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Profile: Christian Munthe (Göteborgs Universitet)
  1. Christian Munthe, Abortion: From Ethics to Politics.
    This article is not about abortion, but rather about how one can reflect on abortion - in particular its moral and political status. My aim, however, is not to defend any particular position regarding such status, rather, I will try to say something comprehensible about how one can (and cannot) reason one's way from a stand regarding the morality of abortion to a stand on the issue of abortion policy.
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  2. Christian Munthe, Are Unwanted Risks Ethically Worse Than Wanted Ones?
    Societal decisions regarding the possible granting of permission for industrial and power plants, waste disposals, traffic routes and other facilities implementing modern science and technology (here simply called technology-decisions) often provoke debates regarding the risks involved. A main theme in these debates concerns the magnitudes of these risks and whether or not they are worth taking to reach some aim. This is also a main theme in traditional risk-analysis and critical discussions of risk-management. However, sometimes the fact that some people (...)
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  3. Christian Munthe, Ethical Aspects of Controlling Genetic Doping.
    The IOC and WADA have announced their ambition to develop control program in order to detect athletes' illegitimate use of genetic technology for enhancing performance. Although it is far from clear what such uses should be counted as illegitimate, as well as to what extent the idea of control programs for such things is a feasible idea, I will assume that such programs will concern so-called somatic genetic modifications that aims at altering the athlete's initial bodily biochemistry in a way (...)
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  4. Christian Munthe, Ethical Problems of Precautionarity.
    In recent years a principle for responsible risk-taking called "The Precautionarity Principle" (PP) has been put forward in several policy documents regarding risk-management of technological and environmental issues. PP involves two claims: 1. An ethical claim according to which it is irresponsible to, for example, use new technologies, regdless of how large benefits these are known to bring, unless it has been proven that they will not give rise to unacceptable long term risks. 2. An administrative/political claim according to which (...)
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  5. Christian Munthe, Genetic Treatment and Preselection. Ethical Differences and Similarities.
    Medical genetic interventions can be performed in two ways. First, genetic defects may be repaired (gene therapy). Secondly, a possible future individual (an embryo or a possible combination of gametes) may be preselected because of its favourable genetic make-up (by using genetic diagnostic methods and procedures from reproductive medicine so called Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis). The first kind of intervention means that someone gets medical treatment in the normal sense, however, the second kind does not. Rather, in that case, the potential (...)
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  6. Christian Munthe, Informed Consent and Quality of Available Information.
    Standard versions of the requirement of informed consent state that patients who are offered to enter a clinical trial of a medical procedure should be informed about risks and possible benefits of this procedure (compared to available alternatives) in order to facilitate a rational decision whether or not to participate. However, in many real cases where new medical procedures are to be clinically tested for the first time the information available for such communication to prospective patients is very scarce, vague (...)
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  7. Christian Munthe, Klinik Och Vetenskap.
    ❙❙ Under den senare hälften av 1900-talet ökade möjligheterna att diagnostisera sjukdomar redan under fosterlivet. Ultra- SAMMANFATTAT ljudsdiagnostiken som började tillämpas på 1960-talet har förfinats alltmer. Idag genomgår nästan varje gravid kvinna..
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  8. Christian Munthe, On the Relation Between Metaethical and Substantial Normative Forms of Moral Relativism.
    Moral relativism comes in many forms. Most discussed of these are metaethical ideas that make claim to some form of relativity regarding the truth, meaning and/or knowledge of moral judgements. Notwithstanding the vast differences that exist between more precise versions of metaethical relativism (MR), they all have one basic feature in common: A moral judgement can only be true (or have a certain meaning, or be known) relative to a person or some group of persons. However, a moral judgement to (...)
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  9. Christian Munthe, Should Promotion of Autonomy Be a Goal of Public Health?
    While health care goals are usually formulated in terms of the securing of good health for the population, the goal of public health is to an increasing extent, at least in Western countries, being formulated in terms of the provision of societal preconditions for securing of good health. This goal may be attained although no one enjoys good health as a result, namely if people choose not to make use of the preconditions provided. However, reaching this goal may still seem (...)
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  10. Christian Munthe, The Goals of Public Health and the Value of Autonomy.
    Public health is often distinguished from heaslth care in that it is said to serve more 'collective' goals, such as 'the common good' rather than the good of individual people. However, it is not clear what this good is supposed to be (although it is supposed to be 'common'). In regular health care we see in the West a gradual expansion of traditional goals exclusively in terms of length and quality of life to goals having to do more with autonomy (...)
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  11. Christian Munthe, The Goals of Sports Medicine: What Are They and What Should They Be?
    While other parts of medicine and health care seems traditionally to be primarily directed at preventing losses of bodily functions, repairing said functions in the case of such losses, or at least to provide ailment for unpleasant symptoms, sports medicine has allready from the beginning been involved with the project of enhancing bodily functions with regard to sports performance. First, when sports medicine involve itself in the traditional health care activity of prevention, therapy and ailment, the aim is often very (...)
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  12. Christian Munthe, The Price of Precaution and the Ethics of Risk.
    The precautionary principle (PP) has been criticised for almost every intellectual sin one may imagine: unclarity, impracticability, rigidity, implausibility etc. Recognising the rather obvious fact that there is no such thing as one PP, this paper attempts to address this criticism on a more constructive note than merely view it as forcing us to be "for or against" precaution. This is done by connecting an underlying ethical ideal regarding the imposition of risks present in most formulations of PP to the (...)
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  13. Christian Munthe (forthcoming). Challenges for Empirical Study of Patient Autonomy, Self-Determination and Co-Decision Making. Thinking Ahead: Bioethics for the Future, the Future of Bioethics–Challenges, Changes, Concepts. 11th World Congress of the International Association of Bioethics. Rotterdam, June 26-29, 2012.
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  14. Christian Munthe & Karl Persson de Fine Licht (2014). Editorial: New Media and Risky Behavior of Children and Young People: Ethics and Policy Implications. Introducing the Themes and Pushing for More. Public Health Ethics 7 (1):1-4.
    Guest editorial to a special symposium on New Media and Risky Behavior of Children and Young People: Ethics and Policy Implications.
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  15. David Brax & Christian Munthe (2013). Part I: Introduction to the Philosophy of Hate Crime. In The Philosophy of Hate Crime Anthology. University of Gothenburg.
  16. David Brax & Christian Munthe (2013). The Philosophy of Hate Crime Anthology. University of Gothenburg.
    Introductory anthology to the philosophy of hate crime, written in the EU project "When Law and Hate Collide".
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  17. Christian Munthe (2013). David B. Resnik. Environmental Health Ethics. Public Health Ethics (3):pht016.
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  18. Niklas Juth & Christian Munthe (2012). The Ethics of Screening in Health Care and Medicine: Serving Society Or Serving the Patient? Springer Verlag.
    This book involves an in-depth analysis of the ethical, political and philosophical issues related to health-oriented screening programs.
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  19. Christian Munthe & Thomas Hartvigsson (2012). The Best Interest of Children and the Basis of Family Policy: The Issue of Reproductive Caring Units. In Daniela Cutas & Sarah Chan (eds.), Families: Beyond the Nuclear Ideal. Bloomsbury Academic.
    The notion of the best interest of children figures prominently in family and reproductive policy discussions and there is a considerable body of empirical research attempting to connect the interests of children to how families and society interact. Most of this research regards the effects of societal responses to perceived problems in families, thus underlying policy on interventions such as adoption, foster care and temporary assumption of custodianship, but also support structures that help families cope with various challenges. However, reference (...)
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  20. Christian Munthe, Lars Sandman & Daniela Cutas (2012). Person Centred Care and Shared Decision Making: Implications for Ethics, Public Health and Research. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 20 (3):231-249.
    This paper presents a systematic account of ethical issues actualised in different areas, as well as at different levels and stages of health care, by introducing organisational and other procedures that embody a shift towards person centred care and shared decision-making (PCC/SDM). The analysis builds on general ethical theory and earlier work on aspects of PCC/SDM relevant from an ethics perspective. This account leads up to a number of theoretical as well as empirical and practice oriented issues that, in view (...)
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  21. Christian Munthe (2011). The Price of Precaution and the Ethics of Risk. Springer.
    Since a couple of decades, the notion of a precautionary principle plays a central and increasingly influential role in international as well as national policy and regulation regarding the environment and the use of technology. Urging society to take action in the face of potential risks of human activities in these areas, the recent focus on climate change has further sharpened the importance of this idea. However, the idea of a precautionary principle has also been problematised and criticised by scientists, (...)
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  22. Lars Sandman, Bradi B. Granger, Inger Ekman & Christian Munthe (2011). Adherence, Shared Decision-Making and Patient Autonomy. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):115-127.
    In recent years the formerly quite strong interest in patient compliance has been questioned for being too paternalistic and oriented towards overly narrow biomedical goals as the basis for treatment recommendations. In line with this there has been a shift towards using the notion of adherence to signal an increased weight for patients’ preferences and autonomy in decision making around treatments. This ‘adherence-paradigm’ thus encompasses shared decision-making as an ideal and patient perspective and autonomy as guiding goals of care. What (...)
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  23. Christian Munthe, Susanna Radovic & Henrik Anckarsäter (2010). Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychiatric Research on Mentally Disordered Offenders. Bioethics 24 (1):35-44.
    This paper analyses ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders, especially those detained in the psychiatric treatment system. The idea of a 'dual role' dilemma afflicting forensic psychiatry is more complicated than acknowledged. Our suggestion acknowledges the good of criminal law and crime prevention as a part that should be balanced against familiar research ethical considerations. Research aiming at improvements of criminal justice and treatment is a societal priority, and the total benefit of studies has to be (...)
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  24. Lars Sandman & Christian Munthe (2010). Shared Decision Making, Paternalism and Patient Choice. Health Care Analysis 18 (1):60-84.
    In patient centred care, shared decision making is a central feature and widely referred to as a norm for patient centred medical consultation. However, it is far from clear how to distinguish SDM from standard models and ideals for medical decision making, such as paternalism and patient choice, and e.g., whether paternalism and patient choice can involve a greater degree of the sort of sharing involved in SDM and still retain their essential features. In the article, different versions of SDM (...)
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  25. Christian Munthe, Controlled Medical Research or Routine Medical Procedure? The Ethics and Politics of Drawing a Line.
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  26. Christian Munthe, Should I Stop Smoking?
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  27. Lars Sandman & Christian Munthe (2009). Shared Decision-Making and Patient Autonomy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (4):289-310.
    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five different aspects of autonomy: (1) self-realisation; (...)
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  28. Christian Munthe (2008). The Goals of Public Health: An Integrated, Multidimensional Model. Public Health Ethics 1 (1):39-52.
    While promoting population health has been the classic goal of public health practice and policy, in recent decades, new objectives in terms of autonomy and equality have been introduced. These different goals are analysed, and it is demonstrated how they may conflict severly in several ways, leaving serious unclarities both regarding the normative issue of what goal should be pursued by public health, what that implies in practical terms, and the descriptive issue of what goal that actually is pursued in (...)
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  29. Christian Munthe (2007). Selected Champions. In William J. Morgan (ed.), Ethics in Sport. Human Kinetics, Inc. 273.
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  30. Christian Munthe (2003). The Use of Human Biobanks. Ethical, Social, Economical, and Legal Aspects: Edited by M G Hansson. Uppsala University, 2001, Free, Pp 93. ISBN 91-506-1472-X. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (2):123-a-123.
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  31. Christian Munthe (2001). Divisibility and the Moral Status of Embryos. Bioethics 15 (5-6):382-397.
    The phenomenon of twinning in early fetal development has become a popular source for doubt regarding the ascription of moral status to early embryos. In this paper, the possible moral basis for such a line of reasoning is critically analysed with sceptical results. Three different versions of the argument from twinning are considered, all of which are found to rest on confusions between the actual division of embryos involed in twinning and the property of early embryos to be divisible, be (...)
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  32. Christian Munthe (2000). Review of Lennart Nordenfeldt's Talking About Health. [REVIEW] Theoria 66 (3):293-298.
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  33. Christian Munthe (1999). The Morality of Interference. Theoria 65 (1):55-69.
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  34. Christian Munthe (1996). The Argument From Transfer. Bioethics 10 (1):27–42.
    Utilitarian arguments on bioethical issues regarding human reproduction typically start with the view that it is wrong, other things being equal, not to procreate when this would have resulted in an additional being with a life worth living. The paper takes this view for granted and examines the common utilitarian claim that overpopulation and destitution in the world mean that, in practice, this obligation to procreate, other things being equal, often turns into a (categorical) obligation not to procreate. A version (...)
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  35. Christian Munthe & Stellan Welin (1996). The Morality of Scientific Openness. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):411-428.
    The ideal of scientific openness — i.e. the idea that scientific information should be freely accessible to interested parties — is strongly supported throughout the scientific community. At the same time, however, this ideal does not appear to be absolute in the everyday practice of science. In order to get the credit for new scientific advances, scientists often keep information to themselves. Also, it is common practice to withhold information obtained in commissioned research when the scientist has agreed with his (...)
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