Search results for 'Clinical trials Moral and ethical aspects' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Frédéric Gilbert & Susan Dodds (2014). Is There a Moral Obligation to Develop Brain Implants Involving NanoBionic Technologies? Ethical Issues for Clinical Trials. Nanoethics 8 (1):49-56.score: 280.2
    In their article published in Nanoethics, “Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects of Brain-Implants Using Nano-Scale Materials and Techniques”, Berger et al. suggest that there may be a prima facie moral obligation to improve neuro implants with nanotechnology given their possible therapeutic advantages for patients [Nanoethics, 2:241–249]. Although we agree with Berger et al. that developments in nanomedicine hold the potential to render brain implant technologies less invasive and to better target neural stimulation to respond to brain impairments (...)
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  2. Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.) (2003). Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research: Readings and Commentary. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 269.0
    All investigators funded by the National Institutes of Health are now required to receive training about the ethics of clinical research. Based on a course taught by the editors at NIH, Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research is the first book designed to help investigators meet this new requirement. The book begins with the history of human subjects research and guidelines instituted since World War II. It then covers various stages and components of the (...) trial process: designing the trial, recruiting participants, ensuring informed consent, studying special populations, and conducting international research. Concluding chapters address conflicts of interest, scientific misconduct, and challenges to the IRB system. The appendix provides sample informed consent forms. This book will be used in undergraduate courses on research ethics and in schools of medicine and public health by students who are or will be carrying out clinical research. Professionals in need of such training and bioethicists also will be interested. (shrink)
     
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  3. Alex O'Meara (2009). Chasing Medical Miracles: The Promise and Perils of Clinical Trials. Walker & Co..score: 218.4
    Journalist Alex O’Meara is one of the more than twenty million Americans enrolled in a clinical trial—three times as many people as a decade ago. Indeed, clinical trials have become a $24 billion industry that is reshaping every aspect of health-care development and delivery in the United States and around the world. As O’Meara chronicles, twentieth-century medical trials have led to epic advances in health care, from asthma inhalers and insulin pumps to heart valves and pacemakers. (...)
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  4. Jane Barrett (2006). Ethics in Clinical Research. Icr Pub..score: 174.6
    Chapter One: Introduction “The ethical basis of all [medical] research is that information gained from one patient's experience should, where feasible, ...
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  5. Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.) (2008). The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press.score: 171.6
    Comprehensive in scope and research, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students alike.
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  6. A. Herxheimer (1993). Clinical Trials: Two Neglected Ethical Issues. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (4):211-218.score: 170.2
    Ethical reasons are presented for requiring 1) that a proposal for a clinical trial should be accompanied by a thorough review of all previous trials that have examined the same and closely related questions, and 2) that a trial should be approved by a research ethics committee only if the investigator undertakes to register it in an appropriate register of clinical trials as soon as one exists.
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  7. C. M. Ashton, N. P. Wray, A. F. Jarman, J. M. Kolman, D. M. Wenner & B. A. Brody (2011). A Taxonomy of Multinational Ethical and Methodological Standards for Clinical Trials of Therapeutic Interventions. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):368-373.score: 161.2
    Background If trials of therapeutic interventions are to serve society's interests, they must be of high methodological quality and must satisfy moral commitments to human subjects. The authors set out to develop a clinical-trials compendium in which standards for the ethical treatment of human subjects are integrated with standards for research methods. Methods The authors rank-ordered the world's nations and chose the 31 with >700 active trials as of 24 July 2008. Governmental and other (...)
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  8. Peter Graeme Hobbins (2005). Compromised Ethical Principles in Randomised Clinical Trials of Distant, Intercessory Prayer. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2 (3):142-152.score: 149.2
    The effects of distant, intercessory prayer on health outcomes have been studied in a range of randomised, blinded clinical trials. However, while seeking the evidentiary status accorded this ‘gold standard’ methodology, many prayer studies fall short of the requirements of the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki for the ethical conduct of trials involving human subjects. Within a sample of 15 such studies published in the medical literature, many were found to have ignored or waived key (...)
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  9. Deborah Zion (1998). 'Moral Taint' or Ethical Responsibility? Unethical Information and the Problem of HIV Clinical Trials in Developing Countries. Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (3):231–239.score: 147.6
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  10. Thomas W. Kallert, Juan E. Mezzich & John Monahan (eds.) (2011). Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 145.8
    This book considers coercion within the healing and ethical framework of therapeutic relationships and partnerships at all levels, and addresses the universal ...
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  11. William J. Ellos (1990). Ethical Practice in Clinical Medicine. Routledge.score: 140.4
    This textbook develops the issue of ethics to a philosophical level complex enough to be applicable to students of philosophy and applied ethics courses. It is the first book to address clinical problems from a classical perspective. This title available in eBook format. Click here for more information . Visit our eBookstore at: www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk.
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  12. B. W. Dunlop & J. Banja (2009). A Renewed, Ethical Defense of Placebo-Controlled Trials of New Treatments for Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):384-389.score: 139.6
    The use of placebo as a control condition in clinical trials of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders continues to be an area of ethical concern. Typically, opponents of placebo controls argue that they violate the beneficent-based, “best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method” that the original Helsinki Declaration of 1964 famously asserted participants are owed. A more consequentialist, oppositional argument is that participants receiving placebo might suffer enormously by being deprived of their usual medication(s). Nevertheless, recent findings (...)
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  13. George Howard (2010). Statistical Power, the Belmont Report, and the Ethics of Clinical Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (4):675-691.score: 139.4
    Achieving a good clinical trial design increases the likelihood that a trial will take place as planned, including that data will be obtained from a sufficient number of participants, and the total number of participants will be the minimal required to gain the knowledge sought. A good trial design also increases the likelihood that the knowledge sought by the experiment will be forthcoming. Achieving such a design is more than good sense—it is ethically required in experiments when participants are (...)
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  14. Sara Vollmer & George Howard (2010). Statistical Power, the Belmont Report, and the Ethics of Clinical Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (4):675-691.score: 139.4
    Achieving a good clinical trial design increases the likelihood that a trial will take place as planned, including that data will be obtained from a sufficient number of participants, and the total number of participants will be the minimal required to gain the knowledge sought. A good trial design also increases the likelihood that the knowledge sought by the experiment will be forthcoming. Achieving such a design is more than good sense—it is ethically required in experiments when participants are (...)
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  15. Sharon Kaur & Choong Yeow Choy (2012). Ethical Considerations in Clinical Trials: A Critique of the ICH-GCP Guideline. Developing World Bioethics 12 (3):20-28.score: 139.2
    This article examines issues relating to ethics decision-making in clinical trials. The overriding concern is to ensure that the well being and the interests of human subjects are adequately safeguarded. In this respect, this article will embark on a critical analysis of the ICH-GCP Guideline. The purpose of such an undertaking is to highlight areas of concern and the shortcomings of the existing ICH-GCP Guideline. Particular emphasis is made on how ethics committees perform their duties and responsibilities in (...)
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  16. Bernard Lo & Lindsay Parham (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical Trials: The Example of Parkinson Disease. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):257-266.score: 134.8
    Clinical trials of stem cell transplantation raise ethical issues that are intertwined with scientific and design issues, including choice of control group and intervention, background interventions, endpoints, and selection of subjects. We recommend that the review and IRB oversight of stem cell clinical trials should be strengthened. Scientific and ethics review should be integrated in order to better assess risks and potential benefits. Informed consent should be enhanced by assuring that participants comprehend key aspects (...)
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  17. Kathleen Oberle & Marion Allen (2006). Ethical Considerations for Nurses in Clinical Trials. Nursing Ethics 13 (2):180-186.score: 134.8
    Ethical issues arise for nurses involved in all phases of clinical trials regardless of whether they are caregivers, research nurses, trial co-ordinators or principal investigators. Potential problem areas centre on nurses’ moral obligation related to methodological issues as well as the notions of beneficence/non-maleficence and autonomy. These ethical concerns can be highly upsetting to nurses if they are not addressed, so it is imperative that they are discussed fully prior to the initiation of a trial. (...)
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  18. Anna C. Mastroianni, Ruth R. Faden & Daniel D. Federman (eds.) (1994). Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies. National Academy Press.score: 134.4
    Executive Summary There is a general perception that biomedical research has not given the same attention to the health problems of women that it has given ...
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  19. John C. Fletcher (1985). Ethical Issues in and Beyond Prospective Clinical Trials of Human Gene Therapy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (3):293-310.score: 132.6
    As the potential for the first human trials of somatic cell gene therapy nears, two ethical issues are examined: (1) problems of moral choice for members of institutional review boards who consider the first protocols, for parents, and for the clinical researchers, and the special protections that may be required for the infants and children to be involved, and (2) ethical objections to somatic cell therapy made by those concerned about a putative inevitable progression of (...)
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  20. Simon Woods & Pauline Mccormack (2013). Disputing the Ethics of Research: The Challenge From Bioethics and Patient Activism to the Interpretation of the Declaration of Helsinki in Clinical Trials. Bioethics 27 (5):243-250.score: 123.8
    In this paper we argue that the consensus around normative standards for the ethics of research in clinical trials, strongly influenced by the Declaration of Helsinki, is perceived from various quarters as too conservative and potentially restrictive of research that is seen as urgent and necessary. We examine this problem from the perspective of various challengers who argue for alternative approaches to what ought or ought not to be permitted. Key themes within this analysis will examine these claims (...)
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  21. Kirstin Borgerson (2013). Are Explanatory Trials Ethical? Shifting the Burden of Justification in Clinical Trial Design. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):293-308.score: 122.4
    Most phase III clinical trials today are explanatory. Because explanatory, or efficacy, trials test hypotheses under “ideal” conditions, they are not well suited to providing guidance on decisions made in most clinical care contexts. Pragmatic trials, which test hypotheses under “usual” conditions, are often better suited to this task. Yet, pragmatic, or effectiveness, trials are infrequently carried out. This mismatch between the design of clinical trials and the needs of health care professionals (...)
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  22. Suzanne Shale (2012). Moral Leadership in Medicine: Building Ethical Healthcare Organizations. Cambridge University Press.score: 119.4
    Machine generated contents note: Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Why medicine needs moral leaders; 2. Creating an organizational narrative; 3. Understanding normative expectations in medical moral leadership; Prologue to chapters four and five; 4. Expressing fiduciary, bureaucratic and collegial propriety; 5. Expressing inquisitorial and restorative propriety; Epilogue to chapters four and five; 6. Understanding organizational moral narrative; 7. Moral leadership for ethical organizations; Appendix 1. How the research was done; Appendix 2. Accountability for clinical performance: individuals (...)
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  23. William Colby, Constance Dahlin, John Lantos, John Carney & Myra Christopher (2010). The National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care Clinical Practice Guidelines Domain 8: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Care. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 22 (2):117-131.score: 114.0
    In 2001, leaders with palliative care convened to discuss the standardization of palliative care and formed the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care. In 2004, the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care produced the first edition of Clinical Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care. The Guidelines were developed by leaders in the field who examined other national and international standards with the intent to promote consistent, accessible, comprehensive, optimal palliative care through the health care spectrum. Within the guidelines (...)
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  24. Jennifer Alvidrez & Patricia A. Areán (2002). Psychosocial Treatment Research with Ethnic Minority Populations: Ethical Considerations in Conducting Clinical Trials. Ethics and Behavior 12 (1):103 – 116.score: 113.8
    Because of historical mistreatment of ethnic minorities by research and medical institutions, it is particularly important for researchers to be mindful of ethical issues that arise when conducting research with ethnic minority populations. In this article, we focus on the ethical issues related to the inclusion of ethnic minorities in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments. We highlight 2 factors, skepticism and mistrust by ethnic minorities about research and current inequities in the mental health care system, that (...)
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  25. Erik Malmqvist, Niklas Juth, Niels Lynöe & Gert Helgesson (2011). Early Stopping of Clinical Trials: Charting the Ethical Terrain. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):51-78.score: 113.8
    Randomized and double-blind clinical trials are widely regarded as the most reliable way of studying the effects of medical interventions. According to received wisdom, if a new drug or treatment is to be accepted in clinical practice, its safety and efficacy must first be demonstrated in such trials. For ethical and scientific reasons, it is generally considered necessary to monitor a trial in various ways as it proceeds and to analyze data as they accumulate. Monitoring (...)
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  26. Joseph B. Kadane (1986). Progress Toward a More Ethical Method for Clinical Trials. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (4):385-404.score: 112.8
    Methodology for conducting clinical trials of new drugs and treatments on people need not be regarded as fixed. After reviewing the currently most popular method (randomization) and its ethical problems, this paper explores the possibilities of a new method for conducting such trials. It relies on new Bayesian technology for eliciting the opinions of medical experts. These opinions are conditioned on specific predictor variables, and are held in a computer. At any stage in a trial, these (...)
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  27. Lisa R. Stines & Norah C. Feeny (2008). Unique Ethical Concerns in Clinical Trials Comparing Psychosocial and Psychopharmalogical Interventions. Ethics and Behavior 18 (2 & 3):234 – 246.score: 112.6
    In recent years, there has been a particular emphasis placed on conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the relative efficacy of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. This article addresses relevant ethical considerations in the conduct of these treatment trials, with a focus on RCTs with children. Ethical concerns, including therapeutic misconception, treatment preference, therapeutic equipoise, structure of treatments, and balancing risks versus benefits, are introduced through a clinical scenario and discussed as they relate to psychotherapy (...)
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  28. Lorys F. Oddi, Virginia R. Cassidy & Cheryl Fisher (1995). Nurses' Sensitivity To the Ethical Aspects of Clinical Practice. Nursing Ethics 2 (3):197-209.score: 112.6
    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which nurses perceive the ethical dimensions of clinical practice situations involving patients, families and health care professionals. Using the composite theory of basic moral principles and the professional standard of care established by legal custom as a framework, situations involving ethical dilemmas were gleaned from the nursing literature. They were reviewed for content validity, clarity and representativeness in a two-stage process by expert panels. The situations (...)
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  29. E. BenGershom (1983). Ethical Aspects of Clinical Chemistry. Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (4):207-210.score: 112.6
    The work performed by the clinical chemist may deeply affect the decisions of the doctor and the well-being of the patient. Yet in contrast to the doctor and to the nurse the clinical chemist usually has no personal relationship with the patient. Being encumbered by much technology and anonymity is itself a reason for scrutinising his involvement in issues of health care ethics. This is an attempt at clarifying some major aspects: the relationship of his professional ethics (...)
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  30. Francois Berger, Sjef Gevers, Ludwig Siep & Klaus-Michael Weltring (2008). Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects of Brain-Implants Using Nano-Scale Materials and Techniques. Nanoethics 2 (3):241-249.score: 112.2
    Nanotechnology is an important platform technology which will add new features like improved biocompatibility, smaller size, and more sophisticated electronics to neuro-implants improving their therapeutic potential. Especially in view of possible advantages for patients, research and development of nanotechnologically improved neuro implants is a moral obligation. However, the development of brain implants by itself touches many ethical, social and legal issues, which also apply in a specific way to devices enabled or improved by nanotechnology. For researchers developing nanotechnology (...)
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  31. Eric Racine (2008). Enriching Our Views on Clinical Ethics: Results of a Qualitative Study of the Moral Psychology of Healthcare Ethics Committee Members. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):57-67.score: 112.0
    The contribution of healthcare ethics committee (HEC) members to HECs is fundamental. However, little is known about how HEC members view clinical ethics. We report results from a qualitative study of the moral psychology of HEC members. We found that contrary to the existing Kohlberg-based studies, HEC members hold a pragmatic non-expert view of clinical ethics based mainly on respect for persons and a commitment to the patient’s good. In general, HEC members hold deflationary views regarding (...) theory. Ethical principles are not abstract foundations but the expression of moral commitments to patients that pre-exist awareness of moral theory. Emotions and proximity to patient sufferance fundamentally shape the views of HEC members on clinical ethics. Further work at the intersection of clinical ethics and qualitative research could bring to the foreground lay perspectives on moral problems that may differ from bioethics expert views. (shrink)
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  32. Sonja Olin-Lauritzen & Lars-Christer Hydén (eds.) (2007). Medical Technologies and the Life World: The Social Construction of Normality. Routledge.score: 110.4
    Although the use of new health technologies in healthcare and medicine is generally seen as beneficial, there has been little analysis of the impact of such technologies on people's lives and understandings of health and illness. This book explores how new technologies not only provide hope for cure and well-being, but also introduce new ethical dilemmas and raise questions about the "natural" body. Focusing on the ways new health technologies intervene into our lives and affect our ideas about normalcy, (...)
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  33. Sven Ove Hansson (2006). Uncertainty and the Ethics of Clinical Trials. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (2):149-167.score: 109.2
    A probabilistic explication is offered of equipoise and uncertainty in clinical trials. In order to be useful in the justification of clinical trials, equipoise has to be interpreted in terms of overlapping probability distributions of possible treatment outcomes, rather than point estimates representing expectation values. Uncertainty about treatment outcomes is shown to be a necessary but insufficient condition for the ethical defensibility of clinical trials. Additional requirements are proposed for the nature of that (...)
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  34. Chryssoula Lemonidou, Elizabeth Papathanassoglou, Margarita Giannakopoulou, Elisabeth Patiraki & Danai Papadatou (2004). Moral Professional Personhood: Ethical Reflections During Initial Clinical Encounters in Nursing Education. Nursing Ethics 11 (2):122-137.score: 109.0
    Moral agency is an important constituent of the nursing role. We explored issues of ethical development in Greek nursing students during clinical practice at the beginning of their studies. Specifically, we aimed to explore students’ lived experience of ethics, and their perceptions and understanding of encountered ethical conflicts through phenomenological analysis of written narratives. The process of developing an awareness of personal values through empathizing with patients was identified as the core theme of the students’ experience. (...)
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  35. H. Colby William, John Lantos Constance Dahlin & Myra Christopher John Carney (forthcoming). The National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care Clinical Practice Guidelines Domain 8: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Care. HEC Forum.score: 108.0
    In 2001, leaders with palliative care convened to discuss the standardization of palliative care and formed the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care. In 2004, the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care produced the first edition of Clinical Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care. The Guidelines were developed by leaders in the field who examined other national and international standards with the intent to promote consistent, accessible, comprehensive, optimal palliative care through the health care spectrum. Within the guidelines (...)
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  36. Pamela A. Andanda (2006). The Law and Regulation of Clinical Research: Interplay with Public Policy and Bioethics. Focus Publilshers.score: 107.4
     
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  37. Lyle C. Gurrin, Peter D. Sly & Paul R. Burton (2002). Using Imprecise Probabilities to Address the Questions of Inference and Decision in Randomized Clinical Trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):255-268.score: 107.2
    Randomized controlled clinical trials play an important role in the development of new medical therapies. There is, however, an ethical issue surrounding the use of randomized treatment allocation when the patient is suffering from a life threatening condition and requires immediate treatment. Such patients can only benefit from the treatment they actually receive and not from the alternative therapy, even if it ultimately proves to be superior. We discuss a novel new way to analyse data from such (...)
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  38. Yu Xia & Qiushi Ren (2013). Ethical Considerations for Volunteer Recruitment of Visual Prosthesis Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1099-1106.score: 106.6
    With the development of visual prostheses research from the engineering phase to clinical trials, volunteer recruitment for the early visual prosthesis trials needs to be carefully considered. In this article, we mainly discuss several issues related to volunteer recruitment that had posed serious challenges to the visual prosthesis trials, such as low rates of participants, high expectations and underlying motivations to participate in the visual prosthesis trials as well as the importance of informed consent. When (...)
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  39. L. J. Burgess & D. Pretorius (2012). FDA Abandons the Declaration of Helsinki: The Effect on the Ethical Aspects of Clinical Trial Conduct in South Africa and Other Developing Countries. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 5 (2).score: 105.6
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  40. Gopaldeb Chattopadhyay (2007). Patient-Physician Relationship for Conducting a Clinical Trial A Look on Ethical Aspects and Role of Statistical Designs. In Ratna Dutta Sharma & Sashinungla (eds.), Patient-Physician Relationship. Distributed by D.K. Printworld. 174.score: 105.6
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  41. Jacquelyn Slomka (2009). Manufacturing Mistrust: Issues in the Controversy Regarding Foster Children in the Pediatric Hiv/Aids Clinical Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):503-516.score: 105.2
    The use of foster children as subjects in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials has been the subject of media controversy, raising a range of ethical and social dimensions. Several unsettled issues and debates in research ethics underlie the controversy and the lack of consensus among professional researchers on these issues was neither adequately appreciated nor presented in media reports. These issues include (1) the tension between protecting subjects from research risk while allowing them access to the possible (...)
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  42. V. Mike, A. N. Krauss & G. S. Ross (1993). Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO): Clinical Trials and the Ethics of Evidence. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (4):212-218.score: 104.8
    Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a technology for the treatment of respiratory failure in newborns, is used as a case study to examine statistical and ethical aspects of clinical trials and to illustrate a proposed 'ethics of evidence', an approach to medical uncertainty within the context of contemporary biomedical ethics. Discussion includes the twofold aim of the ethics of evidence: to clarify the role of uncertainty and scientific evidence in medical decision-making, and to call attention to (...)
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  43. K. P. Weinfurt, Daniel P. Sulmasy, Kevin A. Schulman & Neal J. Meropol (2003). Patient Expectations of Benefit From Phase I Clinical Trials: Linguistic Considerations in Diagnosing a Therapeutic Misconception. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (4):329-344.score: 104.2
    The ethical treatment of cancer patientsparticipating in clinical trials requiresthat patients are well-informed about thepotential benefits and risks associated withparticipation. When patients enrolled in phaseI clinical trials report that their chance ofbenefit is very high, this is often taken as evidence of a failure of the informed consent process. We argue, however, that some simple themes from the philosophy of language may make such a conclusion less certain. (...)
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  44. Jacek Spławiński & Jerzy Kuźniar (2004). Clinical Trials: Active Control Vs Placebo — What is Ethical? Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):73-79.score: 103.8
    The quest for effective medicines is very old. In modern times two important tools have been developed to evaluate efficacy of drugs: superiority and non-inferiority types of clinical trials. The former tests the null hypothesis of μ (the difference between a tested drug and comparator) ≤ 0 against μ > 0; the latter tests the null hypothesis of μ ≤ - Δ against, μ > - Δ, where Δ is the clinical difference from the comparator. In a (...)
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  45. Jacob M. Kolman, Nelda P. Wray, Carol M. Ashton, Danielle M. Wenner, Anna F. Jarman & Baruch A. Brody (2012). Conflicts Among Multinational Ethical and Scientific Standards for Clinical Trials of Therapeutic Interventions. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):99-121.score: 103.0
    Utilizing a sorted compendium of international clinical trial standards, investigators identified 15 conflicts among ethical and methodological guidance. Analysis distinguishes interpretational issues, lack of clarity, and contradiction as factors to be addressed if international trial guidance is to be improved.
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  46. Loretta Kopelman (1986). Consent and Randomized Clinical Trials: Are There Moral or Design Problems? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (4):317-345.score: 102.8
    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether randomized clinical trial (RCT) methods are necessarily morally problematic. If they are intrinsically problematic, then there may be a dilemma such that tragic choices might have to be made between this socially very useful method for making medical progress on the one hand, and patients' rights and welfare, or physicans' duties on the other. It is argued that the dilemma may be avoided if RCTs can sometimes be viewed as an (...)
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  47. Cynthia M. A. Geppert & Laura Weiss Roberts (eds.) (2008). The Book of Ethics: Expert Guidance for Professionals Who Treat Addiction. Hazelden.score: 102.4
    The definitive book on ethics for chemical dependency treatment professionals.
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  48. Alan Cribb (2005). Health and the Good Society: Setting Healthcare Ethics in Social Context. Oxford University Press.score: 102.4
    What is health policy for? In Health and the Good Society, Alan Cribb addresses this question in a way that cuts across disciplinary boundaries. His core argument is that biomedical ethics should draw upon public health values and ethics; specifically, he argues that everybody has some share of responsibility for health, including a responsibility for promoting greater health equality. In the process, Cribb argues for a major rethink of the whole project of health education.
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  49. Bert Molewijk, Dick Kleinlugtenbelt, Scott Pugh & Guy Widdershoven (2011). Emotions and Clinical Ethics Support. A Moral Inquiry Into Emotions in Moral Case Deliberation. HEC Forum 23 (4):257-268.score: 102.0
    Emotions play an important part in moral life. Within clinical ethics support (CES), one should take into account the crucial role of emotions in moral cases in clinical practice. In this paper, we present an Aristotelian approach to emotions. We argue that CES can help participants deal with emotions by fostering a joint process of investigation of the role of emotions in a case. This investigation goes beyond empathy with and moral judgment of the emotions (...)
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  50. Jeremy Sugarman (2004). Using Empirical Data to Inform the Ethical Evaluation of Placebo Controlled Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):29-35.score: 101.6
    There has been considerable debate about the ethical acceptability of using placebo-controls in clinical research. Although this debate has been rich in rhetoric, considering that much of this research is predicated upon the assumption that data from this research is vital to clinical decision-making, it is ironic that researchers have introduced little data into these discussions. Using some published research concerning the use of placebo-controls in clinical research in hypertension and psychiatric drug trials, I suggest (...)
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