Search results for 'Cognitive Ability' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Duncan Pritchard (2010). Cognitive Ability and the Extended Cognition Thesis. Synthese 175 (1):133 - 151.
    This paper explores the ramifications of the extended cognition thesis in the philosophy of mind for contemporary epistemology. In particular, it argues that all theories of knowledge need to accommodate the ability intuition that knowledge involves cognitive ability, but that once this requirement is understood correctly there is no reason why one could not have a conception of cognitive ability that was consistent with the extended cognition thesis. There is thus, (...)
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  2. J. Adam Carter, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin (2013). Knowledge and the Value of Cognitive Ability. Synthese 190 (17):3715-3729.
    We challenge a line of thinking at the fore of recent work on epistemic value: the line (suggested by Kvanvig in The value of knowledge and the pursuit of understanding, 2003 and others) that if the value of knowledge is “swamped” by the value of mere true belief, then we have good reason to doubt its theoretical importance in epistemology. We offer a value-driven argument for the theoretical importance of knowledge—one that stands even if the value of knowledge is “swamped” (...)
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  3.  86
    Jason Konek, Probabilistic Knowledge and Cognitive Ability.
    Moss (2013) argues that partial beliefs, or credences can amount to knowledge in much the way that full beliefs can. This paper explores a new kind of objective Bayesianism designed to take us some way toward securing such ‘probabilistic knowledge’. Whatever else it takes for an agent’s credences to amount to knowledge, their success, or accuracy must be the product of cognitive ability or skill. The brand of Bayesianism developed here helps ensure this ability condition is satisfied. (...)
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  4.  24
    Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2007). Natural Myside Bias is Independent of Cognitive Ability. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):225 – 247.
    Natural myside bias is the tendency to evaluate propositions from within one's own perspective when given no instructions or cues (such as within-participants conditions) to avoid doing so. We defined the participant's perspective as their previously existing status on four variables: their sex, whether they smoked, their alcohol consumption, and the strength of their religious beliefs. Participants then evaluated a contentious but ultimately factual proposition relevant to each of these demographic factors. Myside bias is defined between-participants as the mean difference (...)
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  5.  16
    Aline Sevenants, Kristien Dieussaert & Walter Schaeken (2011). Truth Table Tasks: Irrelevance and Cognitive Ability. Thinking and Reasoning 17 (3):213 - 246.
    Two types of truth table task are used to examine people's mental representation of conditionals. In two within-participants experiments, participants either receive the same task-type twice (Experiment 1) or are presented successively with both a possibilities task and a truth task (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 examines how people interpret the three-option possibilities task and whether they have a clear understanding of it. The present study aims to examine, for both task-types, how participants' cognitive ability relates to the classification (...)
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  6.  26
    Richard F. West & Keith E. Stanovich (2008). On the Failure of Cognitive Ability to Predict Myside and One-Sided Thinking Biases. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):129-167.
    Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different paradigms. Robust indications of myside bias were observed in all three experiments. Participants gave higher evaluations to arguments that supported their opinions than those that refuted their prior positions. Likewise, substantial one-side bias was observed—participants were more likely to prefer a one-sided to a balanced argument. There was substantial variation in both types of (...)
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  7.  31
    Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2008). On the Failure of Cognitive Ability to Predict Myside and One-Sided Thinking Biases. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):129 – 167.
    Two critical thinking skills—the tendency to avoid myside bias and to avoid one-sided thinking—were examined in three different experiments involving over 1200 participants and across two different paradigms. Robust indications of myside bias were observed in all three experiments. Participants gave higher evaluations to arguments that supported their opinions than those that refuted their prior positions. Likewise, substantial one-side bias was observed—participants were more likely to prefer a one-sided to a balanced argument. There was substantial variation in both types of (...)
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  8.  15
    Keith E. Stanovich Richard & F. West (1998). Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):193 – 230.
    Individual differences in performance on a variety of selection tasks were examined in three studies employing over 800 participants. Nondeontic tasks were solved disproportionately by individuals of higher cognitive ability. In contrast, responses on two deontic tasks that have shown robust performance facilitationthe Drinking-age Problem and the Sears Problem-were unrelated to cognitive ability. Performance on deontic and nondeontic tasks was consistently associated. Individuals in the correct/correct cell of the bivariate performance matrix were over-represented. That is, individuals (...)
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  9.  4
    Ralph Hertwig (2000). The Questionable Utility of “Cognitive Ability” in Explaining Cognitive Illusions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):678-679.
    The notion of “cognitive ability” leads to paradoxical conclusions when invoked to explain Inhelder and Piaget's research on class inclusion reasoning and research on the inclusion rule in the heuristics-and-biases program. The vague distinction between associative and rule-based reasoning overlooks the human capacity for semantic and pragmatic inferences, and consequently, makes intelligent inferences look like reasoning errors.
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  10.  1
    M. Campbell (1936). The Cognitive Aspects of Motor Performances and Their Bearing on General Motor Ability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (3):323.
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  11.  82
    Clancy Blair (2006). How Similar Are Fluid Cognition and General Intelligence? A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Fluid Cognition as an Aspect of Human Cognitive Ability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):109-125.
    This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory/executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to (...)
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  12.  20
    Robert Plomin & Frank M. Spinath (2002). Genetics and General Cognitive Ability. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (4):169-176.
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  13.  32
    John Turri, Epistemic Situationism and Cognitive Ability.
    Leading virtue epistemologists defend the view that knowledge must proceed from intellectual virtue and they understand virtues either as refned character traits cultivated by the agent over time through deliberate effort, or as reliable cognitive abilities. Philosophical situationists argue that results from empirical psychology should make us doubt that we have either sort of epistemic virtue, thereby discrediting virtue epistemology’s empirical adequacy. I evaluate this situationist challenge and outline a successor to virtue epistemology: abilism . Abilism delivers all the (...)
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  14.  15
    Sarah E. Harris & Ian J. Deary (2011). The Genetics of Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Ageing in Healthy Older People. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (9):388-394.
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  15.  5
    Beatrice Gelder (1988). Above Suspicion: Cognitive and Intentional Aspects of the Ability to Lie. [REVIEW] Argumentation 2 (1):77-87.
    This paper looks at the attribution of the ability to lie and not at lying or lies. It also departs from more familiar approaches by focussing on the appraisal of an ability and not on the ability in itself. We believe that this attribution perspective is required to bring out the cognitive and intentional basis of the ability to lie.
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  16.  3
    T. J. Crow (1996). All Sex Differences in Cognitive Ability May Be Explained by an X-Y Homologous Gene Determining Degrees of Cerebral Asymmetry. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):249-250.
    Male superiority in mathematical ability (along with female superiority in verbal fluency) may reflect the operation of an X-Y homologous gene (the right-shift-factor) influencing the relative rates of development of the cerebral hemispheres. Alleles at the locus on the Y chromosome will be selected at a later mean age than alleles on the X, and only by females.
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  17.  7
    Nobuyuki Hanaki, Nicolas Jacquemet, Stéphane Luchini & Adam Zylbersztejn (forthcoming). Cognitive Ability and the Effect of Strategic Uncertainty. Theory and Decision.
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  18.  12
    Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (1998). Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):193-230.
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  19.  2
    K. Thienpont & G. Verleye (2004). Cognitive Ability and Occupational Status in a British Cohort. Journal of Biosocial Science 36 (3):333-349.
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  20.  6
    Wolff-Michael Roth & Michelle K. McGinn (1997). Graphing: Cognitive Ability or Practice? Science Education 81 (1):91-106.
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  21. K. E. Stanovich, R. F. West & R. Hertwig (2000). Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate?-Open Peer Commentary-The Questionable Utility of Cognitive Ability in Explaining Cognitive Illusions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):678-678.
     
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  22.  4
    Daniel Farrelly & Elizabeth J. Austin (2007). Ability EI as an Intelligence? Associations of the MSCEIT with Performance on Emotion Processing and Social Tasks and with Cognitive Ability. Cognition and Emotion 21 (5):1043-1063.
  23.  4
    Blair Clancy (2006). How Similar Are Fluid Cognition and General Intelligence? A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Fluid Cognition as an Aspect of Human Cognitive Ability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):109-125.
  24. Benjamin Jarvis, J. Adam Carter & Katherine Rubin, Knowledge and the Value of Cognitive Ability.
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  25. Heiner Rindermann, Eva-Maria Stiegmaier & Gerhard Meisenberg (2015). Cognitive Ability of Preschool, Primary and Secondary School Children in Costa Rica. Journal of Biosocial Science 47 (3):281-310.
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  26.  7
    Hamdi Muluk (2010). Intratextual Fundamentalism and the Desire for Simple Cognitive Structure: The Moderating Effect of the Ability to Achieve Cognitive Structure. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 32 (2):217-238.
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  27.  22
    Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Paul Seli, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang (2012). Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief. Cognition 123 (3):335-346.
    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement, conventional religious beliefs and paranormal beliefs with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively (...)
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  28. Laura T. Germine, Bradley Duchaine & Ken Nakayama (2011). Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks After Age 30. Cognition 118 (2):201-210.
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  29.  6
    Thomas H. Carr (1981). Building Theories of Reading Ability: On the Relation Between Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills and Reading Comprehension. Cognition 9 (1):73-114.
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  30.  12
    Anna Stubblefield (2009). The Entanglement of Race and Cognitive Dis/Ability. Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):531-551.
  31.  7
    Kaarin J. Anstey, Scott M. Hofer & Mary A. Luszcz (2003). Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Patterns of Dedifferentiation in Late-Life Cognitive and Sensory Function: The Effects of Age, Ability, Attrition, and Occasion of Measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (3):470.
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  32.  2
    Mark G. McGee (1980). The Effect of Brain Asymmetry on Cognitive Functions Depends Upon What Ability, for Which Sex, at What Point in Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):243.
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  33. A. E. Eastwood, R. A. Steffy & W. C. Corning (2000). Working Memory Ability: Electrophysiological Correlates of Performance on Cognitive Tasks. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S96 - S96.
     
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  34. Daniel Wikler (2010). Paternalism in the Age of Cognitive Enhancement: Do Civil Liberties Presuppose Roughly Equal Mental Ability? In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. OUP Oxford
     
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  35. Masamichi Yuzawa, William M. Bart & Miki Yuzawa (2002). Development of the Ability to Judge Relative Areas: Young Children's Spontaneous Use of Superimposition as a Cognitive Tool. In Serge P. Shohov (ed.), Advances in Psychology Research. Nova Science Publishers 12--43.
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  36.  12
    Roger Lindsay (1996). Cognitive Technology and the Pragmatics of Impossible Plans — A Study in Cognitive Prosthetics. AI and Society 10 (3-4):273-288.
    Do AI programs just make it quicker and easier for humans to do what they can do already, or can the range of do-able things be extended? This paper suggests that cognitively-oriented technology can make it possible for humans to construct and carry out mental operations, which were previously impossible. Probable constraints upon possible human mental operations are identified and the impact of cognitive technology upon them is evaluated. It is argued that information technology functions as a cognitive (...)
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  37.  11
    Fernando Broncano-Berrocal (forthcoming). A Robust Enough Virtue Epistemology. Synthese:1-28.
    What is the nature of knowledge? A popular answer to that long-standing question comes from robust virtue epistemology, whose key idea is that knowing is just a matter of succeeding cognitively—i.e., coming to believe a proposition truly—due to an exercise of cognitive ability. Versions of robust virtue epistemology further developing and systematizing this idea offer different accounts of the relation that must hold between an agent’s cognitive success and the exercise of her cognitive abilities as well (...)
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  38.  50
    Robert Hudson (2013). Saving Pritchard's Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology: The Case of Temp. Synthese 191 (5):1-15.
    Virtue epistemology is faced with the challenge of establishing the degree to which a knower’s cognitive success is attributable to her cognitive ability. As Duncan Pritchard notes, in some cases one is inclined to a strong version of virtue epistemology, one that requires cognitive success to be because of the exercise of the relevant cognitive abilities. In other cases, a weak version of virtue epistemology seems preferable, where cognitive success need only be the product (...)
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  39.  28
    Alice Medalia & Rosa W. Lim (2004). Self-Awareness of Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 71 (2):331-338.
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  40.  9
    Gregory Razran (1954). The Conditioned Evocation of Attitudes (Cognitive Conditioning?). Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (4):278.
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  41.  42
    Tristan Bekinschtein, Cecilia Tiberti, Jorge Niklison, Mercedes Tamashiro, Melania Ron, Silvina Carpintiero, Mirta Villarreal, Cecilia Forcato, Ramon Leiguarda & Facundo Manes (2005). Assessing Level of Consciousness and Cognitive Changes From Vegetative State to Full Recovery. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Vol 15 (3-4):307-322.
  42.  14
    B. M. Spruijt (2001). How the Hierarchical Organization of the Brain and Increasing Cognitive Abilities May Result in Consciousness. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:77- 87.
  43. J. Adam Carter & Duncan Pritchard (2014). Knowledge‐How and Cognitive Achievement. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 88 (1):181-199.
    According to reductive intellectualism, knowledge-how just is a kind of propositional knowledge (e.g., Stanley & Williamson 2001; Stanley 2011a, 2011b; Brogaard, 2008a, 2008b, 2009, 2011, 2009, 2011). This proposal has proved controversial because knowledge-how and propositional knowledge do not seem to share the same epistemic properties, particularly with regard to epistemic luck. Here we aim to move the argument forward by offering a positive account of knowledge-how. In particular, we propose a new kind of anti-intellectualism. Unlike neo-Rylean anti-intellectualist views, according (...)
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  44. Michèle N. Schubiger, Florian L. Wüstholz, André Wunder & Judith M. Burkart (2015). High Emotional Reactivity Toward an Experimenter Affects Participation, but Not Performance, in Cognitive Tests with Common Marmosets. Animal Cognition 18 (3):701-712.
    When testing primates with cognitive tasks, it is usually not considered that subjects differ markedly in terms of emotional reactivity toward the experimenter, which potentially affects a subject’s cognitive performance. We addressed this issue in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a monkey species in which males tend to show stronger emotional reactivity in testing situations, whereas females have been reported to outperform males in cognitive tasks. In a two-phase experiment, we first quantified the emotional reactivity of 14 subjects (...)
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  45.  14
    Richard P. Cooper & David Peebles (2015). Beyond Single‐Level Accounts: The Role of Cognitive Architectures in Cognitive Scientific Explanation. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):243-258.
    We consider approaches to explanation within the cognitive sciences that begin with Marr's computational level or Marr's implementational level and argue that each is subject to fundamental limitations which impair their ability to provide adequate explanations of cognitive phenomena. For this reason, it is argued, explanation cannot proceed at either level without tight coupling to the algorithmic and representation level. Even at this level, however, we argue that additional constraints relating to the decomposition of the cognitive (...)
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  46.  31
    Niels Taatgen & John R. Anderson (2010). The Past, Present, and Future of Cognitive Architectures. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):693-704.
    Cognitive architectures are theories of cognition that try to capture the essential representations and mechanisms that underlie cognition. Research in cognitive architectures has gradually moved from a focus on the functional capabilities of architectures to the ability to model the details of human behavior, and, more recently, brain activity. Although there are many different architectures, they share many identical or similar mechanisms, permitting possible future convergence. In judging the quality of a particular cognitive model, it is (...)
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  47.  54
    Evangelia G. Chrysikou, Jared M. Novick, John C. Trueswell & Sharon L. Thompson-Schill (2011). The Other Side of Cognitive Control: Can a Lack of Cognitive Control Benefit Language and Cognition? Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):253-256.
    Cognitive control refers to the regulation of mental activity to support flexible cognition across different domains. Cragg and Nation (2010) propose that the development of cognitive control in children parallels the development of language abilities, particularly inner speech. We suggest that children’s late development of cognitive control also mirrors their limited ability to revise misinterpretations of sentence meaning. Moreover, we argue that for certain tasks, a tradeoff between bottom-up (data-driven) and top-down (rule-based) thinking may actually benefit (...)
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  48.  32
    José Hernández-Orallo & David L. Dowe (2013). On Potential Cognitive Abilities in the Machine Kingdom. Minds and Machines 23 (2):179-210.
    Animals, including humans, are usually judged on what they could become, rather than what they are. Many physical and cognitive abilities in the ‘animal kingdom’ are only acquired (to a given degree) when the subject reaches a certain stage of development, which can be accelerated or spoilt depending on how the environment, training or education is. The term ‘potential ability’ usually refers to how quick and likely the process of attaining the ability is. In principle, things should (...)
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  49.  28
    Vladimir Chituc, Paul Henne, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Felipe De Brigard (2016). Blame, Not Ability, Impacts Moral “Ought” Judgments for Impossible Actions: Toward an Empirical Refutation of “Ought” Implies “Can”. Cognition 150:20-25.
    Recently, psychologists have explored moral concepts including obligation, blame, and ability. While little empirical work has studied the relationships among these concepts, philosophers have widely assumed such a relationship in the principle that “ought” implies “can,” which states that if someone ought to do something, then they must be able to do it. The cognitive underpinnings of these concepts are tested in the three experiments reported here. In Experiment 1, most participants judge that an agent ought to keep (...)
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  50.  28
    Richard Menary (2012). Cognitive Practices and Cognitive Character. Philosophical Explorations 15 (2):147 - 164.
    The argument of this paper is that we should think of the extension of cognitive abilities and cognitive character in integrationist terms. Cognitive abilities are extended by acquired practices of creating and manipulating information that is stored in a publicly accessible environment. I call these cognitive practices (2007). In contrast to Pritchard (2010) I argue that such processes are integrated into our cognitive characters rather than artefacts; such as notebooks. There are two routes to (...) extension that I contrast in the paper, the first I call artefact extension which is the now classic position of the causal coupling of an agent with an artefact. This approach needs to overcome the objection from cognitive outsourcing: that we simply get an artefact or tool to do the cognitive processing for us without extending our cognitive abilities. Enculturated cognition, by contrast, does not claim that artefacts themselves extend our cognitive abilities, but rather that the acquired practices for manipulating artefacts and the information stored in them extend our cognitive abilities (by augmenting and transforming them). In the rest of the paper I provide a series of arguments and cases which demonstrate that an enculturated approach works better for both epistemic and cognitive cases of the extension of ability and character. (shrink)
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