No centro do presente artigo está a problemática kierkegaardiana do possível e do impossível, ou seja, a coexistência dos opostos como explicitação do paradoxo, uma das figuras matriciais do Absurdo. Para Kierkegaard, o homem singular vê-se confrontado com o Paradoxo precisamente na medida em que a sua existência não cai sob o domínio da metafísica e do estético. Por outras palavras, o paradoxo invade a existência humana no momento em que se trata do paradoxo absoluto, escândalo para o Judeu, loucura (...) para o Grego, absurdo para a Razão. O artigo mostra, contudo, que antes de se confrontar com o Paradoxo, o existente precisa de aprender a esperar, malgrado o absurdo, na certeza de que tudo é possível a Deus. Porém, a experiência do Paradoxo implica percorrer um caminho prévio. Por outras palavras, é necessário aprender a experimentar a "condensação do possível", seja sob a forma de melancolia seja sob a forma do escrúpulo, de modo a poder desesperar da ideia do possível. Mostra-se assim a capacidade inovadora de Kierkegaard, mesmo sabendo nós que o desespero constitui um tema filosófico clássico já deste a Antiguidade. O que Kierkegaard faz, porém, é colocar em movimento uma dialéctica em que o jogo dos opostos se organiza em diversas figuras precárias, sempre incertas e fluentes e que se escalonam segundo degraus múltiplos de intensidade. Ora é precisamente graças a este jogo de oposições que no pensamento do Solitário de Copenhaga se articulam, ainda que de forma frágil, o finito e o infinito, o temporal e o eterno, a possibilidade e a necessidade. /// At the center of the present article is the kierhegaardian approach to the dialectic of the possible and the impossible, whose co-existence gives evidence to the Paradox, one of the figures of the Absurd. For Kierkegaard, the singular human being finds herself confronted with the Paradox precisely in the measure in which her existence does not fall under the dominion of metaphysics and of the aesthetical. The paradox invades human existence when it becomes absolute, i.e., when for the Jew it becomes Scandal, for the Greek Madness and for Reason the Absurd. The article shows, however, that before confronting itself with Paradox, the existent needs to learn how to hope by virtue of the absurd that everything is possible to God. In fact, the experience of the Absurd must be anteceded by a preparatory way. In other words, it is necessary to learn how to experience a "condensation of the possible", being it under the form of melancholy or under the form of scruple, so that the existent comes to the point of despairing of the very idea of the possible. In this way, the article demonstrates the innovative capacity of Kierkegaard, even if we know that despair constitutes a classical theme in philosophy since Antiquity. But Kierkegaard put into action a dialectic in which the play of the opposites becomes organized in different figures, always uncertain and fluid, which can be ordered in accordance with multiple degrees of intensity. But it is precisely due to this game of oppositions that the thought of the Solitary of Copenhagen comes to articulate, however in a subtle form, the finite and the infinite, the temporal and the eternal, possibility and necessity. (shrink)
Peut-on interpréter le Cratyle sans recourir aux développements du Théétète et du Sophiste sur la proposition verbale ? L'exigence analytique, présentée pour la première fois par G. Ryle, autorise à examiner la prétention soit des noms, soit de leurs éléments phonétiques à jouer le rôle de « signifiants » authentiques. Could we give an interpretation of Cratylus without looking at the later dialogues (Theaetetus and Sophist) which carry Plato on to the concept of verbal proposition ? The requirements of analytical (...) philosophers (first, G. Ryle) lead us to examine the claim of the word or of its phonetic elements as genuine « significantes ». (shrink)
Rather than using literary texts to evidence an analytic argument, within this piece we read Julia McNair Wright's (US, 1840?1902), Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette's (France, 1873?1954), and Willa Cather's (US, 1873?1947) texts through theoretical lenses that expose their educational meaning and value and that create conversation among them concerning girls? and women's educations. While we do not claim that one can generalize these women's works and lessons to every life, we contend that these women and the literary products they created offer (...) girls and women powerful lessons about resistance, subversion, and nurturing one's intellect, lessons that in some ways transcend class and race in particular. First, we define and explain Bruner's concept of the more using Rosenblatt, Gallagher, and Gardner's theories and findings to illuminate his concept. Next, we identify and examine three themes that emerge across these authors? texts?subverting through the everyday, becoming one's own steward, and moving from survival to self-actualization. Establishing these themes first in Wright's texts, we then use them to frame Colette's and Cather's fiction and support these themes by focusing on one lesson that emerges from each author's work(s). Finally, we ask what one might learn about educating girls and women from these texts and others whose educative meaning and value remain hidden. (shrink)
Il était sans doute audacieux de choisir une notion aussi peu stabilisée d’un point de vue théorique (en même temps qu’assise sur un véritable usage pédagogique) que celle de registre pour donner son unité à un volume de Mélanges. Les contributeurs ont, cependant, volontiers relevé le défi, et l’ouvrage représente de ce fait l’espace d’une vraie confrontation théorique, dont le lieu commun serait constitué par l’article d’Alain Viala (« Des registres », Pratiques, n°109-110, 2001). Ainsi soup..
This book surveys the vast body of medieval Jewish philosophy, devoting ample discussion to major figures such as Saadiah Gaon, Maimonides, Abraham Ibn Ezra, Judah Halevi, Abraham Ibn Daoud, and Gersonides, as well as presenting the ancillary texts of lesser known authors. Sirat quotes little-known texts, providing commentary and situating them within their historical and philosophical contexts. A comprehensive bibliography directs the reader to the texts themselves and to recent studies.
The goal of our target article is to establish that electrophysiological data constrain models of short-term memory retention operations to schemes in which activated long-term memory is its representational basis. The temporary stores correspond to neural circuits involved in the perception and subsequent processing of the relevant information, and do not involve specialized neural circuits dedicated to the temporary holding of information outside of those embedded in long-term memory. The commentaries ranged from general agreement with the view that short-term memory (...) stores correspond to activated long-term memory (e.g., Abry, Sato, Schwartz, Loevenbruck & Cathiard [Abry etal.], Cowan, Fuster, Grote, Hickok & Buchsbaum, Keenan, Hyönä & Kaakinen [Keenan et al.], Martin, Morra), to taking a definite exception to this view (e.g., Baddeley, Düzel, Logie & Della Sala, Kroger, Majerus, Van der Linden, Colette & Salmon [Majerus et al.], Vallar). (shrink)
Although family business comprises the majority of global business, it is significantly under-researched. Yet it is considered to have unique ethical values compared to non-family corporations. This is attributable to its family orientation. Therefore, it is worthwhile to identify and define dominant family business ethics values. The authors compare a sample of the U.S. family business, U.S. corporate entities, and international family business mission statements for frequency of ethics values. The data reveals three primary findings: (1) generally, the U.S. family (...) business expressed a higher frequency of ethical values than its non-family corporate and international counterpart, (2) U.S. family business has a strong lead in “integrity” and “honesty” whereas international family business leads in “environmentalism,” “globalism,” and “social responsibility,” and (3) generally, the frequency of ethics values for all family business globally has increased over time. The family business mission statement continues to provide ethical direction for the majority of global business. The emerging family business values identified in our sample will further impact global business success and promote ethical sustainability world-wide. (shrink)
Despite the successes, and the considerable and continuing ethical disputes regarding wolf reintroduction in the United States, no clear, cogent, theoretically based ethical examination of the wolf reintroductions has yet been completed. Ecological feminist thought, particularly as articulated by Karen J. Warren, presents one way to create such an ethical assessment. Applying ecological feminist theories to wolf reintroduction also generates an intriguing instance of theoretical application in the “real world” and sheds insight on the pragmatic value of ecological feminist thought. (...) While ecofeminism does not give a definitive and decisively defensible position concerning wolf reintroduction, it does offer a repeatable framework and set of conditions by which one can assess environmental practice and policy, evidencing yet another example of the relevance of environmental ethics for the assessment of environmental policy. (shrink)
Ce texte a déjà paru sur Deleuze International en février 2009. Nous remercions Jean-Christophe Goddard de nous avoir autorisé à le reproduire ici. En introduction à L'art, l'éclair de l'être, paru en 1993, Maldiney consacre un texte à un article d'Oskar Becker initialement publié en 1929 et traduit et annoté en 1986 par Jacques Colette dans le n° 9 de la revue Philosophie. Le titre de l'article de Becker est « La fragilité du beau et la nature aventurière de (...) l'artiste. Une recherche ontologique dans le (...) - Philosophie – Nouvel article. (shrink)
Most restoration projects are designed to approximate the species composition and ecotypes ecologists and historians determine were present in an area at some point in the historical past. In most cases, although somewhat arbitrary, the specific time chosen (usually immediately before European settlement) is based on an understanding of historic species composition and anthropogenic disturbances.Although restoring an area to the estimated, historical vegetation types is widely accepted, the exclusory nature of the restoration process often actively eliminates not just invasive species, (...) but also non-invasive, nonnative species as well as displaced native species. These exclusory activities echo patterns of domination and degradation that led to a need for restoration in the first place. Although the domination present in restoration stems from an earnest desire to repair harms inflicted by human carelessness, it at the same time enforces a human conception of the ideal landscape. Attending to ecofeminist concepts such as inclusivism and pluralism, and embracing their rejection of dualistic thinking and the logic of domination demands an expanded tolerance within the practice of ecological restoration. An expanded ecofeminist conceptualization of restoration, a restorashyn, attempts to reduce the presence of overt human domination of the land. Doing so may ultimately mean that the species composition of an ecofeminist restorashyn will not be purely native, but may instead include a diverse mix of both native and non-invasive, nonnative species. (shrink)
Among hunter-gatherers, the sharing of male and female foods is often assumed to result in virtually the same diet for males and females. Although food sharing is widespread among the hunting and gathering Hadza of Tanzania, women were observed eating significantly more tubers than men. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of dental wear, diet, and extramasticatory use of teeth among the Hadza. Casts of the upper dentitions were made from molds taken from 126 adults and scored according to (...) the Murphy dental attrition scoring system. Females had significantly greater anterior occlusal wear than males when we controlled for age. Males exhibited greater asymmetry in wear, with greater wear on the left side in canines, first premolars, and first molars. We suggest that these sex differences in wear patterns reflect the differences seen in the diet, as well as in the use of teeth as tools. (shrink)
La democracia del siglo XXI se enfrenta a nuevas imposturas: prácticas comunes en los extintos autoritarismos del siglo XX aparecen ahora como atributos de gobiernos que se declaran democráticos. Se trata, en realidad, de una crisis de identidad de la idea de democracia, que le obliga a reconocer su carácter intrínsecamente abierto y por ello mismo, incierto, lo que remite a su fundamento moral. La revisión de las distintas familias de teorías de la democracia revela que lo que la define (...) es la existencia de salvaguardas constitucionales y poderes limitados que permiten la emergencia de un agente moral autónomo. Pero entonces, se asoma una crisis del sujeto democrático: el régimen democrático, como sistema de separaciones, supone y exige sujetos moralmente comprometidos con la libertad, lo que a su vez peligra en tiempos de modernidad tardía. Palabras clave : incertidumbre; constitucionalismo; autonomía; separaciones; modernidad tardía. Theories of Democracy: Uncertainties and SeparationsDemocracy in the XXI century faces new impostures: practices that were common under the extinct authoritarianisms of the XX century appear now as attributes of self-declared democratic governments. The idea of democracy suffers an identity crisis, which obliges it to acknowledge its own intrinsically open, and thus uncertain, nature; in turn, this directs one to democracy’s moral foundations. The review of the different families of theories of democracy reveals that what defines the latter is the existence of constitutional safeguards and limited powers, which allow for the emergence of an autonomous moral agent. But then, a crisis of the democratic subject becomes visible: the democratic regime, as a system of separations, involves and demands subjects who are morally committed with freedom, which in turn is in jeopardy in times of late modernity. Keywords: uncertainty; constitutionalism; autonomy; separations; late modernity. (shrink)
This paper discusses findings from a study funded by the Equality Commission for Northern Ireland (NI) to explore the promotion of gender equity in the classroom and the extent to which initial teacher training and in-service courses address gender issues. Data from a questionnaire survey of 344 teachers and the qualitative dimensions of the study suggest that teachers are generally aware of gender stereotypes in the classroom and that, despite their lack of training in gender issues, where appropriate, most attempt (...) to challenge this type of behaviour. Concern was expressed with the role of teachers in unconsciously perpetuating stereotypes and the extent to which equality issues are directed more towards girls than boys. (shrink)
A credible account of the neurobiology underlying cognitive development cannot afford to ignore the recently demonstrated innate regionalisation of the neocortex as well as the ontogeny of corticocortical phenomena, only for the latter does the timing of development permit control by external events and this is most likely to occur at later stages in the fine tuning of cortical microcircuitry.