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  1. Christopher Toner (2014). The Full Unity of the Virtues. Journal of Ethics 18 (3):207-227.
    The classical doctrine that the moral virtues are unified is widely rejected. Some argue that the virtues are disunified, or even mutually incompatible. And though others have argued that the virtues form some sort of unity, these recent defenses of unity are always qualified, advocating only a partial unity: the unity of the virtues is limited to certain practical domains, or weak in that one virtue implies only moral decency in the fields of other virtues. I argue that something like (...)
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  2. Christopher Toner (2013). The Dependence of Welfare Upon Virtue. Topoi 32 (2):161-169.
    In this article, I articulate a modest form of welfare perfectionism, according to which (1) the virtuous person’s welfare is an aspect of her virtuous activity, and (2) the virtuous person will never be in position to choose to attain welfare at the expense of acting virtuously. I then defend these claims against a range of objections.
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  3. Christopher Toner (2013). The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion. By Jonathan Haidt. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (3):548-552.
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  4. Christopher Toner (2011). Evolution, Naturalism, and the Worthwhile: A Critique of Richard Joyce's Evolutionary Debunking of Morality. Metaphilosophy 42 (4):520-546.
    Abstract: In The Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce argues there is good reason to think that the “moral sense” is a biological adaptation, and that this provides a genealogy of the moral sense that has a debunking effect, driving us to the conclusion that “our moral beliefs are products of a process that is entirely independent of their truth, … we have no grounds one way or the other for maintaining these beliefs.” I argue that Joyce's skeptical conclusion is not (...)
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  5. Christopher Toner (2011). The Virtues (and a Few Vices) of Daniel Russell's Practical Intelligence and the Virtues. Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (3):453-468.
    Daniel Russell's Practical Intelligence and the Virtues is principally a defense of the Aristotelian claim that phronesis is part of every unqualified virtue—a defense of what Russell calls "hard virtue theory" and "hard virtue ethics." The main support for this is the further claim that we would be unable to act well reliably, or form our character reliably, without phronesis performing its "twin roles": correctly identifying the mean of each virtue, and integrating the mean of each virtue with those of (...)
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  6. Christopher Toner (2010). The Logical Structure of Just War Theory. Journal of Ethics 14 (2):81-102.
    A survey of just war theory literature reveals the existence of quite different lists of principles. This apparent arbitrariness raises a number of questions: What is the relation between ad bellum and in bello principles? Why are there so many of the former and so few of the latter? What order is there among the various principles? To answer these questions, I first draw on some recent work by Jeff McMahan to show that ad bellum and in bello principles are (...)
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  7. Christopher Toner (2010). Virtue Ethics and the Nature and Forms of Egoism. Journal of Philosophical Research 35:275-303.
    Virtue ethics is often alleged to be egoistic, based upon its linking of virtue and happiness. Virtue ethicists often respond that their approach to the moral life is only “formally egoistic” and therefore not objectionable. This paper develops a clear, non-arbitrary definition of egoism (often lacking in these exchanges) as systematic pursuit of one’s own welfare, and then catalogues four broad egoistic strategies for achieving it. I identify “formal foundational egoism” as the one mostplausibly attributed to virtue ethics (its subtlety (...)
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  8. Christopher Toner (2008). Sorts of Naturalism: Requirements for a Successful Theory. Metaphilosophy 39 (2):220–250.
    In this article I investigate several "sorts of naturalism" that have been advanced in recent years as possible foundations for virtue ethics: those of Michael Thompson, Philippa Foot, Rosalind Hursthouse, John McDowell, and Larry Arnhart. Each of these impressive attempts fails in illuminatingly different ways, and in the opening sections I analyze what has gone variously wrong. I next use this analysis to articulate four criteria that any successful Aristotelian naturalism must meet (my goal is to show what naturalism must (...)
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  9. Christopher Toner (2007). Just Cause and Proper Authority in the Just War Tradition: From Salamanca to Konigsberg ... And Back? The Modern Schoolman 85 (1):1-19.
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  10. Christopher Toner (2007). Review of Anthony Kenny, Charles Kenny, Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Utility: Happiness in Philosophical and Economic Thought. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (6).
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  11. Christopher Toner (2007). Was Aquinas an Egoist? The Thomist 71 (4):577-608.
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  12. Christopher Toner (2006). Military Service as a Practice: Integrating the Sword and Shield Approaches to Military Ethics. Journal of Military Ethics 5 (3):183-200.
    The military's purpose centrally includes fighting its nation's wars, serving as the nation's sword. The dominant approach to military ethics today, which I will call the ?sword approach?, focuses on this purpose and builds an ethic out of the requirements the purpose imposes on soldiers. Yet recently philosophers such as Shannon French and Nancy Sherman have developed an alternative that I will call the ?shield approach?, which focuses on articulating a warrior code as a moral shield that can safeguard soldiers? (...)
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  13. Christopher Toner (2006). Pascal's First Wager Reconsidered. International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):75-90.
    There are at least two versions of the famous Wager argument to be found in Pascal’s Pensées. In contemporary work on the Wager, attention is almost always focused on the second. In this paper, we take a look at the first, which is often quickly dismissed as a failure. Indeed, it seems to be generally believed that Pascal himself quickly dismissed it as a failure. We fi rst argue that Pascal himself accepted the argument. Then we argue (more importantly) that (...)
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  14. Christopher Toner (2006). Review of Nancy Sherman, Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy Behind the Military Mind. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (1).
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  15. Christopher Toner (2006). The Self-Centredness Objection to Virtue Ethics. Philosophy 81 (4):595-618.
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  16. Christopher Hugh Toner (2006). Aristotelian Well-Being: A Response to L. W. Sumner's Critique. Utilitas 18 (3):218-231.
    Aristotle's ethical theory is often seen as instructing agents in the prudent pursuit of their own well-being, and therefore labeled egoistic. Yet it is also subject to the opposing charge of failing to direct agents to their well-being, directing them instead to perfection. I am here concerned chiefly with the second criticism, and proceed as follows: I first articulate Sumner's version of the criticism, and second assess his argument for his own (subjective) account of well-being. Third, I present reasons motivating (...)
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  17. Christopher Toner (2005). Just War and the Supreme Emergency Exemption. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (221):545 - 561.
    Recently a number of liberal political theorists, including Rawls and Walzer, have argued for a 'supreme emergency exemption' from the traditional just war principle of discrimination which absolutely prohibits direct attacks against innocent civilians, claiming that a political community threatened with destruction may deliberately target innocents in order to save itself. I argue that this 'supreme emergency exemption' implies that individuals too may kill innocents in supreme emergencies. This is a significant theoretical cost. While it will not constitute a decisive (...)
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  18. Christopher Toner (2005). Moral Issues in Military Decision Making. Journal of Military Ethics 4 (2):149-152.
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  19. Christopher Toner (2005). Angelic Sin in Aquinas and Scotus and the Genesis of Some Central Objections to Contemporary Virtue Ethics. The Thomist 69 (1):79-125.
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  20. Christopher H. Toner (2004). Just War and Graduated Discrimination. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 78 (4):649-665.
    Th is paper investigates the question of legitimate targets in war and the traditional jus in bello principle of discrimination, which is generally interpreted to mean that a bright line must be drawn between combatants and noncombatants, and that only the former may be attacked directly.Michael Walzer and John Rawls have proposed a “supreme emergency exemption” to this principle, which permits the targeting of innocent people in emergencies such as that of Britain in late 1940. Rejecting this, the paper offers (...)
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  21. Christopher Toner (2003). Akrasia Revisited: An Interpretation and Defense of Aristotle. Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):283-306.
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  22. Christopher Toner (2003). Akrasia Revisited. Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):283-306.
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