Search results for 'Clinical medicine' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kathryn Montgomery (2006). How Doctors Think: Clinical Judgment and the Practice of Medicine. Oxford University Press.score: 156.0
    How Doctors Think defines the nature and importance of clinical judgment. Although physicians make use of science, this book argues that medicine is not itself a science but rather an interpretive practice that relies on clinical reasoning. A physician looks at the patient's history along with the presenting physical signs and symptoms and juxtaposes these with clinical experience and empirical studies to construct a tentative account of the illness. How Doctors Think is divided into four parts. (...)
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  2. William J. Ellos (1990). Ethical Practice in Clinical Medicine. Routledge.score: 156.0
    This textbook develops the issue of ethics to a philosophical level complex enough to be applicable to students of philosophy and applied ethics courses. It is the first book to address clinical problems from a classical perspective. This title available in eBook format. Click here for more information . Visit our eBookstore at: www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk.
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  3. Hillel D. Braude (2009). Clinical Intuition Versus Statistics: Different Modes of Tacit Knowledge in Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):181-198.score: 150.0
    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical (...)
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  4. Malcolm Parker (2002). Whither Our Art? Clinical Wisdom and Evidence-Based Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (3):273-280.score: 150.0
    The relationship between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical judgement is the subject of conceptual and practical dispute. For example, EBM and clinical guidelines are seen to increasingly dominate medical decision-making at the expense of other, human elements, and to threaten the art of medicine. Clinical wisdom always remains open to question. We want to know why particular beliefs are held, and the epistemological status of claims based in wisdom or experience. The paper critically appraises a (...)
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  5. Norbert Paul (1998). Incurable Suffering From the “Hiatus Theoreticus”? Some Epistemological Problems in Modern Medicine and the Clinical Relevance of Philosophy of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (3):229-251.score: 150.0
    Up to now neither the question, whether all theoretical medical knowledge can at least be described as scientific, nor the one how exactly access to the existing scientific and theoretical medical knowledge during clinical problem-solving is made, has been sufficiently answered. Scientific theories play an important role in controlling clinical practice and improving the quality of clinical care in modern medicine on the one hand, and making it vindicable on the other. Therefore, the vagueness of unexplicit (...)
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  6. Stephen G. Henry (2010). Polanyi's Tacit Knowing and the Relevance of Epistemology to Clinical Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):292-297.score: 144.0
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  7. Mark R. Tonelli (2011). Not a Philosophy of Clinical Medicine: A Commentary on 'The Philosophy of Evidence‐Based Medicine' Howick, J. Ed. (2001). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):1013-1017.score: 144.0
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  8. Hillel D. Braude (2012). Intuition in Medicine: A Philosophical Defense of Clinical Reasoning. The University of Chicago Press.score: 138.0
    Intuition in medical and moral reasoning -- Moral intuitionism -- The place of Aristotelian phronesis in clinical reasoning -- Aristotle's practical syllogism: accounting for the individual through a theory of action and cognition -- Individual and statistical physiognomy: the art and science of making the invisible visible -- Clinical intuition versus statistical reasoning -- Contingency and correlation: the significance of modeling clinical reasoning on statistics -- Abduction: the intuitive support of clinical induction -- Conclusion: medical ethics (...)
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  9. Paulo José Fortes Villas Boas, Regina Stella Spagnuolo, Amélia Kamegasawa, Leandro Gobbo Braz, Adriana Polachini do Valle, Eliane Chaves Jorge, Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo, Antônio José Maria Cataneo, Ione Corrêa, Fernanda Bono Fukushima, Paulo do Nascimento, Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo, Marise Silva Teixeira, Edison Iglesias de Oliveira Vidal, Solange Ramires Daher & Regina El Dib (2013). Systematic Reviews Showed Insufficient Evidence for Clinical Practice in 2004: What About in 2011? The Next Appeal for the Evidence‐Based Medicine Age. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):633-637.score: 138.0
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  10. Tom Marshall (1997). Scientific Knowledge in Medicine: A New Clinical Epistemology? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):133-138.score: 138.0
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  11. John Nessa (1996). About Signs and Symptoms: Can Semiotics Expand the View of Clinical Medicine? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 17 (4).score: 126.0
    Semiotics, the theory of sign and meaning, may help physicians complement the project of interpreting signs and symptoms into diagnoses. A sign stands for something. We communicate indirectly through signs, and make sense of our world by interpreting signs into meaning. Thus, through association and inference, we transform flowers into love, Othello into jealousy, and chest pain into heart attack. Medical semiotics is part of general semiotics, which means the study of life of signs within society. With special reference to (...)
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  12. Lee A. Forstrom (1977). The Scientific Autonomy of Clinical Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2 (1):8-19.score: 126.0
    SummaryIt has been argued that clinical medicine should be regarded as a relatively autonomous science. While it draws upon other sciences which variously contribute to medical knowledge, it is not just an “application” of any of these, alone or in combination. Its contributions to medical knowledge are made within the context of patient care (the term “clinical medicine” is used here to emphasize this matter). It is distinct from other sciences in its domain of inquiry and (...)
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  13. Andrew Miles, Michael Loughlin & Andreas Polychronis (2008). Evidence‐Based Healthcare, Clinical Knowledge and the Rise of Personalised Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):621-649.score: 126.0
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  14. Earl E. Shelp (1983). Courage and Tragedy in Clinical Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (4):417-429.score: 126.0
    The relationship between medical clinicians and patients is described as potentially tragic in nature and a context in which courage can be a relevant virtue. Danger, risk, uncertainty, and choice are presented as features of clinical relationships that also function as necessary conditions for courage. The clinician is seen as a ‘sustaining presence’ who has duties of ‘encouragement’ with respect to patients. The patient is seen to have a duty to learn the condition of human existence which can be (...)
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  15. Andrew Miles, Michael Loughlin & Andreas Polychronis (2007). Medicine and Evidence: Knowledge and Action in Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):481-503.score: 126.0
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  16. Andrew Miles (2009). On a Medicine of the Whole Person: Away From Scientistic Reductionism and Towards the Embrace of the Complex in Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):941-949.score: 126.0
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  17. Allan B. Chinen (1988). Modes of Understanding and Mindfulness in Clinical Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 9 (1).score: 126.0
    Beginning with a case vignette, this paper uses a semiotic approach to analyze several different kinds of understanding used in clinical medicine. By outlining semiotic structures, four distinct modes of understanding can be defined: (1) the representational mode, corresponding to scientific medicine; (2) the pragmatic mode, constituting the basic standpoint of medicine; (3) the hermeneutic mode, underlying the empathic, humanistic spirit of medicine; and (4) the ontologic mode, associated with both the ethical and ritual aspects (...)
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  18. T. Allen Merritt, Marjorie Gold & Jodi Holland (1999). A Critical Evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Neonatal Medicine: Does Their Use Improve Quality and Lower Costs? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (2):169-177.score: 126.0
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  19. Cecilia Nardini, Marco Annoni & Giuseppe Schiavone (2012). Mechanistic Understanding in Clinical Practice: Complementing Evidence‐Based Medicine with Personalized Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1000-1005.score: 126.0
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  20. Nikola Biller-Andorno (2004). The Use of the Placebo Effect in Clinical Medicine — Ethical Blunder or Ethical Imperative? Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):43-50.score: 126.0
    The current debate in medical ethics on placebos focuses mainly on their use in health research. Whereas this is certainly an important topic the discussion tends to overlook another longstanding but nevertheless highly relevant question, namely if and how the placebo effect should be employed in clinical practice. This paper describes the way the placebo effect is perceived in modern medicine and offers some historical reflections on how these perceptions have developed; discusses elements of a definition of the (...)
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  21. J. R. Hampton (1997). Evidence‐Based Medicine, Practice Variations and Clinical Freedom. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):123-131.score: 126.0
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  22. Tadeusz S. Tołłoczko (2006). The Mentor and the Trainee in Academic Clinical Medicine. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):95-102.score: 126.0
    Medicine is a scientific discipline, but it is sometimes difficult to separate what is scientific and what is a clinical, practical activity. Man is the object, but he is always the subject of medical research and therefore these two elements become closely bound together by a thread of moral interdependencies. Every mentor of a young academic and all institutions dealing with the teaching of and research into medicine must understand multidimensional, multifaceted, and multilevel aspects of their activity (...)
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  23. Philip D. Welsby (1999). Reductionism in Medicine: Some Thoughts on Medical Education From the Clinical Front Line. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (2):125-131.score: 126.0
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  24. M. Cameron Hay, Thomas S. Weisner, Saskia Subramanian, Naihua Duan, Edmund J. Niedzinski & Richard L. Kravitz (2008). Harnessing Experience: Exploring the Gap Between Evidence‐Based Medicine and Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):707-713.score: 126.0
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  25. Andrew Miles (2007). Science: A Limited Source of Knowledge and Authority in the Care of Patients*. A Review and Analysis Of: 'How Doctors Think. Clinical Judgement and the Practice of Medicine.'Montgomery, K. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):545-563.score: 126.0
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  26. Edmund D. Pellegrino (2001). The Internal Morality of Clinical Medicine: A Paradigm for the Ethics of the Helping and Healing Professions. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):559 – 579.score: 120.0
    The moral authority for professional ethics in medicine customarily rests in some source external to medicine, i.e., a pre-existing philosophical system of ethics or some form of social construction, like consensus or dialogue. Rather, internal morality is grounded in the phenomena of medicine, i.e., in the nature of the clinical encounter between physician and patient. From this, a philosophy of medicine is derived which gives moral force to the duties, virtues and obligations of physicians qua (...)
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  27. N. G. Albert (2005). From Myth to Pathology: Perversions of Gender-Types in Late 19th-Century Literature and Clinical Medicine. Diogenes 52 (4):114-126.score: 120.0
    Contrary to accepted ideas, questions of gender started to be raised around the end of the 19th century. The characters of problematic sex and sexuality who abounded in literature at that time had the function of emblems of the fears aroused by the erasure and divorce between the sexes in a civilization in disarray. The figure of the androgyne was used to name and depict those condemned to indecision. But its closeness to the invert led to the decline of the (...)
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  28. Jason Adam Wasserman (2014). On Art and Science: An Epistemic Framework for Integrating Social Science and Clinical Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (3):279-303.score: 120.0
    Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate “social facts” in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental (...)
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  29. Drew Leder (1990). Clinical Interpretation: The Hermeneutics of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 11 (1).score: 108.0
    I argue that clinical medicine can best be understood not as a purified science but as a hermeneutical enterprise: that is, as involved with the interpretation of texts. The literary critic reading a novel, the judge asked to apply a law, must arrive at a coherent reading of their respective texts. Similarly, the physician interprets the text of the ill person: clinical signs and symptoms are read to ferret out their meaning, the underlying disease. However, I suggest (...)
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  30. F. Daniel Davis (1997). Phronesis, Clinical Reasoning, and Pellegrino's Philosophy of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2).score: 108.0
    In terms of Aristotle's intellectual virtues, the process of clinical reasoning and the discipline of clinical medicine are often construed as techne (art), as episteme (science), or as an amalgam or composite of techne and episteme. Although dimensions of process and discipline are appropriately described in these terms, I argue that phronesis (practical reasoning) provides the most compelling paradigm, particularly of the rationality of the physician's knowing and doing in the clinical encounter with the patient. I (...)
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  31. Mark R. Tonelli (2010). The Challenge of Evidence in Clinical Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):384-389.score: 108.0
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  32. Ross E. G. Upshur (2013). A Short Note on Probability in Clinical Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):463-466.score: 108.0
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  33. J. M. Little (1995). Humane Medicine. Cambridge University Press.score: 108.0
    In the late twentieth century the impressive achievements of modern medicine are obvious, yet medicine seems to have failed to satisfy public expectation. Government regulation of hospitals and doctors is tightening in most Western countries and health funding is a divisive political issue. Medical complaints departments are increasingly busy. In the United States medical litigation has reached alarming levels, and a similar trend can be seen in other developed countries. Is there something wrong with medical research and practice? (...)
     
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  34. James A. Marcum (2011). The Role of Prudent Love in the Practice of Clinical Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):877-882.score: 108.0
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  35. Maya J. Goldenberg (2010). Clinical Evidence and the Absent Body in Medical Phenomenology On the Need for a New Phenomenology of Medicine. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (1):43-71.score: 102.0
    Medical discourse currently manages two broad visionary movements: "evidence-based medicine," the effort to make clinical medicine more responsive to the medical research, and "patient-centered care," the platform for a more humane health-care encounter. There have been strong calls to synthesize the two as "evidence-based patient-centred care" (Lacy and Backer 2008; see also Borgmeyer 2005; Baumann, Lewis, and Gutterman 2007; Krahn and Naglie 2008), yet many question the compatibility of the two competing programs.This might sound to some like (...)
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  36. Peter C. Gøtzsche (2007). Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making. J. Wiley.score: 102.0
    Now in its fourth edition, Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making is a unique book to look at evidence-based medicine and the difficulty of applying evidence from group studies to individual patients._ The book analyses the successive stages of the decision process and deals with topics such as the examination of the patient,_the reliability of clinical data, the logic of diagnosis, the fallacies of uncontrolled therapeutic experience and the need for randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses. (...)
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  37. Kirsti Malterud (1995). The Legitimacy of Clinical Knowledge: Towards a Medical Epistemology Embracing the Art of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (2).score: 102.0
    The traditional medical epistemology, resting on a biomedical paradigmatic monopoly, fails to display an adequate representation of medical knowledge. Clinical knowledge, including the complexities of human interaction, is not available for inquiry by means of biomedical approaches, and consequently is denied legitimacy within a scientific context. A gap results between medical research and clinical practice. Theories of knowledge, especially the concept of tacit knowing, seem suitable for description and discussion of clinical knowledge, commonly denoted the art of (...)
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  38. Adalberto de Hoyos, Rodrigo Nava-Diosdado, Jorge Mendez, Sergio Ricco, Ana Serrano, Carmen Flores Cisneros, Carlos Macías-Ojeda, Héctor Cisneros, David Bialostozky, Nelly Altamirano-Bustamante & Myriam Altamirano-Bustamante (2013). Cardiovascular Medicine at Face Value: A Qualitative Pilot Study on Clinical Axiology. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):3.score: 102.0
    Cardiology is characterized by its state-of-the-art biomedical technology and the predominance of Evidence-Based Medicine. This predominance makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to deal with the ethical dilemmas that emerge in this subspecialty. This paper is a first endeavor to empirically investigate the axiological foundations of the healthcare professionals in a cardiology hospital. Our pilot study selected, as the target population, cardiology personnel not only because of their difficult ethical deliberations but also because of the stringent conditions in which (...)
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  39. Tim Thornton (2006). Tacit Knowledge as the Unifying Factor in Evidence Based Medicine and Clinical Judgement. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1 (1):2.score: 102.0
    The paper outlines the role that tacit knowledge plays in what might seem to be an area of knowledge that can be made fully explicit or codified and which forms a central element of Evidence Based Medicine. Appeal to the role the role of tacit knowledge in science provides a way to unify the tripartite definition of Evidence Based Medicine given by Sackett et al: the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Each (...)
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  40. Diego Gracia (2003). Ethical Case Deliberation and Decision Making. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):227-233.score: 96.0
    During the last thirty years different methods have been proposed in order to manage and resolve ethical quandaries, specially in the clinical setting. Some of these methodologies are based on the principles of Decision-making theory. Others looked to other philosophical traditions, like Principlism, Hermeneutics, Narrativism, Casuistry, Pragmatism, etc. This paper defends the view that deliberation is the cornerstone of any adequate methodology. This is due to the fact that moral decisions must take into account not only principles and ideas, (...)
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  41. Federica Russo (2012). Philosophy of Medicine: Between Clinical Trials and Mechanisms. [REVIEW] Metascience 21 (2):387-390.score: 96.0
    Philosophy of medicine: between clinical trials and mechanisms Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9630-5 Authors Federica Russo, Philosophy-SECL, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  42. Malcolm Parker (2007). Two Into One Won't Go: Conceptual, Clinical, Ethical and Legal Impedimenta to the Convergence of Cam and Orthodox Medicine. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):7-19.score: 96.0
    The convergence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a prominent feature of healthcare in western countries, but it is currently undertheorised, and its implications have been insufficiently considered. Two models of convergence are described – the totally integrated evidence-based model (TI) and the multicultural-pluralistic model (MP). Both models are being incorporated into general medical practice. Against the background of the reasons for the increasing utilisation of CAM by the public and by general practitioners, (...)
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  43. F. Svenaeus (2000). Hermeneutics of Clinical Practice: The Question of Textuality. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):171-189.score: 96.0
    In this article I scrutinize the question whetherclinical medicine, in order to be considered ahermeneutical enterprise, must be thought of as areading of different texts. Three differentproposals for a definition of the concept of text inmedicine, suggested by other hermeneuticians, arediscussed. All three proposals are shown to beunsatisfying in various ways. Instead of attempting tofind a fourth definition of the concept of textsuitable to a hermeneutics of medicine, I then try toshow that the assumption that one needs to (...)
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  44. George Khushf (1999). The Aesthetics of Clinical Judgment: Exploring the Link Between Diagnostic Elegance and Effective Resource Utilization. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (2):141-159.score: 96.0
    Many physicians assert that new cost-control mechanisms inappropriately interfere with clinical decision-making. They claim that high costs arise from poorly practiced medicine, and argue that effective utilization of resources is best promoted by advancing the scientific and ethical ideals of medicine. However, the claim is not warranted by empirical evidence. In this essay, I show how it rests upon aesthetic considerations associated with diagnostic elegance. I first consider scientific rationality generally. After a review of analytical empiricist and (...)
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  45. Nelly Tsouyopoulos (1984). German Philosophy and the Rise of Modern Clinical Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (3):345-357.score: 96.0
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  46. K. Danner Clouser (1977). Clinical Medicine as Science: Editorial. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2 (1):1-7.score: 96.0
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  47. A. Warsop (2002). Art, Science, and the Existential Focus of Clinical Medicine. Medical Humanities 28 (2):74-77.score: 96.0
    The continuing debate over the status of medicine as an art or a science remains far from resolved. The aim of this paper is to clarify what is meant by the art of medicine. In the following interpretation I contrast two current perspectives of the medical art. I argue that the art of medicine is best understood in terms of the Aristotelian notion of techne. It consists of listening skills directed to the lived experience of the patient (...)
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  48. J. Saunders (2000). The Practice of Clinical Medicine as an Art and as a Science. Medical Humanities 26 (1):18-22.score: 96.0
    Next SectionThe practice of modern medicine is the application of science, the ideal of which has the objective of value-neutral truth. The reality is different: practice varies widely between and within national medical communities. Neither evidence from randomised controlled trials nor observational methods can dictate action in particular circumstances. Their conclusions are applied by value judgments that may be impossible to specify in “focal particulars”. Herein lies the art which is integral to the practice of medicine as applied (...)
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  49. Marianne Dion-Labrie, Marie-Chantal Fortin, Marie-Josée Hébert & Hubert Doucet (2010). The Use of Personalized Medicine for Patient Selection for Renal Transplantation: Physicians' Views on the Clinical and Ethical Implications. BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):5-.score: 96.0
    BackgroundThe overwhelming scarcity of organs within renal transplantation forces researchers and transplantation teams to seek new ways to increase efficacy. One of the possibilities is the use of personalized medicine, an approach based on quantifiable and scientific factors that determine the global immunological risk of rejection for each patient. Although this approach can improve the efficacy of transplantations, it also poses a number of ethical questions.MethodsThe qualitative research involved 22 semi-structured interviews with nephrologists involved in renal transplantation, with the (...)
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