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Profile: Patricia Smith Churchland (University of California, San Diego)
  1. Patricia Smith Churchland, The Impact of Neuroscience on Philosophy.
    Philosophy, in its traditional guise, addresses questions where experimental science has not yet nailed down plausible explanatory theories. Thus, the ancient Greeks pondered the nature of life, the sun, and tides, but also how we learn and make decisions. The history of science can be seen as a gradual process whereby speculative philosophy cedes intellectual space to increasingly wellgrounded experimental disciplines—first astronomy, but followed by physics, chemistry, geology, biology, archaeology, and more recently, ethology, psychology, and neuroscience. Science now encompasses plausible (...)
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  2. Patricia Smith Churchland, Rick Grush, Rob Wilson & Frank Keil, Computation and the Brain.
    Two very different insights motivate characterizing the brain as a computer. One depends on mathematical theory that defines computability in a highly abstract sense. Here the foundational idea is that of a Turing machine. Not an actual machine, the Turing machine is really a conceptual way of making the point that any well-defined function could be executed, step by step, according to simple 'if-you-are-in-state-P-and-have-input-Q-then-do-R' rules, given enough time (maybe infinite time) [see COMPUTATION]. Insofar as the brain is a device whose (...)
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  3. Patricia Churchland & JeeLoo Liu, The Nature of Consciousness Handout [11].
    *[Intertheoretic Reduction]: ___ When a new and very powerful theory turns out to entail a set of propositions and principles that mirror perfectly the propositions of some older theory or conceptual framework, we can conclude that the old terms and the new terms refer to the very same thing, or express the very same properties. (e.g. heat = high average molecular kinetic energy) The old theory is then said to be "reducible" to the new theory.
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  4. Patricia Churchland, A Neurophilosophical Slant on Consciousness Research.
    Explaining the nature and mechanisms of conscious experience in neurobiological terms seems to be an attainable, if yet unattained, goal. Research at many levels is important, including research at the cellular level that explores the role of recurrent pathways between thalamic nuclei and the cortex, and research that explores consciousness from the perspective of action. Conceptually, a clearer understanding of the logic of expressions such as ‘‘causes’’ and ‘‘correlates’’, and about what to expect from a theory of consciousness are required. (...)
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  5. Patricia Churchland, The Big Questions: Do We Have Free Will?
    As neuroscience uncovers these and other mechanisms regulating choices and social behaviour, we cannot help but wonder whether anyone truly chooses anything (though see "Is the universe deterministic?"). As a result, profound questions about responsibility are inescapable, not just regarding criminal justice, but in the day-to-day business of life. Given that, I suggest that free will, as traditionally understood, needs modification. Because of its importance in society, any description of free will updated to fit what we know about the nervous (...)
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  6. Patricia S. Churchland & Paul M. Churchland, Neural Worlds and Real Worlds.
    States of the brain represent states of the world. A puzzle arises when one learns that at least some of the mind/brain’s internal representations, such as a sensation of heat or a sensation of red, do not genuinely resemble the external realities they allegedly represent: the mean kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance felt (temperature) and the mean electromagnetic reflectance profile of the seen object (color). The historical response has been to declare a distinction between objectively real properties, (...)
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  7. P. S. Churchland (forthcoming). Can Neurobiology Teach Us Anything About Consciousness?" Presidential Address to the American Philosophical Associatiojn, Pacific Division. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Lancaster Press: Lancaster, Pa.
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  8. Paul Churchland, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Gregory Clark, Ronald H. Coase, David Cohen, Felix Cohen, Morris Cohen, Edward Lord Coke, David Cole & William T. Coleman (forthcoming). Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 196 Doyle, Michael, 73, 80. In Francis J. Mootz (ed.), On Philosophy in American Law. Cambridge University Press. 305.
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  9. Willard Van Orman Quine, Patricia Smith Churchland & Dagfinn Føllesdal (2013). Word and Object. The Mit Press.
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  10. Patricia S. Churchland (2012). Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us About Morality. Princeton University Press.
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  11. Paul M. Churchland (2012). Plato's Camera: How the Physical Brain Captures a Landscape of Abstract Universals. The Mit Press.
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  12. Paul Churchland (2011). Consciousness and the Introspection of 'Qualitative Simples'. Eidos 15:12-47.
    Philosophers have long been familiar with the contrast between predicates privado privado son las únicas características cualitativas realmente simples. Con base en que, después de todo, sus referentes externos admiten un análisis estructural, relacional, causal o funcional de algún tipo. En este artículo quiero adoptar un enfoque más general y más filosófico que los argumentos antireduccionistas evidenciando los problemas que generan con la filosofía de la ciencia; la neurociencia emergente y con la historia de la ciencia en general. Sus argumentos (...)
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  13. P. M. Churchland (2010). Toward a Cognitive Neurobiology of the Moral Virtues. In James J. Giordano & Bert Gordijn (eds.), Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives in Neuroethics. Cambridge University Press. 77.
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  14. Paul M. Churchland (2010). Concept Formation Via Hebbian Learning : The Special Case of Prototypical Causal Sequences. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Interpretation: Ways of Thinking About the Sciences and the Arts. University of Pittsburgh Press.
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  15. Paul Churchland (2009). Is Evolutionary Naturalism Epistemologically Self-Defeating. Philo 12 (2):135-141.
    Alvin Plantinga argues that our cognitive mechanisms have been selected for their ability to sustain reproductively successful behaviors, not for their ability to track truth. This aspect of our cognitive mechanisms is said to pose a problem for the biological theory of evolution by natural selection in the following way. If our cognitive mechanisms do not provide any assurances that the theories generated by them are true, then the fact that evolutionary theory has been generated by them, and even accepted (...)
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  16. Paul M. Churchland (2009). Materializm eliminacyjny a postawy propozycjonalne. Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia:251-273.
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  17. Christopher L. Suhler & Patricia S. Churchland (2009). Control: Conscious and Otherwise. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (8):341-347.
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  18. Christopher Suhler & Patricia Churchland (2009). Psychology and Medical Decision-Making. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):79-81.
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  19. Patricia S. Churchland (2008). Human Dignity From a Neurophilosophical Perspective. In Adam Schulman (ed.), Human Dignity and Bioethics: Essays Commissioned by the President's Council on Bioethics. [President's Council on Bioethics.
  20. Patricia Smith Churchland (2007). The Necessary-and-Sufficient Boondoggle. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):54-55.
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  21. Paul Churchland (2007). On the Reality (and Diversity) of Objective Colors: How Color‐Qualia Space is a Map of Reflectance‐Profile Space. Philosophy of Science 74 (2):119-149.
    How, if at all, does the internal structure of human phenomenological color space map onto the internal structure of objective reflectance‐profile space, in such a fashion as to provide a useful and accurate representation of that objective feature space? A prominent argument (due to Hardin, among others) proposes to eliminate colors as real, objective properties of objects, on grounds that nothing in the external world (and especially not surface‐reflectance‐profiles) answers to the well‐known and quite determinate internal structure of human phenomenological (...)
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  22. Paul M. Churchland (2007). Neurophilosophy at Work. Cambridge University Press.
    In this collection of essays, Paul Churchland explores the unfolding impact of the several empirical sciences of the mind, especially cognitive neurobiology and computational neuroscience on a variety of traditional issues central to the discipline of philosophy. Representing Churchland's most recent research, they continue his research program, launched over thirty years ago, and which has evolved into the field of neurophilosophy.
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  23. Paul M. Churchland (2007). The Evolving Fortunes of Eliminative Materialism. In Brian P. McLaughlin & Jonathan D. Cohen (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell.
     
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  24. Paul M. Churchland (2006). Eliminative Materialism [Selection From Matter and Consciousness]. In Maureen Eckert (ed.), Theories of Mind: An Introductory Reader. Rowman and Littlefield. 115.
    The identity theory was called into doubt not because the prospects for a materialist account of our mental capacities were thought to be poor, but because it seemed unlikely that the arrival of an adequate materialist theory would bring with it the nice one-to-one match-ups, between the concepts of folk psychology and the concepts of theoretical neuroscience, that intertheoretic reduction requires. The reason for that doubt was the great variety of quite different physical systems that could instantiate the required functional (...)
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  25. Paul M. Churchland (2006). Into the Brain: Where Philosophy Should Go From Here. [REVIEW] Topoi 25 (1-2):29-32.
    The maturation of the cognitive neurosciences will throw light on many central philosophical issues. Among them: semantic theory, perception, learning, social and moral knowledge, and practical reasoning and decision making. As contemporary medicine cannot do without the achievements of modern biology, philosophy would be pitiful if it disregarded the achievements of brain research.
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  26. PaulM Churchland (2006). Inner Space and Outer Spaces: The New Epistemology. In Stephen Cade Hetherington (ed.), Epistemology Futures. Oxford University Press. 48--70.
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  27. Patricia Churchland (2005). Poderá a neurobiologia ensinar-nos alguma coisa acerca da consciência? Crítica.
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  28. Patricia S. Churchland (2005). Moral Decision-Making and the Brain. In Judy Illes (ed.), Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy. Oup Oxford.
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  29. Paul M. Churchland (2005). Chimerical Colors: Some Phenomenological Predictions From Cognitive Neuroscience. Philosophical Psychology 18 (5):527-560.
    The Hurvich-Jameson (H-J) opponent-process network offers a familiar account of the empirical structure of the phenomenological color space for humans, an account with a number of predictive and explanatory virtues. Its successes form the bulk of the existing reasons for suggesting a strict identity between our various color sensations on the one hand, and our various coding vectors across the color-opponent neurons in our primary visual pathways on the other. But anti-reductionists standardly complain that the systematic parallels discovered by the (...)
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  30. Paul M. Churchland (2005). Cleansing Science. Inquiry 48 (5):464 – 477.
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  31. Paul M. Churchland (2005). Functionalism at Forty: A Critical Retrospective. Journal of Philosophy 102 (1):33-50.
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  32. Paul M. Churchland (2005). Functionalism at Forty. Journal of Philosophy 102 (1):33 - 50.
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  33. Thomas Hofweber & Paul M. Churchland (2005). Functionalism at Forty: A Critical Retrospective. Journal of Philosophy 102 (1):33 - 50.
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  34. Paul M. Churchland (2004). About Other People (Because She Learns Something About Them on Her Release). 3. There Are Truths About Other People (and Herself) Which Escape the Physicalist Story. Regimenting Further, for Clarity's Sake, Yields the Following. [REVIEW] In Yujin Nagasawa, Peter Ludlow & Daniel Stoljar (eds.), There's Something About Mary. The Mit Press. 163.
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  35. Paul M. Churchland (2004). Philosophy of Mind Meets Logical Theory: Perry on Neo-Dualism. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (1):199-206.
  36. William D. Casebeer & Patricia S. Churchland (2003). The Neural Mechanisms of Moral Cognition: A Multiple-Aspect Approach to Moral Judgment and Decision-Making. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):169-194.
    We critically review themushrooming literature addressing the neuralmechanisms of moral cognition (NMMC), reachingthe following broad conclusions: (1) researchmainly focuses on three inter-relatedcategories: the moral emotions, moral socialcognition, and abstract moral reasoning. (2)Research varies in terms of whether it deploysecologically valid or experimentallysimplified conceptions of moral cognition. Themore ecologically valid the experimentalregime, the broader the brain areas involved.(3) Much of the research depends on simplifyingassumptions about the domain of moral reasoningthat are motivated by the need to makeexperimental progress. This is a (...)
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  37. Patricia Churchland (2003). The Neural Mechanisms of Moral Cognition: A Multiple-Aspect Approach to Moral Judgment and Decision-Making. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):169-194.
    We critically review themushrooming literature addressing the neuralmechanisms of moral cognition (NMMC), reachingthe following broad conclusions: (1) researchmainly focuses on three inter-relatedcategories: the moral emotions, moral socialcognition, and abstract moral reasoning. (2)Research varies in terms of whether it deploysecologically valid or experimentallysimplified conceptions of moral cognition. Themore ecologically valid the experimentalregime, the broader the brain areas involved.(3) Much of the research depends on simplifyingassumptions about the domain of moral reasoningthat are motivated by the need to makeexperimental progress. This is a (...)
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  38. Paul M. Churchland & Patricia S. Churchland (2003). Recent Work on Consciousness: Philosophical, Theoretical, and Empirical. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. Amsterdam: J Benjamins. 49--123.
  39. Patricia S. Churchland (2002). Brain-Wise: Studies in Neurophilosophy. MIT Press.
    A neurophilosopher?s take on the self, free will, human understanding, and the experience of God, from the perspective of the brain.
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  40. Patricia Smith Churchland (2002). Brain Wise. The MIT Press.
    A neurophilosopher?s take on the self, free will, human understanding, and the experience of God, from the perspective of the brain.
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  41. Paul M. Churchland (2002). Catching Consciousness in a Recurrent Net. In Andrew Brook & Don Ross (eds.), Daniel Dennett: Contemporary Philosophy in Focus. Cambridge University Press. 64-80.
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  42. Paul M. Churchland (2002). Outer Space and Inner Space: The New Epistemology. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 76 (2):25-48.
  43. Paul M. Churchland (2002). 36 The Rediscovery of Light. In David J. Chalmers (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings. Oxford University Press. 362.
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  44. R. Baenninger, G. Bataille, A. Bell, M. Berry, D. Bierman, D. Bohm, W. Braud, P. Churchland, M. Conrad & M. Dahleh (2001). Chapline, C. 152. In P. Van Loocke (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 313.
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  45. Patricia S. Churchland, Ilya B. Farber & Will Peterman (2001). The View From Here: The Nonsymbolic Structure of Spatial Representation. In Joao Branquinho (ed.), The Foundations of Cognitive Science. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  46. Paul M. Churchland (2001). What Happens to Reliabilism When It Is Liberated From the Propositional Attitudes? Philosophical Topics 29 (1/2):91-112.
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  47. Paul M. Churchland & Patricia S. Churchland (2001). A Neuroscientist's Field Guide In W. Bechtel, P. Mandik, J. Mundale & RS Stufflebeam. In William P. Bechtel, Pete Mandik, Jennifer Mundale & Robert S. Stufflebeam (eds.), Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader. Blackwell. 419--430.
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  48. Paul M. Churchland & Patricia S. Churchland (2001). McCauley's Demand for a Co-Level Competitor. In William P. Bechtel, Pete Mandik, Jennifer Mundale & Robert S. Stufflebeam (eds.), Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader. Blackwell. 457--465.
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  49. Ilya Farber, Will Peterman & Patricia Smith Churchland (2001). 4 The View From Here: The Nonsymbolic Structure of Spatial. In João Branquinho (ed.), The Foundations of Cognitive Science. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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  50. Paul Churchland (2000). Rules, Know-How, and the Future of Moral Cognition. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 30 (Supplement):291-306.
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