Search results for 'Cognitive Processes*' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  25
    Albert Newen (forthcoming). What Are Cognitive Processes? An Example-Based Approach. Synthese:1-18.
    The question “What are cognitive processes?” can be understood variously as meaning “What is the nature of cognitive processes?”, “Can we distinguish epistemically cognitive processes from physical and biochemical processes on the one hand, and from mental or conscious processes on the other?”, and “Can we establish a fruitful notion of cognitive process?” The present aim is to deliver a positive answer to the last question by developing criteria for what would count as a paradigmatic exemplar (...)
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  2.  27
    Frank van der Velde & Marc de Kamps (2002). Synchrony in the Eye of the Beholder: An Analysis of the Role of Neural Synchronization in Cognitive Processes. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):291-312.
    We discuss the role of synchrony of activationin higher-level cognitive processes. Inparticular, we analyze the question of whethersynchrony of activation provides a mechanismfor compositional representation in neuralsystems. We will argue that synchrony ofactivation does not provide a mechanism forcompositional representation in neural systems.At face value, one can identify a level ofcompositional representation in the models thatintroduce synchrony of activation for thispurpose. But behavior in these models isalways produced by means conjunctiverepresentations in the form of coincidencedetectors. Therefore, models that rely (...)
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  3.  21
    Joseph M. Notterman (2000). Note on Reductionism in Cognitive Psychology: Reification of Cognitive Processes Into Mind, Mind-Brain Equivalence, and Brain-Computer Analogy. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):116-121.
    This note brings together three phenomena leading to a tendency toward reductionism in cognitive psychology. They are the reification of cognitive processes into an entity called mind; the identification of the mind with the brain; and the congruence by analogy of the brain with the digital computer. Also indicated is the need to continue studying the effects upon behavior of variables other than brain function. 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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  4. Robert W. Kentridge & Charles A. Heywood (2001). Attention and Alerting: Cognitive Processes Spared in Blindsight. In Beatrice De Gelder, Edward H. F. De Haan & Charles A. Heywood (eds.), Out of Mind: Varieties of Unconscious Processes. Oxford University Press 163-181.
  5.  30
    Larissa K. Samuelson, Gavin W. Jenkins & John P. Spencer (2015). Grounding Cognitive‐Level Processes in Behavior: The View From Dynamic Systems Theory. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):191-205.
    Marr's seminal work laid out a program of research by specifying key questions for cognitive science at different levels of analysis. Because dynamic systems theory focuses on time and interdependence of components, DST research programs come to very different conclusions regarding the nature of cognitive change. We review a specific DST approach to cognitive-level processes: dynamic field theory. We review research applying DFT to several cognitive-level processes: object permanence, naming hierarchical categories, and inferring intent, that demonstrate (...)
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  6.  12
    John J. Furedy & Karl Schiffman (1973). Concurrent Measurement of Autonomic and Cognitive Processes in a Test of the Traditional Discriminative Control Procedure for Pavlovian Electrodermal Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (1):210.
  7. Mark Rowlands (1999). The Body in Mind: Understanding Cognitive Processes. Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Mark Rowlands challenges the Cartesian view of the mind as a self-contained monadic entity, and offers in its place a radical externalist or environmentalist model of cognitive processes. Drawing on both evolutionary theory and a detailed examination of the processes involved in perception, memory, thought and language use, Rowlands argues that cognition is, in part, a process whereby creatures manipulate and exploit relevant objects in their environment. This innovative book provides a foundation for an unorthodox but (...)
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  8.  7
    Luis Emilio Bruni (2008). Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes. Biosemiotics 1 (1):113-130.
    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception–cognition–action and it has not been considered the possibility to extend this kind of phenomena to the mere physiological level. To generalise the notion of CP in this sense, I have proposed to distinguish between categorical perception (CP) and categorical sensing (CS) (...)
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  9. Tobias Egner & Amir Raz (2007). Cognitive Control Processes and Hypnosis. In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press 29-50.
  10.  56
    Russell A. Poldrack (2006). Can Cognitive Processes Be Inferred From Neuroimaging Data? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):59-63.
  11.  99
    James Virtel & Gualtiero Piccinini (2010). Are Prototypes and Exemplars Used in Distinct Cognitive Processes? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):226 - 227.
    We argue that Machery provides no convincing evidence that prototypes and exemplars are typically used in distinct cognitive processes. This partially undermines the fourth tenet of the Heterogeneity Hypothesis and thus casts doubts on Machery’s way of splitting concepts into different kinds. Although Machery may be right that concepts split into different kinds, such kinds may be different from those countenanced by the Heterogeneity Hypothesis.
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  12.  25
    Graeme S. Halford, William H. Wilson & Steven Phillips (1998). Relational Complexity Metric is Effective When Assessments Are Based on Actual Cognitive Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):848-860.
    The core issue of our target article concerns how relational complexity should be assessed. We propose that assessments must be based on actual cognitive processes used in performing each step of a task. Complexity comparisons are important for the orderly interpretation of research findings. The links between relational complexity theory and several other formulations, as well as its implications for neural functioning, connectionist models, the roles of knowledge, and individual and developmental differences, are considered.
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  13.  12
    Ulrich Hoffrage (2000). Why the Analyses of Cognitive Processes Matter. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):679-680.
    Stanovich & West analyze individual differences with respect to response output (e.g., participants' numerical estimates). They do not analyze the underlying cognitive processes that led to the outputs; they thereby probably misclassify some non-normative responses as normative. Using base rate neglect and overconfidence as examples, I demonstrate the advantages of analyzing cognitive processes further.
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  14.  11
    G. Caldwell & L. Riby (2007). The Effects of Music Exposure and Own Genre Preference on Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processes: A Pilot ERP Study. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):992-996.
    Did Beethoven and Mozart have more in common with each other than Clapton and Hendrix? The current research demonstrated the widely reported Mozart Effect as only partly significant. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 16 professional classical and rock musicians during a standard 2 stimulus visual oddball task, while listening to classical and rock music. During the oddball task participants were required to discriminate between an infrequent target stimulus randomly embedded in a train of repetitive background or standard stimuli. Consistent (...)
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  15.  43
    Henri Atlan (1994). Intentionality in Nature. Against an All-Encompassing Evolutionary Paradigm: Evolutionary and Cognitive Processes Are Not Instances of the Same Process. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 24 (1):67–87.
    Three examples of theoretical analysis of evolutionary processes are presented. It is shown that the mechanisms involved have little to do with cognitive processes except for superficial and formal analogies. That is the case not only for classical models of adaptive evolution , but also for more recent ones making use of neural network computation and self-organization theories.Recent works on functional self-organization exhibiting some features of intentionality are discussed in this context. It is argued that Dennett's intentional stance cannot (...)
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  16.  10
    John G. Adair & Barry Spinner (1981). Subjects' Access to Cognitive Processes: Demand Characteristics and Verbal Report. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 11 (1):31–52.
    The present paper examines the arguments and data presented by Nisbett and Wilson relevant to their thesis that subjects do not have access to their own cognitive processes. It is concluded that their review of previous research is selective and incomplete and that the data they present in behalf of their thesis does not withstand a demand characteristics analysis. Furthermore, their use of observer-subject similarity as evidence of subjects' inability to access cognitive processes makes tests of their hypothesis (...)
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  17.  9
    Ralph L. Holloway (2012). Language and Tool Making Are Similar Cognitive Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):226-226.
    Design features for language and stone toolmaking (not tool use) involve similar if not homologous cognitive processes. Both are arbitrary transformations of internal symbolization, whereas non-human tool using is mostly an iconic transformation. The major discontinuity between humans and non-humans (chimpanzees) is language. The presence of stone tools made to standardized patterns suggests communicative and social control skills that involved language.
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  18.  7
    Luca Pezzullo (2002). Cheating Neuropsychologists: A Study of Cognitive Processes Involved in Scientific Anomalies Resolution. Mind and Society 3 (1):43-50.
    This research was carried out to explore some of the cognitive processes involved in scientific anomalies resolution. 40 subjects with a good neuropsychology expertise were asked to explain two (invented) anomalous neuropsychological cases. The subjects' efforts to give a meaningful structure to the data were recorded, and the resulting reasoning blocks were analysed to extract and compute the inferential (deductive, inductive and abductive) and analogical processes used. The processes were intercorrelated to experimentally verify the co-occurrence of different forms of (...)
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  19.  6
    Elias L. Khalil (2013). Two Kinds of Theory-Laden Cognitive Processes: Distinguishing Intransigence From Dogmatism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):218-219.
    The brain is involved in theory-laden cognitive processes. But there are two different theory-laden processes. In cases where the theory is based on facts, more facts can either falsify or confirm a theory. In cases where the theory is about the choice of a benchmark or a standard, more facts can only make a theory either more or less warranted. Clark offers a review of a view of the brain where the brain pro- cesses input information in a way (...)
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  20.  5
    Carl Ratner (1991). Cultural Variation in Cognitive Processes From a Sociohistorical Psychological Perspective. Journal of Mind and Behavior 12 (2):281-296.
    Two strands of the Vygotskian sociohistorical school of psychology are compared to better understand the nature of cultural variation in cognitive processes. The "relativist" strand maintains that cognitive processes are culturally variable. The "universalist" strand maintains that these processes manifest essential cultural uniformity despite apparent differences in performance. A review of the evidence concludes that the relativist position is more tenable.
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  21. Mark Rowlands (2008). The Body in Mind: Understanding Cognitive Processes. Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Mark Rowlands challenges the Cartesian view of the mind as a self-contained monadic entity, and offers in its place a radical externalist or environmentalist model of cognitive processes. Cognition is not something done exclusively in the head, but fundamentally something done in the world. Drawing on both evolutionary theory and a detailed examination of the processes involved in perception, memory, thought and language use, Rowlands argues that cognition is, in part, a process whereby creatures manipulate and (...)
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  22.  14
    Peter Fazekas, Tagging the World : Descrying Consciousness in Cognitive Processes.
    Although having conscious experiences is a fundamental feature of our everyday life, our understanding of what consciousness is is very limited. According to one of the main conclusions of contemporary philosophy of mind, the qualitative aspect of consciousness seems to resist functionalisation, i.e. it cannot be adequately defined solely in terms of functional or causal roles, which leads to an epistemic gap between phenomenal and scientific knowledge. Phenomenal qualities, then, seem to be, in principle, unexplainable in scientific terms. As a (...)
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  23.  10
    Andrea Pozzali (2007). Can Tacit Knowledge Fit Into a Computer Model of Scientific Cognitive Processes? The Case of Biotechnology. Mind and Society 6 (2):211-224.
    This paper tries to express a critical point of view on the computational turn in philosophy by looking at a specific field of study: philosophy of science. The paper starts by briefly discussing the main contributions that information and communication technologies have given to the rising of computational philosophy of science, and in particular to the cognitive modelling approach. The main question then arises, concerning how computational models can cope with the presence of tacit knowledge in science. Would it (...)
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  24.  8
    E. A. Haggard (1943). Experimental Studies in Affective Processes: I. Some Effects of Cognitive Structure and Active Participation on Certain Autonomic Reactions During and Following Experimentally Induced Stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (4):257.
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  25.  4
    Georges Vignaux (1992). From Negation to ?Notion?: Cognitive Processes and Argumentative Strategies. [REVIEW] Argumentation 6 (1):29-39.
    This article deals with the role of negation as a language and cognitive operation. Such a topic is treated here within the framework of the argumentative strategies which consist in making certain cognitive landmarks of the discourse ‘flip over’ with the intent of imposing the necessity to choose between two types of ‘notions’, aiming at the transformation of this choice into an ‘implication’. The reference here to the Aristotelian logic of Prior Analytics appears to be more efficient than (...)
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  26.  10
    Claire Petitmengin, Anne Remillieux, Béatrice Cahour & Shirley Carter-Thomas (2013). A Gap in Nisbett and Wilson's Findings? A First-Person Access to Our Cognitive Processes. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):654-669.
    The well-known experiments of Nisbett and Wilson lead to the conclusion that we have no introspective access to our decision-making processes. Johansson et al. have recently developed an original protocol consisting in manipulating covertly the relationship between the subjects’ intended choice and the outcome they were presented with: in 79.6% of cases, they do not detect the manipulation and provide an explanation of the choice they did not make, confirming the findings of Nisbett and Wilson. We have reproduced this protocol, (...)
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  27. William R. Uttal (2001). The New Phrenology: The Limits of Localizing Cognitive Processes in the Brain. MIT Press.
  28.  56
    John A. Bargh, Kay L. Schwader, Sarah E. Hailey, Rebecca L. Dyer & Erica J. Boothby (2012). Automaticity in Social-Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (12):593-605.
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  29. Gordon M. Burghardt (2002). Genetics, Plasticity, and the Evolution of Cognitive Processes. In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. MIT Press 115--122.
     
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  30.  4
    Cleotilde Gonzalez & Katja Mehlhorn (2016). Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice. Cognitive Science 40 (5):1163-1191.
    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as “gains” and risk seeking in problems framed as “losses,” even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based (...)
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  31.  6
    Cleotilde Gonzalez & Katja Mehlhorn (2015). Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice. Cognitive Science 40 (1):n/a-n/a.
    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as “gains” and risk seeking in problems framed as “losses,” even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based (...)
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  32.  32
    Lawrence M. Ward (2003). Synchronous Neural Oscillations and Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (12):553-559.
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  33.  15
    Marc N. Potenza (2014). The Neural Bases of Cognitive Processes in Gambling Disorder. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (8):429-438.
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  34.  60
    Leo R. Ward (2003). Synchronous Neural Oscillations and Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:553-559.
  35. Amy E. Whitehead, Jamie A. Taylor & Remco C. J. Polman (2015). Examination of the Suitability of Collecting in Event Cognitive Processes Using Think Aloud Protocol in Golf. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  36.  20
    Cortland J. Dahl, Antoine Lutz & Richard J. Davidson (forthcoming). Cognitive Processes Are Central in Compassion Meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  37.  8
    Andrew Winters (2016). Cognitive Processes and Asymmetrical Dependencies, or How Thinking is Like Swimming. Essays in Philosophy 17 (2):8-37.
    Where does the cognitive system begin and end? Intracranialists maintain that the cognitive system is entirely identifiable with the biological central nervous system. Transcranialists, on the other hand, suggest that the cognitive system can extend beyond the biological CNS. In the second division of Supersizing the Mind, Clark defends the transcranial account against various objections. Of interest for this paper is Clark’s response to what he calls “asymmetry arguments.”Asymmetry arguments can be summarized as follows: subtract the props (...)
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  38.  23
    Terry E. Goldberg & Daniel R. Weinberger (2004). Genes and the Parsing of Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (7):325-335.
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  39.  20
    John A. Smith (2006). Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognitive Processes and the Re-Emergence of Structures in Post-Humanist Social Theory. Routledge.
    Qualitative Complexity offers a critique of the humanist paradigm in contemporary social theory. Drawing from sources in sociology, philosophy, complexity theory, 'fuzzy logic', systems theory, cognitive science and evolutionary biology, the authors present a new series of interdisciplinary perspectives on the sociology of complex, self-organizing structures.
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  40. Stephen P. Turner (1989). Tacit Knowledg and the Problem of Computer Modelling Cognitive Processes in Science. In Steve Fuller (ed.), The Cognitive Turn: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers
     
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  41.  17
    Ken Manktelow (2001). Representing High-Level Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (9):405.
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  42.  25
    Victoria F. Shaw (1996). The Cognitive Processes in Informal Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 2 (1):51 – 80.
    Two experiments investigated the factors that people consider when evaluating informal arguments in newspaper and magazine editorials. Experiment 1 showed that subjects were more likely to object to the truth of the premises and the conclusions of an argument than to the strength of the link between them. Experiment 1 also revealed two manipulations that helped subjects object to the link between premises and conclusions: rating how well the premises support the conclusions and rating the believability of the premises and (...)
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  43.  9
    Sruthi Rothenfluch (2015). Virtue Epistemology and Tacit Cognitive Processes in High-Grade Knowledge. Philosophical Explorations 18 (3):393-405.
    Duncan Pritchard has recently argued that a certain brand of virtue epistemology, known as “virtue responsibilism”, cannot account for knowledge acquired through the use of tacit reasoning processes. I defend virtue responsiblism by showing that Pritchard's charge is founded on a mischaracterization of the view. Contra Pritchard, responsibilists do not demand that agents have complete access to the grounds for their beliefs in order to know. A closer examination of prominent accounts of virtue responsiblism, including Zagzebski's and Hookway's, reveals that (...)
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  44. S. P. Liversedge & J. M. Findlay (2000). Eye Movements Reflect Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:6-14.
     
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  45. Marcello Basili, Nicola Dimitri & Itzhak Gilboa (eds.) (2015). Cognitive Processes and Economic Behaviour. Routledge.
    In recent years the understanding of the cognitive foundations of economic behavior has become increasingly important. This volume contains contributions from such leading scholars as Adam Brandenburger, Michael Bacharach and Patrick Suppes. It will be of great interest to academics and researchers involved in the field of economics and psychology as well as those interested in political economy more generally.
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  46. J. Fossella & M. I. Posner (2004). Genes and the Development of Neural Networks Underlying Cognitive Processes. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences Iii. MIT Press 1255--66.
     
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  47. Wolfgang Klimesch (1999). Books Etcetera-Brain Function and Oscillations II: Integrative Brain Function. Neurophysiology and Cognitive Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (6):207-215.
     
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  48. Wolfgang Klimesch (1999). Brain Function and Oscillations, Vol. II: Integrative Brain Function. Neurophysiology and Cognitive Processes, Edited by Erol Basar. [REVIEW] Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (6):244-244.
     
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  49. Christoph S. Herrmann, Stefan Rach, Toralf Neuling & Daniel Strüber (2013). Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A Review of the Underlying Mechanisms and Modulation of Cognitive Processes. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  50.  11
    Jutta Joormann & Catherine D'Avanzato (2010). Emotion Regulation in Depression: Examining the Role of Cognitive Processes: Cognition & Emotion Lecture at the 2009 ISRE Meeting. Cognition and Emotion 24 (6):913-939.
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