Search results for 'Cognitive Ability' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Duncan Pritchard (2010). Cognitive Ability and the Extended Cognition Thesis. Synthese 175 (1):133 - 151.
    This paper explores the ramifications of the extended cognition thesis in the philosophy of mind for contemporary epistemology. In particular, it argues that all theories of knowledge need to accommodate the ability intuition that knowledge involves cognitive ability, but that once this requirement is understood correctly there is no reason why one could not have a conception of cognitive ability that was consistent with the extended cognition thesis. There is thus, surprisingly, a straightforward way of (...)
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  2. J. Adam Carter, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin (2013). Knowledge and the Value of Cognitive Ability. Synthese 190 (17):3715-3729.
    We challenge a line of thinking at the fore of recent work on epistemic value: the line (suggested by Kvanvig in The value of knowledge and the pursuit of understanding, 2003 and others) that if the value of knowledge is “swamped” by the value of mere true belief, then we have good reason to doubt its theoretical importance in epistemology. We offer a value-driven argument for the theoretical importance of knowledge—one that stands even if the value of knowledge is “swamped” (...)
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  3.  86
    Jason Konek, Probabilistic Knowledge and Cognitive Ability.
    Moss (2013) argues that partial beliefs, or credences can amount to knowledge in much the way that full beliefs can. This paper explores a new kind of objective Bayesianism designed to take us some way toward securing such ‘probabilistic knowledge’. Whatever else it takes for an agent’s credences to amount to knowledge, their success, or accuracy must be the product of cognitive ability or skill. The brand of Bayesianism developed here helps ensure this ability condition is satisfied. (...)
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  4.  24
    Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2007). Natural Myside Bias is Independent of Cognitive Ability. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):225 – 247.
    Natural myside bias is the tendency to evaluate propositions from within one's own perspective when given no instructions or cues (such as within-participants conditions) to avoid doing so. We defined the participant's perspective as their previously existing status on four variables: their sex, whether they smoked, their alcohol consumption, and the strength of their religious beliefs. Participants then evaluated a contentious but ultimately factual proposition relevant to each of these demographic factors. Myside bias is defined between-participants as the mean difference (...)
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  5.  16
    Aline Sevenants, Kristien Dieussaert & Walter Schaeken (2011). Truth Table Tasks: Irrelevance and Cognitive Ability. Thinking and Reasoning 17 (3):213 - 246.
    Two types of truth table task are used to examine people's mental representation of conditionals. In two within-participants experiments, participants either receive the same task-type twice (Experiment 1) or are presented successively with both a possibilities task and a truth task (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 examines how people interpret the three-option possibilities task and whether they have a clear understanding of it. The present study aims to examine, for both task-types, how participants' cognitive ability relates to the classification (...)
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  6.  27
    Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich (2008). On the Failure of Cognitive Ability to Predict Myside and One-Sided Thinking Biases. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):129-167.
    Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different paradigms. Robust indications of myside bias were observed in all three experiments. Participants gave higher evaluations to arguments that supported their opinions than those that refuted their prior positions. Likewise, substantial one-side bias was observed—participants were more likely to prefer a one-sided to a balanced argument. There was substantial variation in both types of (...)
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  7.  31
    Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2008). On the Failure of Cognitive Ability to Predict Myside and One-Sided Thinking Biases. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):129 – 167.
    Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different paradigms. Robust indications of myside bias were observed in all three experiments. Participants gave higher evaluations to arguments that supported their opinions than those that refuted their prior positions. Likewise, substantial one-side bias was observed—participants were more likely to prefer a one-sided to a balanced argument. There was substantial variation in both types of (...)
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  8.  15
    Keith E. Stanovich Richard & F. West (1998). Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):193 – 230.
    Individual differences in performance on a variety of selection tasks were examined in three studies employing over 800 participants. Nondeontic tasks were solved disproportionately by individuals of higher cognitive ability. In contrast, responses on two deontic tasks that have shown robust performance facilitationthe Drinking-age Problem and the Sears Problem-were unrelated to cognitive ability. Performance on deontic and nondeontic tasks was consistently associated. Individuals in the correct/correct cell of the bivariate performance matrix were over-represented. That is, individuals (...)
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  9.  4
    Ralph Hertwig (2000). The Questionable Utility of “Cognitive Ability” in Explaining Cognitive Illusions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):678-679.
    The notion of “cognitive ability” leads to paradoxical conclusions when invoked to explain Inhelder and Piaget's research on class inclusion reasoning and research on the inclusion rule in the heuristics-and-biases program. The vague distinction between associative and rule-based reasoning overlooks the human capacity for semantic and pragmatic inferences, and consequently, makes intelligent inferences look like reasoning errors.
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  10.  1
    M. Campbell (1936). The Cognitive Aspects of Motor Performances and Their Bearing on General Motor Ability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (3):323.
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  11.  82
    Clancy Blair (2006). How Similar Are Fluid Cognition and General Intelligence? A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Fluid Cognition as an Aspect of Human Cognitive Ability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):109-125.
    This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory/executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to (...)
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  12.  20
    Robert Plomin & Frank M. Spinath (2002). Genetics and General Cognitive Ability. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (4):169-176.
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  13.  35
    John Turri, Epistemic Situationism and Cognitive Ability.
    Leading virtue epistemologists defend the view that knowledge must proceed from intellectual virtue and they understand virtues either as refned character traits cultivated by the agent over time through deliberate effort, or as reliable cognitive abilities. Philosophical situationists argue that results from empirical psychology should make us doubt that we have either sort of epistemic virtue, thereby discrediting virtue epistemology’s empirical adequacy. I evaluate this situationist challenge and outline a successor to virtue epistemology: abilism . Abilism delivers all the (...)
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  14.  15
    Sarah E. Harris & Ian J. Deary (2011). The Genetics of Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Ageing in Healthy Older People. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (9):388-394.
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  15.  5
    Beatrice Gelder (1988). Above Suspicion: Cognitive and Intentional Aspects of the Ability to Lie. [REVIEW] Argumentation 2 (1):77-87.
    This paper looks at the attribution of the ability to lie and not at lying or lies. It also departs from more familiar approaches by focussing on the appraisal of an ability and not on the ability in itself. We believe that this attribution perspective is required to bring out the cognitive and intentional basis of the ability to lie.
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  16.  3
    T. J. Crow (1996). All Sex Differences in Cognitive Ability May Be Explained by an X-Y Homologous Gene Determining Degrees of Cerebral Asymmetry. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):249-250.
    Male superiority in mathematical ability (along with female superiority in verbal fluency) may reflect the operation of an X-Y homologous gene (the right-shift-factor) influencing the relative rates of development of the cerebral hemispheres. Alleles at the locus on the Y chromosome will be selected at a later mean age than alleles on the X, and only by females.
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  17.  7
    Nobuyuki Hanaki, Nicolas Jacquemet, Stéphane Luchini & Adam Zylbersztejn (forthcoming). Cognitive Ability and the Effect of Strategic Uncertainty. Theory and Decision.
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  18.  12
    Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (1998). Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):193-230.
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  19.  4
    Daniel Farrelly & Elizabeth J. Austin (2007). Ability EI as an Intelligence? Associations of the MSCEIT with Performance on Emotion Processing and Social Tasks and with Cognitive Ability. Cognition and Emotion 21 (5):1043-1063.
  20.  7
    Wolff-Michael Roth & Michelle K. McGinn (1997). Graphing: Cognitive Ability or Practice? Science Education 81 (1):91-106.
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  21. K. E. Stanovich, R. F. West & R. Hertwig (2000). Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate?-Open Peer Commentary-The Questionable Utility of Cognitive Ability in Explaining Cognitive Illusions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):678-678.
     
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  22.  2
    K. Thienpont & G. Verleye (2004). Cognitive Ability and Occupational Status in a British Cohort. Journal of Biosocial Science 36 (3):333-349.
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  23.  1
    Benjamin Jarvis, J. Adam Carter & Katherine Rubin, Knowledge and the Value of Cognitive Ability.
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  24.  4
    Blair Clancy (2006). How Similar Are Fluid Cognition and General Intelligence? A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Fluid Cognition as an Aspect of Human Cognitive Ability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):109-125.
  25. Margaret E. Beier & Frederick L. Oswald (2012). Is Cognitive Ability a Liability? A Critique and Future Research Agenda on Skilled Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 18 (4):331-345.
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  26. Matt McGue & Irving I. Gottesman (2015). Classical and Molecular Genetic Research on General Cognitive Ability. Hastings Center Report 45 (S1):S25-S31.
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  27. Heiner Rindermann, Eva-Maria Stiegmaier & Gerhard Meisenberg (2015). Cognitive Ability of Preschool, Primary and Secondary School Children in Costa Rica. Journal of Biosocial Science 47 (3):281-310.
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  28. Heiner Rindermann, David Becker & Thomas R. Coyle (2016). Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  29. Stephanie Ruffing, F. -Sophie Wach, Frank M. Spinath, Roland Brünken & Julia Karbach (2015). Learning Strategies and General Cognitive Ability as Predictors of Gender- Specific Academic Achievement. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  30. Eline Van Geert, Altan Orhon, Iulia A. Cioca, Rui Mamede, Slobodan Golušin, Barbora Hubená & Daniel Morillo (2016). Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  31. Kevin M. Williams, Craig Nathanson & Delroy L. Paulhus (2010). Identifying and Profiling Scholastic Cheaters: Their Personality, Cognitive Ability, and Motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 16 (3):293-307.
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  32.  7
    Hamdi Muluk (2010). Intratextual Fundamentalism and the Desire for Simple Cognitive Structure: The Moderating Effect of the Ability to Achieve Cognitive Structure. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 32 (2):217-238.
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  33.  23
    Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Paul Seli, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2012). Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief. Cognition 123 (3):335-346.
    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement, conventional religious beliefs and paranormal beliefs with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively (...)
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  34. Laura T. Germine, Bradley Duchaine & Ken Nakayama (2011). Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks After Age 30. Cognition 118 (2):201-210.
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  35.  7
    Thomas H. Carr (1981). Building Theories of Reading Ability: On the Relation Between Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills and Reading Comprehension. Cognition 9 (1):73-114.
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  36.  12
    Anna Stubblefield (2009). The Entanglement of Race and Cognitive Dis/Ability. Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):531-551.
  37.  7
    Kaarin J. Anstey, Scott M. Hofer & Mary A. Luszcz (2003). Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Patterns of Dedifferentiation in Late-Life Cognitive and Sensory Function: The Effects of Age, Ability, Attrition, and Occasion of Measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (3):470.
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  38.  2
    Mark G. McGee (1980). The Effect of Brain Asymmetry on Cognitive Functions Depends Upon What Ability, for Which Sex, at What Point in Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):243.
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  39. Marcel A. Just & Patricia A. Carpenter (1985). Cognitive Coordinate Systems: Accounts of Mental Rotation and Individual Differences in Spatial Ability. Psychological Review 92 (2):137-172.
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  40. A. E. Eastwood, R. A. Steffy & W. C. Corning (2000). Working Memory Ability: Electrophysiological Correlates of Performance on Cognitive Tasks. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S96 - S96.
     
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  41. Micaela E. Christopher, Janice M. Keenan, Jacqueline Hulslander, John C. DeFries, Akira Miyake, Sally J. Wadsworth, Erik Willcutt, Bruce Pennington & Richard K. Olson (2016). The Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of the Relations Between Cognitive Skills and Components of Reading Ability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (4):451-466.
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  42. Guido E. D'Aniello, Gianluca Castelnuovo & Federica Scarpina (2015). Could Cognitive Estimation Ability Be a Measure of Cognitive Reserve? Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  43. José M. Mestre, Cristina Larrán, Joaquín Herrero, Rocío Guil & Gabriel G. de la Torre (2015). PERVALE-S: A New Cognitive Task to Assess Deaf People’s Ability to Perceive Basic and Social Emotions. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  44. Daniel Wikler (2010). Paternalism in the Age of Cognitive Enhancement: Do Civil Liberties Presuppose Roughly Equal Mental Ability? In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. OUP Oxford
     
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  45. Masamichi Yuzawa, William M. Bart & Miki Yuzawa (2002). Development of the Ability to Judge Relative Areas: Young Children's Spontaneous Use of Superimposition as a Cognitive Tool. In Serge P. Shohov (ed.), Advances in Psychology Research. Nova Science Publishers 12--43.
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  46.  12
    Roger Lindsay (1996). Cognitive Technology and the Pragmatics of Impossible Plans — A Study in Cognitive Prosthetics. AI and Society 10 (3-4):273-288.
    Do AI programs just make it quicker and easier for humans to do what they can do already, or can the range of do-able things be extended? This paper suggests that cognitively-oriented technology can make it possible for humans to construct and carry out mental operations, which were previously impossible. Probable constraints upon possible human mental operations are identified and the impact of cognitive technology upon them is evaluated. It is argued that information technology functions as a cognitive (...)
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  47.  16
    Fernando Broncano-Berrocal (forthcoming). A Robust Enough Virtue Epistemology. Synthese:1-28.
    What is the nature of knowledge? A popular answer to that long-standing question comes from robust virtue epistemology, whose key idea is that knowing is just a matter of succeeding cognitively—i.e., coming to believe a proposition truly—due to an exercise of cognitive ability. Versions of robust virtue epistemology further developing and systematizing this idea offer different accounts of the relation that must hold between an agent’s cognitive success and the exercise of her cognitive abilities as well (...)
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  48.  51
    Robert Hudson (2013). Saving Pritchard's Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology: The Case of Temp. Synthese 191 (5):1-15.
    Virtue epistemology is faced with the challenge of establishing the degree to which a knower’s cognitive success is attributable to her cognitive ability. As Duncan Pritchard notes, in some cases one is inclined to a strong version of virtue epistemology, one that requires cognitive success to be because of the exercise of the relevant cognitive abilities. In other cases, a weak version of virtue epistemology seems preferable, where cognitive success need only be the product (...)
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  49.  29
    Alice Medalia & Rosa W. Lim (2004). Self-Awareness of Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 71 (2):331-338.
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  50.  10
    Gregory Razran (1954). The Conditioned Evocation of Attitudes (Cognitive Conditioning?). Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (4):278.
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