Search results for 'Collapse version of quantum theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nicholas Maxwell (1982). Instead of Particles and Fields: A Micro Realistic Quantum "Smearon" Theory. [REVIEW] Foundatioins of Physics 12 (6):607-631.score: 1722.0
    A fully micro realistic, propensity version of quantum theory is proposed, according to which fundamental physical entities - neither particles nor fields - have physical characteristics which determine probabilistically how they interact with one another (rather than with measuring instruments). The version of quantum "smearon" theory proposed here does not modify the equations of orthodox quantum theory: rather, it gives a radically new interpretation to these equations. It is argued that (i) there (...)
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  2. Nicholas Maxwell (1988). Quantum Propensiton Theory: A Testable Resolution of the Wave/Particle Dilemma. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (1):1-50.score: 1716.0
    In this paper I put forward a new micro realistic, fundamentally probabilistic, propensiton version of quantum theory. According to this theory, the entities of the quantum domain - electrons, photons, atoms - are neither particles nor fields, but a new kind of fundamentally probabilistic entity, the propensiton - entities which interact with one another probabilistically. This version of quantum theory leaves the Schroedinger equation unchanged, but reinterprets it to specify how propensitons evolve (...)
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  3. Shan Gao (2008). A Quantum Theory of Consciousness. Minds and Machines 18 (1):39-52.score: 1144.8
    The relationship between quantum collapse and consciousness is reconsidered under the assumption that quantum collapse is an objective dynamical process. We argue that the conscious observer can have a distinct role from the physical measuring device during the process of quantum collapse owing to the intrinsic nature of consciousness; the conscious observer can know whether he is in a definite state or a quantum superposition of definite states, while the physical measuring device cannot (...)
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  4. Dick J. Hoekzema (1992). Quantum Event Theory: A Tetrode-Fokker Version of Quantum Field Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 22 (4):487-506.score: 1120.8
    This paper explores the possibility of an event interpretation of quantum field theory.
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  5. Nicholas Maxwell (1976). Towards a Micro Realistic Version of Quantum Mechanics, Part I. Foundations of Physics 6 (3):275-292.score: 1017.6
    This paper investigates the possibiity of developing a fully micro realistic version of elementary quantum mechanics. I argue that it is highly desirable to develop such a version of quantum mechanics, and that the failure of all current versions and interpretations of quantum mechanics to constitute micro realistic theories is at the root of many of the interpretative problems associated with quantum mechanics, in particular the problem of measurement. I put forward a propensity micro (...)
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  6. David Albert & Barry Loewer (1989). Symposiums Papers: Two No-Collapse Interpretations of Quantum Theory. Noûs 23 (2):169-186.score: 1008.0
  7. Milan M. Ćirković (2005). Physics Versus Semantics: A Puzzling Case of the Missing Quantum Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (5):817-838.score: 988.8
    A case for the project of excising of confusion and obfuscation in the contemporary quantum theory initiated and promoted by David Deutsch has been made. It has been argued that at least some theoretical entities which are conventionally labelled as “interpretations” of quantum mechanics are in fact full-blooded physical theories in their own right, and as such are falsifiable, at least in principle. The most pertinent case is the one of the so-called “Many-Worlds Interpretation” (MWI) of Everett (...)
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  8. Nicholas Maxwell (1993). Beyond Fapp: Three Approaches to Improving Orthodox Quantum Theory and An Experimental Test. In F. Selleri and G. Tarozzi van der Merwe, F. Selleri & G. Tarozzi (eds.), Bell's Theorem and the Foundations of Modern Physics. World Scientific.score: 879.0
    Because it fails to solve the wave-particle problem, orthodox quantum theory is obliged to be about observables and not quantum beables. As a result the theory is imprecise, ambiguous, ad hoc, lacking in explanatory power, restricted in scope and resistant to unification. A new version of quantum theory is needed that is about quantum beables.
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  9. Nicholas Maxwell (1995). A Philosopher Struggles to Understand Quantum Theory: Particle Creation and Wavepacket Reduction. In M. Ferrero & A. van der Merwe (eds.), Fundamental Problems in Quantum Physics.score: 867.0
    Work on the central problems of the philosophy of science has led the author to attempt to create an intelligible version of quantum theory. The basic idea is that probabilistic transitions occur when new stationary or particle states arise as a result of inelastic collisions.
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  10. Alexander Wilce (2010). Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 40 (4):434-462.score: 789.0
    Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has (...)
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  11. Jeremy Butterfield (2001). Some Worlds of Quantum Theory. In R. J. Russell, N. Murphy & C. J. Isham (eds.), Quantum Physics and Divine Action. Vatican Observatory Publications. 111--140.score: 784.8
    Abstract: This paper assesses the Everettian approach to the measurement problem, especially the version of that approach advocated by Simon Saunders and David Wallace. I emphasise conceptual, indeed metaphysical, aspects rather than technical ones; but I include an introductory exposition of decoherence. In particular, I discuss whether---as these authors maintain---it is acceptable to have no precise definition of 'branch' (in the Everettian kind of sense). (A version of this paper will appear in a CTNS/Vatican Observatory volume on (...) Theory and Divine Action, ed. Robert Russell et al.). (shrink)
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  12. Matthew Donald, Realism, the Interpretation of Quantum Theory, and Idealism.score: 775.2
    Confused ideas about the weirdness of quantum mechanics have sometimes been blamed for the spread of anti-realist positions in philosophy. In this seminar, I shall re-examine the relation between realism and quantum theory. My goal is to argue that one can remain a realist in a reasonably familiar sense, while adopting a theory which amounts to a form of idealism. After sketching the abstract mathematical structure of quantum theory, I will introduce realism and consider (...)
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  13. Mark P. Silverman (2007). Condensates in the Cosmos: Quantum Stabilization of the Collapse of Relativistic Degenerate Stars to Black Holes. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):632-669.score: 768.0
    According to prevailing theory, relativistic degenerate stars with masses beyond the Chandrasekhar and Oppenheimer–Volkoff (OV) limits cannot achieve hydrostatic equilibrium through either electron or neutron degeneracy pressure and must collapse to form stellar black holes. In such end states, all matter and energy within the Schwarzschild horizon descend into a central singularity. Avoidance of this fate is a hoped-for outcome of the quantization of gravity, an as-yet incomplete undertaking. Recent studies, however, suggest the possibility that known quantum (...)
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  14. Jeffrey A. Barrett (1994). The Suggestive Properties of Quantum Mechanics Without the Collapse Postulate. Erkenntnis 41 (2):233 - 252.score: 763.2
    Everett proposed resolving the quantum measurement problem by dropping the nonlinear collapse dynamics from quantum mechanics and taking what is left as a complete physical theory. If one takes such a proposal seriously, then the question becomes how much of the predictive and explanatory power of the standard theory can one recover without the collapse postulate and without adding anything else. Quantum mechanics without the collapse postulate has several suggestive properties, which we (...)
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  15. Eric G. Cavalcanti (2010). Causation, Decision Theory, and Bell's Theorem: A Quantum Analogue of the Newcomb Problem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):569-597.score: 751.2
    I apply some of the lessons from quantum theory, in particular from Bell’s theorem, to a debate on the foundations of decision theory and causation. By tracing a formal analogy between the basic assumptions of causal decision theory (CDT)—which was developed partly in response to Newcomb’s problem— and those of a local hidden variable theory in the context of quantum mechanics, I show that an agent who acts according to CDT and gives any nonzero (...)
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  16. Manfred Neumann (1978). A Probabilistic Analysis of the Difficulties of Unifying Quantum Mechanics with the Theory of Relativity. Foundations of Physics 8 (9-10):721-733.score: 751.2
    A procedure is given for the transformation of quantum mechanical operator equations into stochastic equations. The stochastic equations reveal a simple correlation between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics: Quantum mechanics operates with “optimal estimations,” classical mechanics is the limit of “complete information.” In this connection, Schrödinger's substitution relationsp x → -iħ ∂/∂x, etc, reveal themselves as exact mathematical transformation formulas. The stochastic version of quantum mechanical equations provides an explanation for the difficulties in correlating (...) mechanics and the theory of relativity: In physics “time” is always thought of as a numerical parameter; but in the present formalism of physics “time” is described by two formally totally different quantities. One of these two “times” is a numerical parameter and the other a random variable. This last concept of time shows all the properties required by the theory of relativity and is therefore to be considered as the relativistic time. (shrink)
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  17. Peter J. Lewis (2003). Four Strategies for Dealing with the Counting Anomaly in Spontaneous Collapse Theories of Quantum Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 17 (2):137 – 142.score: 749.2
    A few years ago, I argued that according to spontaneous collapse theories of quantum mechanics, arithmetic applies to macroscopic objects only as an approximation. Several authors have written articles defending spontaneous collapse theories against this charge, including Bassi and Ghirardi, Clifton and Monton, and now Frigg. The arguments of these authors are all different and all ingenious, but in the end I think that none of them succeeds, for reasons I elaborate here. I suggest a fourth line (...)
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  18. Henry P. Stapp (2009). Quantum Collapse and the Emergence of Actuality From Potentiality. Process Studies 38 (2):319-339.score: 736.8
    Orthodox quantum mechanics is built upon psychophysical collapse events that are the close analogs, within contemporary physical theory, of the the Whiteheadian actual occasions, with their mental and physical poles. This article describes the way in which these events enter into quantum theory, and mediate the emergence of actuality from potentiality.
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  19. Jeffrey A. Barrett, On the Nature of Measurement Records in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory.score: 736.8
    A resolution of the quantum measurement problem would require one to explain how it is that we end up with determinate records at the end of our measurements. Metaphysical commitments typically do real work in such an explanation. Indeed, one should not be satisfied with one's metaphysical commitments unless one can provide some account of determinate measurement records. I will explain some of the problems in getting determinate records in relativistic quantum field theory and pay particular attention (...)
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  20. Hans Halvorson & Rob Clifton (1999). Maximal Beable Subalgebras of Quantum-Mechanical Observables. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 38:2441-2484.score: 729.0
    The centerpiece of Jeffrey Bub's book Interpreting the Quantum World is a theorem (Bub and Clifton 1996) which correlates each member of a large class of no-collapse interpretations with some 'privileged observable'. In particular, the Bub-Clifton theorem determines the unique maximal sublattice L(R,e) of propositions such that (a) elements of L(R,e) can be simultaneously determinate in state e, (b) L(R,e) contains the spectral projections of the privileged observable R, and (c) L(R,e) is picked out by R and e (...)
     
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  21. Joseph Berkovitz & Meir Hemmo (2005). Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity: A Reconsideration. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (3):373-397.score: 726.0
    Two of the main interpretative problems in quantum mechanics are the so-called measurement problem and the question of the compatibility of quantum mechanics with relativity theory. Modal interpretations of quantum mechanics were designed to solve both of these problems. They are no-collapse (typically) indeterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics that supplement the orthodox state description of physical systems by a set of possessed properties that is supposed to be rich enough to account for the classical-like (...)
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  22. K. Lewin (2009). The Wave Function Collapse as an Effect of Field Quantization. Foundations of Physics 39 (10):1145-1160.score: 726.0
    It is pointed out that ordinary quantum mechanics as a classical field theory cannot account for the wave function collapse if it is not seen within the framework of field quantization. That is needed to understand the particle structure of matter during wave function evolution and to explain the collapse as symmetry breakdown by detection. The decay of a two-particle bound s state and the Stern-Gerlach experiment serve as examples. The absence of the nonlocality problem in (...)
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  23. Tomasz Bigaj (2007). Counterfactuals and Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics: The Bedford–Stapp Version of the GHZ Theorem. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 12 (1):85-108.score: 715.2
    In the paper, the proof of the non-locality of quantum mechanics, given by Bedford and Stapp (1995), and appealing to the GHZ example, is analyzed. The proof does not contain any explicit assumption of realism, but instead it uses formal methods and techniques of the Lewis calculus of counterfactuals. To ascertain the validity of the proof, a formal semantic model for counterfactuals is constructed. With the help of this model it can be shown that the proof is faulty, because (...)
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  24. Amit Hagar (2007). Experimental Metaphysics2: The Double Standard in the Quantum-Information Approach to the Foundations of Quantum Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (4):906-919.score: 700.8
    Among the alternatives of non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) there are those that give different predictions than quantum mechanics in yet-untested circumstances, while remaining compatible with current empirical findings. In order to test these predictions, one must isolate one’s system from environmental induced decoherence, which, on the standard view of NRQM, is the dynamical mechanism that is responsible for the ‘apparent’ collapse in open quantum systems. But while recent advances in condensed-matter physics may lead in the near (...)
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  25. Nicholas Maxwell (1976). Towards a Micro Realistic Version of Quantum Mechanics, Part II. Foundations of Physics 6 (6):661-676.score: 700.2
    In this paper, possible objections to the propensity microrealistic version of quantum mechanics proposed in Part I are answered. This version of quantum mechanics is compared with the statistical, particle microrealistic viewpoint, and a crucial experiment is proposed designed to distinguish between these to microrealistic versions of quantum mechanics.
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  26. Adrian Kent (2012). Real World Interpretations of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (3):421-435.score: 698.4
    I propose a new class of interpretations, real world interpretations, of the quantum theory of closed systems. These interpretations postulate a preferred factorization of Hilbert space and preferred projective measurements on one factor. They give a mathematical characterisation of the different possible worlds arising in an evolving closed quantum system, in which each possible world corresponds to a (generally mixed) evolving quantum state. In a realistic model, the states corresponding to different worlds should be expected to (...)
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  27. Otto Bergmann (1988). A Quantum Mechanical Version of the Paper by E. Schrödinger “Über Die Umkehrung der Naturgesetze”. Foundations of Physics 18 (3):373-378.score: 688.8
    The principal results of Schrödinger's paper are reviewed and a possible extension of his formalism for diffusion processes to general quantum mechanical processes is given. The formalism is not in accord with the general theory of transformation of quantum mechanics and violates the basic assumption of the unpredictable change of a system due to a measurement. Nevertheless, the formalism leads to a density operator which is constructed according to accepted quantum mechanical rules.
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  28. Anja Matschuck (2011). Non-Local Correlations in Therapeutic Settings? A Qualitative Study on the Basis of Weak Quantum Theory and the Model of Pragmatic Information. Axiomathes 21 (2):249-261.score: 676.8
    Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) and the Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI) are two psychophysical concepts developed on the basis of quantum physics. The present study contributes to their empirical examination. The issue of the study is whether WQT and MPI can not only explain ‘psi’-phenomena theoretically but also prove to be consistent with the empirical phenomenology of extrasensory perception (ESP). From the main statements of both models, 33 deductions for psychic readings are derived. Psychic readings are defined (...)
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  29. Roman Frigg, Review Kuhlmann, Lyre, and Wayne: Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory.score: 676.8
    The essays in the first part, Approaches to Ontology, explore different philosophical frameworks in which the ontology of QFT could fruitfully be examined. Despite their differences, they all agree that traditional ontologies, in particular substance-attribute ontology, are unsuitable for QFT. Peter Simons begins by pointing out why substance-attribute ontology, applied set theory, fact ontology, occurrent ontologies, and trope theory are inadequate ontologies for QFT and then puts forward his own suggestion: factored ontology. The main idea of this ontology (...)
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  30. Krzysztof Wójtowicz (2010). Theory of Quantum Computation and Philosophy of Mathematics. Part I. Logic and Logical Philosophy 18 (3-4):313-332.score: 669.6
    The aim of this paper is to present some basic notions of the theory of quantum computing and to compare them with the basic notions of the classical theory of computation. I am convinced, that the results of quantum computation theory (QCT) are not only interesting in themselves, but also should be taken into account in discussions concerning the nature of mathematical knowledge. The philosophical discussion will however be postponed to another paper. QCT seems not (...)
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  31. Leon Bess (1981). Quantum Radiation Theory in a Diffusion Model Version. Foundations of Physics 11 (11-12):949-966.score: 660.0
    Using the diffusion model associated by the author with the wave equations, a part of current quantum radiation theory is reformulated so that the characteristic divergences in the associated calculations no longer arise. The reformulation does this by stipulating, on purely physical grounds, that a transition involving a “virtual” quantum must include a high frequency “cutoff” factor in its interaction Hamiltonian. For a transition involving a “real” quantum, the stipulation is that the “cutoff” factor is not (...)
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  32. Jeffrey A. Barrett (1995). The Single-Mind and Many-Minds Versions of Quantum Mechanics. Erkenntnis 42 (1):89 - 105.score: 629.2
    There is a long tradition of trying to find a satisfactory interpretation of Everett's relative-state formulation of quantum mechanics. Albert and Loewer recently described two new ways of reading Everett: one we will call the single-mind theory and the other the many-minds theory. I will briefly describe these theories and present some of their merits and problems. Since both are no-collapse theories, a significant merit is that they can take advantage of certain properties of the (...)
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  33. J. Bub & R. Clifton (1996). A Uniqueness Theorem for 'No Collapse' Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (2):181-219.score: 614.0
    We prove a uniqueness theorem showing that, subject to certain natural constraints, all 'no collapse' interpretations of quantum mechanics can be uniquely characterized and reduced to the choice of a particular preferred observable as determine (definite, sharp). We show how certain versions of the modal interpretation, Bohm's 'causal' interpretation, Bohr's complementarity interpretation, and the orthodox (Dirac-von Neumann) interpretation without the projection postulate can be recovered from the theorem. Bohr's complementarity and Einstein's realism appear as two quite different proposals (...)
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  34. GianCarlo Ghirardi & Raffaele Romano (2013). About Possible Extensions of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 43 (7):881-894.score: 606.6
    Recently it has been claimed that no extension of quantum theory can have improved predictive power, the statement following, according to the authors, from the assumptions of free will and of the correctness of quantum predictions concerning the correlations of measurement outcomes. Here we prove that the argument is basically flawed by an inappropriate use of the assumption of free will. In particular, among other implications, the claim, if correct, would imply that Bohmian Mechanics is incompatible with (...)
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  35. Cozmin Ududec, Howard Barnum & Joseph Emerson (2011). Three Slit Experiments and the Structure of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):396-405.score: 606.6
    In spite of the interference manifested in the double-slit experiment, quantum theory predicts that a measure of interference defined by Sorkin and involving various outcome probabilities from an experiment with three slits, is identically zero. We adapt Sorkin’s measure into a general operational probabilistic framework for physical theories, and then study its relationship to the structure of quantum theory. In particular, we characterize the class of probabilistic theories for which the interference measure is zero as ones (...)
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  36. V. P. Belavkin (1994). Nondemolition Principle of Quantum Measurement Theory. Foundations of Physics 24 (5):685-714.score: 602.0
    We give an explicit axiomatic formulation of the quantum measurement theory which is free of the projection postulate. It is based on the generalized nondemolition principle applicable also to the unsharp, continuous-spectrum and continuous-in-time observations. The “collapsed state-vector” after the “objectification” is simply treated as a random vector of the a posterioristate given by the quantum filtering, i.e., the conditioning of the a prioriinduced state on the corresponding reduced algebra. The nonlinear phenomenological equation of “continuous spontaneous localization” (...)
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  37. Imants Baruss (2008). Characteristics of Consciousness in Collapse-Type Quantum Mind Theories. Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (3):257-267.score: 600.0
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  38. Euan J. Squires (1991). One Mind or Many? A Note on the Everett Interpretation of Quantum Theory. Synthese 89 (November):283-6.score: 597.6
    The Everett interpretation of quantum theory requires either the existence of an infinite number of conscious minds associated with each brain or the existence of one universal consciousness. Reasons are given, and the two ideas are compared.
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  39. Rüdiger Schack (2003). Quantum Theory From Four of Hardy's Axioms. Foundations of Physics 33 (10):1461-1468.score: 597.6
    In a recent paper [e-print quant-ph/0101012], Hardy has given a derivation of “quantum theory from five reasonable axioms.” Here we show that Hardy's first axiom, which identifies probability with limiting frequency in an ensemble, is not necessary for his derivation. By reformulating Hardy's assumptions, and modifying a part of his proof, in terms of Bayesian probabilities, we show that his work can be easily reconciled with a Bayesian interpretation of quantum probability.
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  40. J. E. Baggott (2004). Beyond Measure: Modern Physics, Philosophy, and the Meaning of Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press.score: 597.6
    Quantum theory is one the most important and successful theories of modern physical science. It has been estimated that its principles form the basis for about 30 per cent of the world's manufacturing economy. This is all the more remarkable because quantum theory is a theory that nobody understands. The meaning of Quantum Theory introduces science students to the theory's fundamental conceptual and philosophical problems, and the basis of its non-understandability. It does (...)
     
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  41. A. R. Marlow (ed.) (1978). Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory. Academic Press.score: 597.6
     
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  42. Robert W. Spekkens (forthcoming). The Status of Determinism in Proofs of the Impossibility of a Noncontextual Model of Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics:1-31.score: 597.6
    In order to claim that one has experimentally tested whether a noncontextual ontological model could underlie certain measurement statistics in quantum theory, it is necessary to have a notion of noncontextuality that applies to unsharp measurements, i.e., those that can only be represented by positive operator-valued measures rather than projection-valued measures. This is because any realistic measurement necessarily has some nonvanishing amount of noise and therefore never achieves the ideal of sharpness. Assuming a generalized notion of noncontextuality that (...)
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  43. Efstratios Manousakis (2006). Founding Quantum Theory on the Basis of Consciousness. Foundations of Physics 36 (6):795-838.score: 595.8
    In the present work, quantum theory is founded on the framework of consciousness, in contrast to earlier suggestions that consciousness might be understood starting from quantum theory. The notion of streams of consciousness, usually restricted to conscious beings, is extended to the notion of a Universal/Global stream of conscious flow of ordered events. The streams of conscious events which we experience constitute sub-streams of the Universal stream. Our postulated ontological character of consciousness also consists of an (...)
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  44. Michael Simpson (2011). Larc: A State Reduction Theory of Quantum Measurement. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (10):1648-1663.score: 595.8
    This proposes a new theory of Quantum measurement; a state reduction theory in which reduction is to the elements of the number operator basis of a system, triggered by the occurrence of annihilation or creation (or lowering or raising) operators in the time evolution of a system. It is from these operator types that the acronym ‘LARC’ is derived. Reduction does not occur immediately after the trigger event; it occurs at some later time with probability P t (...)
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  45. Arkady Plotnitsky (2006). A New Book of Numbers: On the Precise Definition of Quantum Variables and the Relationships Between Mathematics and Physics in Quantum Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 36 (1):30-60.score: 595.8
    Following Asher Peres’s observation that, as in classical physics, in quantum theory, too, a given physical object considered “has a precise position and a precise momentum,” this article examines the question of the definition of quantum variables, and then the new type (as against classical physics) of relationships between mathematics and physics in quantum theory. The article argues that the possibility of the precise definition and determination of quantum variables depends on the particular nature (...)
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  46. Rob Clifton, Jeffrey Bub & Hans Halvorson (2003). Characterizing Quantum Theory in Terms of Information-Theoretic Constraints. Foundations of Physics 33 (11):1561-1591.score: 592.2
    We show that three fundamental information-theoretic constraints -- the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibility of unconditionally secure bit commitment -- suffice to entail that the observables and state space of a physical theory are quantum-mechanical. We demonstrate the converse derivation in part, and consider the implications of alternative answers to a remaining open (...)
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  47. Nicholas Maxwell (1972). A New Look at the Quantum Mechanical Problem of Measurement. American Journal of Physics 40:1431-5..score: 590.4
    According to orthodox quantum mechanics, state vectors change in two incompatible ways: "deterministically" in accordance with Schroedinger's time-dependent equation, and probabilistically if and only if a measurement is made. It is argued here that the problem of measurement arises because the precise mutually exclusive conditions for these two types of transitions to occur are not specified within orthodox quantum mechanics. Fundamentally, this is due to an inevitable ambiguity in the notion of "meawurement" itself. Hence, if the problem of (...)
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  48. Steven B. Giddings (2013). Is String Theory a Theory of Quantum Gravity? Foundations of Physics 43 (1):115-139.score: 588.6
    Some problems in finding a complete quantum theory incorporating gravity are discussed. One is that of giving a consistent unitary description of high-energy scattering. Another is that of giving a consistent quantum description of cosmology, with appropriate observables. While string theory addresses some problems of quantum gravity, its ability to resolve these remains unclear. Answers may require new mechanisms and constructs, whether within string theory, or in another framework.
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  49. Gyula Bene & Dennis Dieks (2002). A Perspectival Version of the Modal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Origin of Macroscopic Behavior. Foundations of Physics 32 (5):645-671.score: 588.6
    We study the process of observation (measurement), within the framework of a “perspectival” (“relational,” “relative state”) version of the modal interpretation of quantum mechanics. We show that if we assume certain features of discreteness and determinism in the operation of the measuring device (which could be a part of the observer's nerve system), this gives rise to classical characteristics of the observed properties, in the first place to spatial localization. We investigate to what extent semi-classical behavior of the (...)
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