Search results for 'Cognition in animals Congresses' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. G. Greenberg & E. Tobach (eds.) (1987). Cognition, Language, and Consciousness: Integrative Levels. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 468.0
    "Each animal in its own psychological setting . . / 1 Gerard Piel Scientific American, New York TC Schneirla was more interested in questions than in ...
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  2. Stephen Thomas Newmyer (2006). Animals, Rights, and Reason in Plutarch and Modern Ethics. Routledge.score: 319.5
    Plutarch is virtually unique in surviving classical authors in arguing that animals are rational and sentient, and in concluding that human beings must take notice of their interests. Stephen Newmyer explores Plutarch's three animal-related treatises, as well as passages from his other ethical treatises, which argue that non-human animals are rational and therefore deserve to fall within the sphere of human moral concern. Newmyer shows that some of the arguments Plutarch raises strikingly foreshadow those found in the works (...)
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  3. Peter Carruthers (2007). Meta-Cognition in Animals: A Skeptical Look. Mind and Language 22 (1):58–89.score: 314.3
    This paper examines the recent literature on meta-cognitive processes in non-human animals, arguing that in each case the data admit of a simpler, purely first-order, explanation. The topics discussed include the alleged monitoring of states of certainty and uncertainty, the capacity to know whether or not one has perceived something, and the capacity to know whether or not the information needed to solve some problem is stored in memory. The first-order explanations advanced all assume that beliefs and desires come (...)
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  4. Peter Carruthers (2008). Meta-Cognition in Animals: A Skeptical Look. Mind and Language 23 (1):58–89.score: 314.3
    This paper examines the recent literature on meta-cognitive processes in non-human animals, arguing that in each case the data admit of a simpler, purely first-order, explanation. The topics discussed include the alleged monitoring of states of certainty and uncertainty, knowledge-seeking behavior in conditions of uncertainty, and the capacity to know whether or not the information needed to solve some problem is stored in memory. The first-order explanations advanced all assume that beliefs and desires come in various different strengths, or (...)
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  5. David McFarland (1991). Defining Motivation and Cognition in Animals. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (2):153 – 170.score: 305.3
    Abstract Motivation in an automaton, whether it be artificial or animate, is simply that aspect of the total state that determines the behaviour. In an autonomous agent, which has a degree of self?control, the motivational state includes a cognitive evaluation of the likely consequences of possible future behaviour. Such evaluation implies optimization with respect to some motivational criterion.
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  6. Gary E. Varner (2012). Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two Level Utilitarianism. Oup Usa.score: 292.5
    Drawing heavily on recent empirical research to update R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism and expand Hare's treatment of "intuitive level rules," Gary Varner considers in detail the theory's application to animals while arguing that Hare should have recognized a hierarchy of persons, near-persons, & the merely sentient.
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  7. Dario Maestripieri (2001). Comparing Cognition in Animals, and Researchers. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (10):452-453.score: 281.3
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  8. Erin E. Hecht, Richard Patterson & Aron K. Barbey (2012). What Can Other Animals Tell Us About Human Social Cognition? An Evolutionary Perspective on Reflective and Reflexive Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 274.5
    Human neuroscience has seen a recent boom in studies on reflective, controlled, explicit social cognitive functions like imitation, perspective‐taking, and empathy. The relationship of these higher‐level functions to lower‐level, reflexive, automatic, implicit functions is an area of current research. As the field continues to address this relationship, we suggest that an evolutionary, comparative approach will be useful, even essential. There is a large body of research on reflexive, automatic, implicit processes in animals. A growing perspective sees social cognitive processes (...)
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  9. A. K. Barbey E. E. Hecht, R. Patterson (2012). What Can Other Animals Tell Us About Human Social Cognition? An Evolutionary Perspective on Reflective and Reflexive Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 274.5
    Human neuroscience has seen a recent boom in studies on reflective, controlled, explicit social cognitive functions like imitation, perspective‐taking, and empathy. The relationship of these higher‐level functions to lower‐level, reflexive, automatic, implicit functions is an area of current research. As the field continues to address this relationship, we suggest that an evolutionary, comparative approach will be useful, even essential. There is a large body of research on reflexive, automatic, implicit processes in animals. A growing perspective sees social cognitive processes (...)
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  10. J. E. R. Staddon (1981). Cognition in Animals: Learning as Program Assembly. Cognition 10 (1-3):287-294.score: 272.3
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  11. Melanie Boly, Anil K. Seth, Melanie Wilke, Paul Ingmundson, Bernard Baars, Steven Laureys, David Edelman & Naotsugu Tsuchiya (2013). Consciousness in Humans and Non-Human Animals: Recent Advances and Future Directions. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 270.0
    This joint article reflects the authors’ personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last ten years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical and (...)
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  12. Lynn Nadel (1982). Some Thoughts on the Proper Foundations for the Study of Cognition in Animals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (3):383.score: 263.3
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  13. R. Cook (1991). The Experimental-Analysis of Cognition in Animals. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):512-512.score: 263.3
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  14. Brian Berkey (2012). Review of Gary E. Varner, Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.score: 256.5
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  15. C. A. Ristau (1983). Language, Cognition, and Awareness in Animals? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 406:170-86.score: 256.5
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  16. Robin Attfield & Rebekah Humphreys (2013). Personhood, Ethics and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. By Varner. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, Pp. Xiv + 317. ISBN: 978-0199758784. [REVIEW] Philosophy 88 (3):493-498.score: 256.5
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  17. D. A. Oakley (1985). Cognition and Imagery in Animals. In David A. Oakley (ed.), Brain and Mind. Methuen. 99--131.score: 256.5
     
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  18. Tal Scriven (2012). Review of Gary E. Varner's< Em> Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two-Level Utilitarianism. [REVIEW] Between the Species 16 (1):13.score: 256.5
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  19. Jacques Gervet, Alain Gallo, Raphael Chalmeau & Muriel Soleilhavoup (1996). Some Prerequisites for a Study of the Evolution of Cognition in the Animal Kingdom. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (1).score: 252.0
    A distinction is made between two definitions of animal cognition: the one most frequently employed in cognitive sciences considers cognition as extracting and processing information; a more phenomenologically inspired model considers it as attributing to a form of the outside world a significance, linked to the state of the animal. The respective fields of validity of these two models are discussed along with the limitations they entail, and the questions they pose to evolutionary biologists are emphasized. This is (...)
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  20. Elske Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk (2012). 'Theory of Mind' in Animals: Ways to Make Progress. Synthese (3):1-20.score: 243.0
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are insufficiently controlled, and that our (...)
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  21. Elske van der Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk (2012). 'Theory of Mind' in Animals: Ways to Make Progress. Synthese 191 (3):1-20.score: 243.0
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are insufficiently controlled, and that our (...)
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  22. Mario Pahl, Aung Si & Shaowu Zhang (2013). Numerical Cognition in Bees and Other Insects. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 217.5
    The ability to perceive the number of objects has been known to exist in vertebrates for a few decades, but recent behavioral investigations have demonstrated that several invertebrate species can also be placed on the continuum of numerical abilities shared with birds, mammals and reptiles. In this review article, we present the main experimental studies that have examined the ability of insects to use numerical information. These studies have made use of a wide range of methodologies, and for this reason (...)
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  23. Victoria A. Braithwaite, Felicity Huntingford & Ruud den Bos (2013). Variation in Emotion and Cognition Among Fishes. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (1):7-23.score: 211.5
    Increasing public concern for the welfare of fish species that human beings use and exploit has highlighted the need for better understanding of the cognitive status of fish and of their ability to experience negative emotions such as pain and fear. Moreover, studying emotion and cognition in fish species broadens our scientific understanding of how emotion and cognition are represented in the central nervous system and what kind of role they play in the organization of behavior. For instance, (...)
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  24. Victoria A. Braithwaite, Felicity Huntingford & Ruud van den Bos (2013). Variation in Emotion and Cognition Among Fishes. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (1):7-23.score: 211.5
    Increasing public concern for the welfare of fish species that human beings use and exploit has highlighted the need for better understanding of the cognitive status of fish and of their ability to experience negative emotions such as pain and fear. Moreover, studying emotion and cognition in fish species broadens our scientific understanding of how emotion and cognition are represented in the central nervous system and what kind of role they play in the organization of behavior. For instance, (...)
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  25. Dan Demetriou (forthcoming). Fighting Fair: The Ecology of Honor in Humans and Animals. In Jonathan Crane (ed.), Beastly Morality. Columbia University Press.score: 207.0
    This essay distinguishes between honor-typical and authoritarian behavior in humans and animals. Whereas authoritarianism concerns hierarchies coordinated by control and obedience, honor concerns rankings of prestige determined by fair contests. Honor-typical behavior is identifiable in non-human species, and is to be expected in polygynous species with non-resource-based mating systems. This picture lends further support to an increasingly popular psychological theory that sees morality as constituted by a variety of moral systems. If moral cognition is pluralistic in this way, (...)
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  26. Marc Bekoff (2003). Consciousness and Self in Animals: Some Reflections. Zygon 38 (2):229-245.score: 207.0
    In this essay I argue that many nonhuman animal beings are conscious and have some sense of self. Rather than ask whether they are conscious, I adopt an evolutionary perspective and ask why consciousness and a sense of self evolved---what are they good for? Comparative studies of animal cognition, ethological investigations that explore what it is like to be a certain animal, are useful for answering this question. Charles Darwin argued that the differences in cognitive abilities and emotions among (...)
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  27. Helena Telkänranta (2009). Conditioning or Cognition? Understanding Interspecific Communication as a Way of Improving Animal Training (a Case Study with Elephants in Nepal). Sign Systems Studies 37 (3-4):542-555.score: 205.5
    When animals are trained to function in a human society (for example, pet dogs, police dogs, or sports horses), different trainers and training cultures vary widely in their ability to understand how the animal perceives the communication efforts of the trainer. This variation has considerable impact on the resulting performance and welfare of the animals. There are many trainers who frequently resort to physical punishment or other pain-inflicting methods when the attempts to communicate have failed or when the (...)
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  28. Manuel Bremer (2007). Methodologische Überlegungen zu tierischen Überzeugungen / Methodological Reflections on Exploring Beliefs in Animals. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):347 - 355.score: 202.5
    A theory of the beliefs of non-human animals is not closed to us, only because we do not have beliefs of their kind. Starting from a theory of human beliefs and working on a building block model of propositional attitudes a theory of animal beliefs is viable. Such a theory is an example of the broader conception of a heterophenomenological approach to animal cognition. The theory aims at outlining the crucial differences between human and animal beliefs as well (...)
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  29. Robert W. Lurz (ed.) (2009). The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press.score: 190.5
    This volume is a collection of fourteen new essays by leading philosophers on issues concerning the nature, existence, and our knowledge of animal minds.
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  30. Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.) (1996). Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press.score: 184.5
    Theories of Theories of Mind brings together contributions by a distinguished international team of philosophers, psychologists, and primatologists, who between them address such questions as: what is it to understand the thoughts, feelings, and intentions of other people? How does such an understanding develop in the normal child? Why, unusually, does it fail to develop? And is any such mentalistic understanding shared by members of other species? The volume's four parts together offer a state of the art survey of the (...)
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  31. Eva Ejerhed & Sten Lindström (eds.) (1997). Logic, Action, and Cognition: Essays in Philosophical Logic. Kluwer Academic.score: 180.0
  32. Reinhard Brandt (2009). Können Tiere Denken?: Ein Beitrag Zur Tierphilosophie. Suhrkamp.score: 175.5
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  33. David Papineau, The Evolution of Means-End Cognition; Why Animals Cannot Think.score: 172.5
    Why is there a cognitive gulf between other animals and humans? Current fashion favours our greater understanding of Theory of Mind as an answer, and Language is another obvious candidate. But I think that analysis of the evolution of means-end cognitive mechanisms suggests that there may be a further significant difference: where animals will only perform those means which they (or their ancestors) have previously used as a route to some end, humans can employ observation to learn that (...)
     
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  34. P. William Hughes (2013). Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition. Philosophical Psychology (2):1-4.score: 172.0
    (2013). Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition. Philosophical Psychology. ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/09515089.2012.732339.
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  35. E. M. Macphail (1998). The Evolution of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.score: 166.5
    Are non-human animals conscious? When do babies begin to feel pain? What function is served by consciousness? What evidence could resolve these issues? In The Evolution of Consciousness, psychologist Euan Macphail tackles these questions and more by exploring such topics as: animal cognition; unconscious learning and perception in humans; infantile amnesia; theory of mind in primates; and the nature of pleasure and pain. Experimental results are placed in theoretical context by tracing the development of concepts of consciousness in (...)
     
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  36. N. S. Clayton, J. Russell & A. Dickinson (2009). Are Animals Stuck in Time or Are They Chronesthetic Creatures? Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (1):59-71.score: 162.0
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  37. Irina Meketa (forthcoming). A Critique of the Principle of Cognitive Simplicity in Comparative Cognition. Biology and Philosophy:1-15.score: 159.0
    A widespread assumption in experimental comparative (animal) cognition is that, barring compelling evidence to the contrary, the default hypothesis should postulate the simplest cognitive ontology (mechanism, process, or structure) consistent with the animal’s behavior. I call this assumption the principle of cognitive simplicity (PoCS). In this essay, I show that PoCS is pervasive but unjustified: a blanket preference for the simplest cognitive ontology is not justified by any of the available arguments. Moreover, without a clear sense of how cognitive (...)
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  38. Francis Sansbury Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Hannah Broadbent, Emily K. Farran, Elena Longhi, Dean D'Souza, Kay Metcalfe, May Tassabehji, Rachel Wu, Atsushi Senju, Francesca Happé, Peter Turnpenny (2012). Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Genotype/Phenotype Insights From Partial Deletion Patients. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 158.5
    Identifying genotype-phenotype relations in human social cognition has been enhanced by the study of Williams syndrome (WS). Indeed, individuals with WS present with a particularly strong social drive, and researchers have sought to link deleted genes in the WS Critical Region (WSCR) of chromosome 7q11.23 to this unusual social profile. In this paper, we provide details of two case studies of children with partial genetic deletions in the WSCR: an 11-year-old female with a deletion of 24 of the 28 (...)
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  39. Iain D. Couzin (2009). Collective Cognition in Animal Groups. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):36-43.score: 157.8
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  40. Colin Allen & Marc Bekoff (2007). Animal Minds, Cognitive Ethology, and Ethics. Journal of Ethics 11 (3):299-317.score: 157.5
    Our goal in this paper is to provide enough of an account of the origins of cognitive ethology and the controversy surrounding it to help ethicists to gauge for themselves how to balance skepticism and credulity about animal minds when communicating with scientists. We believe that ethicists’ arguments would benefit from better understanding of the historical roots of ongoing controversies. It is not appropriate to treat some widely reported results in animal cognition as if their interpretations are a matter (...)
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  41. G. Bush, P. Luu & M. I. Posner (2000). Cognitive and Emotional Influences in Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (6):215-222.score: 157.5
    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a part of the brain's limbic system. Classically, this region has been related to affect, on the basis of lesion studies in humans and in animals. In the late 1980s, neuroimaging research indicated that ACC was active in many studies of cognition. The findings from EEG studies of a focal area of negativity in scalp electrodes following an error response led to the idea that ACC might be the brain's error detection and correction (...)
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  42. Bush G., Luu P. & Posner Mi (2000). Cognitive and Emotional Influences in Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (6):215-220.score: 157.5
    Anterior cingulate cortex {ACC} is a part of the brain's limbic system. Classically, this region has been related to affect, on the basis of lession studies in human and in animals. In the late 1980s, neuroimaging research indicated that ACC was active in many studies of cognition. The finding from EEG studies of a focal area of negativity in scalp electrodes following an error response led to the idea that ACC might be the brain's error detection and correction (...)
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  43. Hank Davis & Rachelle Pérusse (1988). Numerical Competence in Animals: Definitional Issues, Current Evidence, and a New Research Agenda. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):561.score: 157.5
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  44. J. David Smith (2005). Studies of Uncertainty Monitoring and Metacognition in Animals and Humans. In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press.score: 157.5
     
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  45. J. Vauclair (1997). Mental States in Animals: Cognitive Ethology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (1):35-39.score: 155.5
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  46. Richard W. Byrne (2000). Animal Cognition in Nature, Edited by Russell P. Balda, Irene M. Pepperberg and Alan C. Kamil. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (2):73-73.score: 155.5
     
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  47. Teresa McCormack & Christoph Hoerl (2011). Tool Use, Planning and Future Thinking in Children and Animals. In Teresa McCormack, Christoph Hoerl & Stephen Butterfill (eds.), Tool use and causal cognition. Oxford University Press. 129.score: 153.0
    This chapter considers in what sense, if any, planning and future thinking is involved both in the sort of behaviour examined by McCarty et al. (1999) and in the sort of behaviour measured by researchers creating versions of Tulving's spoon test. It argues that mature human planning and future thinking involves a particular type of temporal cognition, and that there are reasons to be doubtful as to whether either of those two approaches actually assesses this type of cognition. (...)
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  48. Thomas Suddendorf & Janie Busby (2003). Mental Time Travel in Animals? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (9):391-396.score: 148.0
    Are humans alone in their ability to reminisce about the past and imagine the future? Recent evidence suggests that food-storing birds (scrub jays) have access to information about what they have stored where and when. This has raised the possibility of mental time travel (MTT) in animals and sparked similar research with other species. Here we caution that such data do not provide convincing evidence for MTT. Examination of characteristics of human MTT (e.g. non-verbal declaration, generativity, developmental prerequisites) points (...)
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  49. Theresa S. S. Schilhab (2013). Why Animals Are Not Robots. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-13.score: 147.0
    In disciplines traditionally studying expertise such as sociology, philosophy, and pedagogy, discussions of demarcation criteria typically centre on how and why human expertise differs from the expertise of artificial expert systems. Therefore, the demarcation criteria has been drawn between robots as formalized logical architectures and humans as creative, social subjects, creating a bipartite division that leaves out animals. However, by downsizing the discussion of animal cognition and implicitly intuiting assimilation of living organisms (LOs) to robots, key features to (...)
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  50. Gary J. Purpura Jr (2006). In Search of Human Uniqueness. Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):443 – 461.score: 145.5
    Typically in the philosophical literature, kinds of minds are differentiated by the range of cognitive tasks animals accomplish as opposed to the means by which they accomplish the tasks. Drawing on progress in cognitive ethology (the study of animal cognition), I argue that such an approach provides bad directions for uncovering the mark of the human mind. If the goal is to determine what makes the human mind unique, philosophers should focus on the means by which animals (...)
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