistency, others that it has to do primarily with one‟s identity, and still others that it involves subjective or (...)
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  28. Christian Miller (2013). Identifying with Our Desires. Theoria 79 (2):127-154.
    A number of philosophers have become convinced that the best way of trying to understand human agency is by arriving at an account of identification. My goal here is not to criticize particular views about identification, but rather to examine several assumptions which have been widely held in the literature and yet which, in my view, render implausible any account of identification that takes them on board. In particular, I argue that typically identification does not involve either reflective consideration of (...)
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  29. Christian Miller (2013). Moral Character: An Empirical Theory. Oxford University Press.
    The goal of this book is to develop a new framework for thinking about what moral character looks like today. My central claim will be that most people have moral character traits, but at the same time they do not have either the traditional  ...
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  30. Christian Miller (2013). The Euthyphro Dilemma. In Blackwell International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell. 1-7.
    The Euthyphro Dilemma is named after a particular exchange between Socrates and Euthyphro in Plato‟s dialogue Euthyphro. In a famous passage, Socrates asks, “Is the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?” (Plato 1981: 10a), and proceeds to advance arguments which clearly favor the first of these two options (see PLATO). The primary interest in the Euthyphro Dilemma over the years, however, has primarily concerned the relationship between (...)
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  31. Christian Miller (2012). Atheism and the Benefits of Theistic Belief. In Jonathan Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 97-125.
    Most atheists are error theorists about theists; they claim that theists have genuine beliefs about the existence and nature of a divine being, but as a matter of fact no such divine being exists. Thus on their view the relevant theistic beliefs are mistaken. As error theorists, then, atheists need to arrive at some answer to the question of what practical course of action the atheist should adopt towards the theistic beliefs held by committed theists. The most natural answer and (...)
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  32. Christian Miller (2012). The Challenge to Virtue, Character, and Forgiveness From Psychology and Philosophy. Philosophia Christi 14:125-143.
    In several recent articles and in a forthcoming book, I have tried to articulate what I take the real challenge to virtue ethics to be from social psychology. In this article, I develop that challenge again by looking specifically at the virtue of forgiveness.
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  33. Christian Miller (2011). Resources for Studying Ethics. In , The Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum.
    A list of websites with resources relevant to meta-ethics and normative ethical theory.
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  34. Christian Miller (ed.) (2011). Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum.
    The Continuum Companion to Ethics offers a definitive guide to a key area of contemporary philosophy. The book covers all the fundamental questions asked by meta-ethics and normative ethical theory - areas that have continued to attract interest historically as well as topics that have emerged more recently as active areas of research. Fourteen specially commissioned essays from an international team of experts reveal where important work continues to be done in the field and, most valuably, the exciting new directions (...)
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  35. Christian Miller (2011). Defining Empathy: Thoughts on Coplan's Approach. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):66-72.
    In this paper, I raise three sets of issues inspired by Amy Coplan's paper, “Will the Real Empathy Please Stand Up.” They concern whether we need to distinguish between the three phenomena as Coplan suggests, what method(s) should be used in making those distinctions, and whether they are in fact made correctly.
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  36. Christian Miller (2011). Guilt, Embarrassment, and Global Character Traits Associated with Helping. In Thom Brooks (ed.), New Waves in Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The first section of this paper briefly summarizes my positive view of global helping traits. The remaining sections then develop the view in two new directions by examining the relationship between guilt, embarrassment, and helping behavior. It turns out that guilt and embarrassment reliably and cross-situationally enhance helping behavior, but in such a way that is incompatible with the nature of compassion as traditionally understood.
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  37. Christian Miller (2011). Moral Relativism and Moral Psychology. In Steven Hales (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Relativism. Blackwell.
    Much recent work in meta-ethics and ethical theory has drawn extensively on claims about moral psychology. The goal of this paper is to provide a broad overview of some of these claims and the implications that certain philosophers are taking them to have for the plausibility of moral relativism.
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  38. Christian Miller (2011). Overview of Contemporary Metaethics and Normative Ethical Theory. In , Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum.
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  39. Christian Miller (2011). Preface: How to Use This Book, the Intended Audience, and Acknowledgments. In , Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum.
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  40. Christian Miller (2011). Resources for the Fields of Metaethics and Normative Theory. In , Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum. 293.
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  41. Christian Miller (2011). Selected Works in Contemporary Metaethics and Normative Theory. In , Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum. 127--300.
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  42. Christian Miller (2011). Introduction to Contemporary Meta-Ethics and Normative Ethical Theory. In , The Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum.
    The study of morality continues to flourish in contemporary philosophy. As the chapters of this Companion illustrate, new and exciting work is being done on a wide range of topics from the objectivity of morality to the relationship between morality and religious, biological, and feminist concerns. Along with this vast amount of work has come a proliferation of technical terminology and competing positions. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the terrain in contemporary ethics.
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  43. Christian Miller (2010). Character Traits, Social Psychology, and Impediments to Helping Behavior. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5:1-36.
    In a number of recent papers, I have begun to develop a new theory of character which is conceptually distinct both from traditional Aristotelian accounts as well as from the positive view of local traits outlined by John Doris. On my view, many human beings do have robust traits of character which play an important explanatory and predictive role, but which are triggered by certain situational variables which preclude them from counting as genuine Aristotelian virtues. Like others in this discussion, (...)
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  44. Christian Miller (2010). Guilt and Helping. International Journal of Ethics 6 (2/3):231-252.
    A wealth of research in social psychology over the past twenty years has examined the role that guilt plays in our mental lives. In this paper, I examine just one aspect of this vast literature, namely the relationship between guilt and prosocial behavior. Researchers have typically found a robust positive correlation between feelings of guilt and helping, and have advanced psychological models to explain why guilt seems to have this effect. Here I present some of their results as well as (...)
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  45. Christian Miller (2009). Divine Desire Theory and Obligation. In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave Macmillan. 105--24.
    Thanks largely to the work of Robert Adams and Philip Quinn, the second half of the twentieth century witnessed a resurgence of interest in divine command theory as a viable position in normative theory and meta-ethics. More recently, however, there has been some dissatisfaction with divine command theory even among those philosophers who claim that normative properties are grounded in God, and as a result alternative views have begun to emerge, most notably divine intention theory (Murphy, Quinn) and divine motivation (...)
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  46. Christian Miller (2009). Divine Will Theory: Desires or Intentions? In Jonathan Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    Due largely to the work of Mark Murphy and Philip Quinn, divine will theory has emerged as a legitimate alternative to divine command theory in recent years. As an initial characterization, divine will theory is a view of deontological properties according to which, for instance, an agent S‟s obligation to perform action A in circumstances C is grounded in God‟s will that S A in C. Characterized this abstractly, divine will theory does not specify which kind of mental state is (...)
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  47. Christian Miller (2009). Divine Will Theory: Intentions or Desires? In Jonathan L. Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion: Volume 2. Oup Oxford.
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  48. Christian Miller (2009). Empathy, Social Psychology, and Global Helping Traits. Philosophical Studies 142 (2):247-275.
    The central virtue at issue in recent philosophical discussions of the empirical adequacy of virtue ethics has been the virtue of compassion. Opponents of virtue ethics such as Gilbert Harman and John Doris argue that experimental results from social psychology concerning helping behavior are best explained not by appealing to so-called ‘global’ character traits like compassion, but rather by appealing to external situational forces or, at best, to highly individualized ‘local’ character traits. In response, a number of philosophers have argued (...)
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  49. Christian Miller (2009). Review of Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 2: The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (7).
    This is the second of three volumes on moral psychology edited by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and published by MIT Press in 2008.
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  50. Christian Miller (2009). Review of Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 3: The Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (7).
    This is the third of three volumes on moral psychology edited by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and published by MIT Press in 2008.
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