Search results for 'Combinatorial analysis' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dale Jacquette (2006). Crossroads of Logic and Ontology: A Modal-Combinatorial Analysis of Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 91 (1):17-46.score: 150.0
    Although it is frequently said that logic is a purely formal discipline lacking any content for special philosophical subdisciplines, I argue in this essay that the concepts of predication, and of the properties of objects presupposed by standard first-order logic are sufficient to address many of the traditional problems of ontology. The concept of an object's having a property is extended to provide an intensional definition of the existence of an object as the object's possessing a maximally consistent property combination, (...)
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  2. Jan von Plato (2010). Combinatorial Analysis of Proofs in Projective and Affine Geometry. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 162 (2):144-161.score: 150.0
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  3. Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers (2011). Causal Isolation Robustness Analysis: The Combinatorial Strategy of Circadian Clock Research. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):773-791.score: 126.0
    This paper distinguishes between causal isolation robustness analysis and independent determination robustness analysis and suggests that the triangulation of the results of different epistemic means or activities serves different functions in them. Circadian clock research is presented as a case of causal isolation robustness analysis: in this field researchers made use of the notion of robustness to isolate the assumed mechanism behind the circadian rhythm. However, in contrast to the earlier philosophical case studies on causal isolation robustness (...)
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  4. Jeff Coulter (1983). Contingent and a Priori Structures in Sequential Analysis: Introduction: On the Combinatorial Logic for Illocutionary Acts. Human Studies 6 (4):361 - 376.score: 120.0
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  5. R. Naumann (2003). Constraining the Combinatorial Patterns of Japanese V-V Compounds: An Analysis in Dynamic Event Semantics. Journal of Semantics 20 (3):275-296.score: 120.0
    In this article we investigate the argument structure of Japanese V–V compounds from the perspective of Dynamic Event Semantics (Naumann 2001). The argument structure of a verb is defined as a linearly ordered set of so‐called dynamic roles. Dynamic roles differ from thematic relations in characterizing participants in terms of sets of results that are brought about in the course of an event. The patterns of argument sharing found in Japanese V–V compounds are shown to derive from compatibility constraints on (...)
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  6. Hans Niels Jahnke, Javier Echeverria, Andoni Ibarra & Thomas Mormann (1992). A Structuralist View of Lagrange's Algebraic Analysis and the German Combinatorial School. In Javier Echeverria, Andoni Ibarra & Thomas Mormann (eds.), The Space of Mathematics. De Gruyter.score: 120.0
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  7. A. J. Wilkie (1986). Review: J. B. Paris, L. Pacholski, J. Wierzejewski, A. J. Wilkie, A Hierarchy of Cuts in Models of Arithmetic; George Mills, A Tree Analysis of Unprovable Combinatorial Statements; Jussi Ketonen, Robert Solovay, Rapidly Growing Ramsey Functions. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (4):1062-1066.score: 120.0
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  8. Mauro Di Nasso & Karel Hrbacek (2003). Combinatorial Principles in Nonstandard Analysis. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 119 (1-3):265-293.score: 120.0
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  9. Ivan Stojmenović (1987). Some Combinatorial and Algorithmic Problems in Many-Valued Logics. University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Science, Institute of Mathematics.score: 90.0
     
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  10. Rolf Niedermeier (2006). Invitation to Fixed-Parameter Algorithms. Oxford University Press.score: 84.0
    A fixed-parameter is an algorithm that provides an optimal solution to a combinatorial problem. This research-level text is an application-oriented introduction to the growing and highly topical area of the development and analysis of efficient fixed-parameter algorithms for hard problems. The book is divided into three parts: a broad introduction that provides the general philosophy and motivation; followed by coverage of algorithmic methods developed over the years in fixed-parameter algorithmics forming the core of the book; and a discussion (...)
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  11. Alexis Cartonnet (2011). Structuralisme et néoréalisme dans le champ des relations internationales. Le cas de Kenneth Waltz. Astérion 9.score: 60.0
    Cet article esquisse un rapprochement entre un courant de pensée politique, le néoréalisme, et une méthode en sciences humaines, le structuralisme. Ce courant et cette méthode ont suivi des trajectoires séparées, de l’après-guerre à la fin des années soixante-dix, jusqu’à ce que Kenneth Waltz croise ces deux problématiques. Après avoir défini respectivement réalisme et structuralisme, cet article établit leur connexion et tente d’éclairer les raisons pour lesquelles ce rapprochement n’avait pas été conduit jusqu’alors.
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  12. Harry R. Lewis (1979). Unsolvable Classes of Quantificational Formulas. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co..score: 60.0
     
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  13. Donald O. Rudin (2001). Textbook of Programmed Science and Unified Philosophy: Beyond Socrates to a Theory of the World: A Universal Program Produces a World Theory. Core Books.score: 60.0
     
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  14. Jessica Carter (2010). Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):1 – 14.score: 54.0
    This article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning in the light of a case study in analysis. In the example presented certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures were replaced by reasoning about permutation groups. This article argues that, even though the diagrams are not present in the published papers, they still play a role in the formulation of the proofs. It is shown that they play a role (...)
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  15. Jan Von Plato (2007). In the Shadows of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem: Early Combinatorial Analyses of Mathematical Proofs. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13 (2):189-225.score: 54.0
    The Löwenheim-Skolem theorem was published in Skolem's long paper of 1920, with the first section dedicated to the theorem. The second section of the paper contains a proof-theoretical analysis of derivations in lattice theory. The main result, otherwise believed to have been established in the late 1980s, was a polynomial-time decision algorithm for these derivations. Skolem did not develop any notation for the representation of derivations, which makes the proofs of his results hard to follow. Such a formal notation (...)
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  16. Jeremy Avigad & Richard Sommer (1997). A Model-Theoretic Approach to Ordinal Analysis. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 3 (1):17-52.score: 54.0
    We describe a model-theoretic approach to ordinal analysis via the finite combinatorial notion of an α-large set of natural numbers. In contrast to syntactic approaches that use cut elimination, this approach involves constructing finite sets of numbers with combinatorial properties that, in nonstandard instances, give rise to models of the theory being analyzed. This method is applied to obtain ordinal analyses of a number of interesting subsystems of first- and second-order arithmetic.
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  17. Douglas B. Kell (2012). Scientific Discovery as a Combinatorial Optimisation Problem: How Best to Navigate the Landscape of Possible Experiments? Bioessays 34 (3):236-244.score: 54.0
    A considerable number of areas of bioscience, including gene and drug discovery, metabolic engineering for the biotechnological improvement of organisms, and the processes of natural and directed evolution, are best viewed in terms of a ‘landscape’ representing a large search space of possible solutions or experiments populated by a considerably smaller number of actual solutions that then emerge. This is what makes these problems ‘hard’, but as such these are to be seen as combinatorial optimisation problems that are best (...)
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  18. Denis R. Hirschfeldt & Richard A. Shore (2007). Combinatorial Principles Weaker Than Ramsey's Theorem for Pairs. Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (1):171-206.score: 54.0
    We investigate the complexity of various combinatorial theorems about linear and partial orders, from the points of view of computability theory and reverse mathematics. We focus in particular on the principles ADS (Ascending or Descending Sequence), which states that every infinite linear order has either an infinite descending sequence or an infinite ascending sequence, and CAC (Chain-AntiChain), which states that every infinite partial order has either an infinite chain or an infinite antichain. It is well-known that Ramsey's Theorem for (...)
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  19. L. Gordeev (1989). Systems of Iterated Projective Ordinal Notations and Combinatorial Statements About Binary Labeled Trees. Archive for Mathematical Logic 29 (1):29-46.score: 54.0
    We introduce the appropriate iterated version of the system of ordinal notations from [G1] whose order type is the familiar Howard ordinal. As in [G1], our ordinal notations are partly inspired by the ideas from [P] where certain crucial properties of the traditional Munich' ordinal notations are isolated and used in the cut-elimination proofs. As compared to the corresponding “impredicative” Munich' ordinal notations (see e.g. [B1, B2, J, Sch1, Sch2, BSch]), our ordinal notations arearbitrary terms in the appropriate simple term (...)
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  20. Ross P. Cameron (2008). Recombination and Intrinsicality. Ratio 21 (1):1–12.score: 30.0
    In this paper I argue that warrant for Lewis' principle of recombination presupposes warrant for a combinatorial analysis of intrinsicality, which in turn presupposes warrant for the principle of recombination. This, I claim, leads to a vicious circularity: warrant for neither doctrine can get off the ground.
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  21. Gideon Rosen (1993). A Problem for Fictionalism About Possible Worlds. Analysis 53 (2):71 - 81.score: 30.0
    Fictionalism about possible worlds is the view that talk about worlds in the analysis of modality is to be construed as ontologically innocent discourse about the content of a fiction. Versions of the view have been defended by D M Armstrong (in "A Combinatorial Theory of Possibility") and by myself (in "Modal Fictionalism', "Mind" 99, July 1990). The present note argues that fictionalist accounts of modality (both Armstrong's version and my own) fail to serve the fictionalists ontological purposes (...)
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  22. Sheila E. Blumstein (1998). The Mapping From Acoustic Structure to the Phonetic Categories of Speech: The Invariance Problem. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):260-260.score: 30.0
    This commentary focuses on the nature of combinatorial properties for speech and the locus equation. The presence of some overlap in locus equation space suggests that this higher order property may not be strictly invariant and may require other cues or properties for the perception of place of articulation. Moreover, combinatorial analysis in two-dimensional space and the resultant linearity appear to have a “special” status in the development of this theoretical framework. However, place of articulation is only (...)
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  23. Harvey M. Sussman, David Fruchter, Jon Hilbert & Joseph Sirosh (1998). Linear Correlates in the Speech Signal: The Orderly Output Constraint. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):241-259.score: 30.0
    Neuroethological investigations of mammalian and avian auditory systems have documented species-specific specializations for processing complex acoustic signals that could, if viewed in abstract terms, have an intriguing and striking relevance for human speech sound categorization and representation. Each species forms biologically relevant categories based on combinatorial analysis of information-bearing parameters within the complex input signal. This target article uses known neural models from the mustached bat and barn owl to develop, by analogy, a conceptualization of human processing of (...)
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  24. Richard A. Griggs Richard, D. Platt Stephen, E. Newstead Sherri & L. Jackson (1998). Attentional Factors in a Disjunctive Reasoning Task. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):1 – 14.score: 30.0
    Girotto and Legrenzi's 1993 facilitation effect for their SARS version of Wason s THOG problem a disjunctive reasoning task was examined. The effect was not replicated when the standard THOG problem instructions were used in Experiments 1 and 2. However, in Experiment 3 when Girotto and Legrenzi's precise instructions were used, facilitation was observed. Experiment 4 further investigated the role of the type of instructions in the observed facilitation. The results suggest that such facilitation may result from attentional factors rather (...)
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  25. William R. Stirton (2012). How to Assign Ordinal Numbers to Combinatory Terms with Polymorphic Types. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (5-6):475-501.score: 28.0
    The article investigates a system of polymorphically typed combinatory logic which is equivalent to Gödel’s T. A notion of (strong) reduction is defined over terms of this system and it is proved that the class of well-formed terms is closed under both bracket abstraction and reduction. The main new result is that the number of contractions needed to reduce a term to normal form is computed by an ε 0-recursive function. The ordinal assignments used to obtain this result are also (...)
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  26. Tim Button (2013). Truth by Analysis: Games, Names, and Philosophy By Colin McGinn. [REVIEW] Analysis 73 (3):577-580.score: 27.0
    In Truth by Analysis (2012), Colin McGinn aims to breathe new life into conceptual analysis. Sadly, he fails to defend conceptual analysis, either in principle or by example.
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  27. Todor D. Todorov & Hans Vernaeve (2008). Full Algebra of Generalized Functions and Non-Standard Asymptotic Analysis. Logic and Analysis 1 (3-4):205-234.score: 27.0
    We construct an algebra of generalized functions endowed with a canonical embedding of the space of Schwartz distributions.We offer a solution to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions similar to but different from Colombeau’s solution.We show that the set of scalars of our algebra is an algebraically closed field unlike its counterpart in Colombeau theory, which is a ring with zero divisors. We prove a Hahn–Banach extension principle which does not hold in Colombeau theory. We establish a connection between (...)
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  28. Gustav Tinghög (2012). Discounting, Preferences, and Paternalism in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Health Care Analysis 20 (3):297-318.score: 27.0
    When assessing the cost effectiveness of health care programmes, health economists typically presume that distant events should be given less weight than present events. This article examines the moral reasonableness of arguments advanced for positive discounting in cost-effectiveness analysis both from an intergenerational and an intrapersonal perspective and assesses if arguments are equally applicable to health and monetary outcomes. The article concludes that behavioral effects related to time preferences give little or no reason for why society at large should (...)
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  29. Nuala Kenny & Christine Joffres (2008). An Ethical Analysis of International Health Priority-Setting. Health Care Analysis 16 (2):145-160.score: 27.0
    Health care systems throughout the developed world face ‘crises’ of quality, financing and sustainability. These pressures have led governments to look for more efficient and equitable ways to allocate public resources. Prioritisation of health care services for public funding has been one of the strategies used by decision makers to reconcile growing health care demands with limited resources. Priority setting at the macro level has yet to demonstrate real successes. This paper describes international approaches to explicit prioritisation at the macro-governmental (...)
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  30. Dawn M. Phillips (2007). Complete Analysis and Clarificatory Analysis in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. In Michael Beaney (ed.), The Analytic Turn: Analysis in Early Analytic Philosophy and Phenomenology. Routledge. 164.score: 27.0
    I examine the relationship between complete analysis and clarificatory analysis and explain why Wittgenstein thought he required both in his account of how to solve the problems of philosophy. I first describe Wittgenstein’s view of how philosophical confusions arise, by explaining how it is possible to misunderstand the logic of everyday language. I argue that any method of logical analysis in the Tractatus will inevitably be circular, but explain why this does not threaten the prospect of solving (...)
     
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  31. David J. Chalmers & Frank Jackson (2001). Conceptual Analysis and Reductive Explanation. Philosophical Review 110 (3):315-61.score: 24.0
    Is conceptual analysis required for reductive explanation? If there is no a priori entailment from microphysical truths to phenomenal truths, does reductive explanation of the phenomenal fail? We say yes (Chalmers 1996; Jackson 1994, 1998). Ned Block and Robert Stalnaker say no (Block and Stalnaker 1999).
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  32. Stephen Laurence & Eric Margolis (2003). Concepts and Conceptual Analysis. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67 (2):253-282.score: 24.0
    Conceptual analysis is undergoing a revival in philosophy, and much of the credit goes to Frank Jackson. Jackson argues that conceptual analysis is needed as an integral component of so-called serious metaphysics and that it also does explanatory work in accounting for such phenomena as categorization, meaning change, communication, and linguistic understanding. He even goes so far as to argue that opponents of concep- tual analysis are implicitly committed to it in practice. We show that he is (...)
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  33. Laura Schroeter (2004). The Limits of Conceptual Analysis. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 85 (4):425-453.score: 24.0
    It would be nice if good old a priori conceptual analysis were possible. For many years conceptual analysis was out of fashion, in large part because of the excessive ambitions of verificationist theories of meaning._ _However, those days are over._ _A priori conceptual analysis is once again part of the philosophical mainstream._ _This renewed popularity, moreover, is well-founded. Modern philosophical analysts have exploited developments in philosophical semantics to formulate analyses which avoid the counterintuitive consequences of verificationism, while (...)
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  34. David Braddon-Mitchell & Robert Nola (eds.) (2009). Conceptual Analysis and Philosophical Naturalism. Mit Press.score: 24.0
    A new program of philosophical analysis that reconciles a certain account of analysis with philosophical naturalism is applied to a range of philosophical ...
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  35. Greg Bamford (1991). Design, Science and Conceptual Analysis. In Jim Plume (ed.), Architectural Science and Design in Harmony: Proceedings of the joint ANZAScA / ADTRA conference, Sydney, 10-12 July, 1990. School of Architecture, University of NSW.score: 24.0
    Philosophers expend considerable effort on the analysis of concepts, but the value of such work is not widely appreciated. This paper principally analyses some arguments, beliefs, and presuppositions about the nature of design and the relations between design and science common in the literature to illustrate this point, and to contribute to the foundations of design theory.
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  36. Thomas Mormann (2009). New Work for Carnap's Quasi-Analysis. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (3):249-282.score: 24.0
    Carnap’s quasi-analysis is usually considered as an ingenious but definitively flawed approach in epistemology and philosophy of science. In this paper it is argued that this assessment is mistaken. Quasi-analysis can be reconstructed as a representational theory of constitution of structures that has applications in many realms of epistemology and philosophy of science. First, existence and uniqueness theorems for quasi-analytical representations are proved. These theorems defuse the classical objections against the quasi-analytical approach launched forward by Goodman and others. (...)
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  37. Theodore Sider (2001). Criteria of Personal Identity and the Limits of Conceptual Analysis. Philosophical Perspectives 15 (s15):189-209.score: 24.0
    It is easy to become battle-weary in metaphysics. In the face of seemingly unresolvable disputes and unanswerable questions, it is tempting to cast aside one’s sword, proclaiming: “there is no fact of the matter who is right!” Sometimes that is the right thing to do. As a case study, consider the search for the criterion of personal identity over time. I say there is no fact of the matter whether the correct criterion is bodily or psychological continuity.1 There exist two (...)
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  38. Michelle R. Greenwood (2002). Ethics and HRM: A Review and Conceptual Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 36 (3):261 - 278.score: 24.0
    This paper reviews and develops the ethical analysis of human resource management (HRM). Initially, the ethical perspective of HRM is differentiated from the "mainstrea" and critical perspectives of HRM. To date, the ethical analysis of HRM has taken one of two forms: the application Kantian and utilitarian ethical theories to the gestalt of HRM, and the application of theories of justice and fairness to specific HRM practices. This paper is concerned with the former, the ethical analysis of (...)
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  39. William Ramsey (1992). Prototypes and Conceptual Analysis. Topoi 11 (1):59-70.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I explore the implications of recent empirical research on concept representation for the philosophical enterprise of conceptual analysis. I argue that conceptual analysis, as it is commonly practiced, is committed to certain assumptions about the nature of our intuitive categorization judgments. I then try to show how these assumptions clash with contemporary accounts of concept representation in cognitive psychology. After entertaining an objection to my argument, I close by considering ways in which conceptual analysis (...)
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  40. Thomas Mormann, Mathematical Aspects of Similarity and Quasi-Analysis - Order, Topology, and Sheaves.score: 24.0
    The concept of similarity has had a rather mixed reputation in philosophy and the sciences. On the one hand, philosophers such as Goodman and Quine emphasized the „logically repugnant“ and „insidious“ character of the concept of similarity that allegedly renders it inaccessible for a proper logical analysis. On the other hand, a philosopher such as Carnap assigned a central role to similarity in his constitutional theory. Moreover, the importance and perhaps even indispensibility of the concept of similarity for many (...)
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  41. Jussi Haukioja (2009). Intuitions, Externalism, and Conceptual Analysis. Studia Philosophica Estonica 2 (2):81-93.score: 24.0
    Semantic externalism about a class of expressions is often thought to make conceptual analysis about members of that class impossible. In particular, since externalism about natural kind terms makes the essences of natural kinds empirically discoverable, it seems that mere reflection on one's natural kind concept will not be able to tell one anything substantial about what it is for something to fall under one's natural kind concepts. Many hold the further view that one cannot even know anything substantial (...)
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  42. Konrad Banicki (2009). The Berlin Wisdom Paradigm: A Conceptual Analysis of a Psychological Approach to Wisdom. History and Philosophy of Psychology 11 (2):25-35.score: 24.0
    The main purpose of this article is to undertake a conceptual investigation of the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm: a psychological project initiated by Paul Baltes and intended to study the complex phenomenon of wisdom. Firstly, in order to provide a wider perspective for the subsequent analyses, a short historical sketch is given. Secondly, a meta-theoretical issue of the degree to which the subject matter of the Baltesian study can be identified with the traditional philosophical wisdom is addressed. The main result yielded (...)
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  43. Murat Aydede (1997). Language of Thought: The Connectionist Contribution. Minds and Machines 7 (1):57-101.score: 24.0
    Fodor and Pylyshyn's critique of connectionism has posed a challenge to connectionists: Adequately explain such nomological regularities as systematicity and productivity without postulating a "language of thought" (LOT). Some connectionists like Smolensky took the challenge very seriously, and attempted to meet it by developing models that were supposed to be non-classical. At the core of these attempts lies the claim that connectionist models can provide a representational system with a combinatorial syntax and processes sensitive to syntactic structure. They are (...)
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  44. Melissa Mcbay Merritt (2007). Analysis in the Critique of Pure Reason. Kantian Review 12 (1):61-89.score: 24.0
    The paper argues that existing interpretations of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason as an "analysis of experience" (e.g., those of Kitcher and Strawson) fail because they do not properly appreciate the method of the work. The author argues that the Critique provides an analysis of the faculty of reason, and counts as an analysis of experience only in a derivative sense.
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  45. John Hospers (1967). An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis. London, Routledge & K. Paul.score: 24.0
    This book provides an in-depth, problem-oriented introduction to philosophical analysis using an extremely clear, readable approach.
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  46. Dennis Earl (2007). A Semantic Resolution of the Paradox of Analysis. Acta Analytica 22 (3):189-205.score: 24.0
    The paradox of analysis has been a problem for analytic philosophers at least since Moore’s time, and it is especially significant for those who seek an account of analysis along classical lines. The present paper offers a new solution to the paradox, where a theory of analysis is given where (1) analysandum and analysans are distinct concepts, due to their failing to share the same conceptual form, yet (2) they are related in virtue of satisfying various semantic (...)
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  47. Magdalena Balcerak Jackson (2013). Conceptual Analysis and Epistemic Progress. Synthese 190 (15):3053-3074.score: 24.0
    This essay concerns the question of how we make genuine epistemic progress through conceptual analysis. Our way into this issue will be through consideration of the paradox of analysis. The paradox challenges us to explain how a given statement can make a substantive contribution to our knowledge, even while it purports merely to make explicit what one’s grasp of the concept under scrutiny consists in. The paradox is often treated primarily as a semantic puzzle. However, in “Sect. 1” (...)
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  48. Jaeho Lee (2010). Disposition, Explanation, and Causation—A Defense of the Reformed Conditional Analysis of Disposition. Philosophia 38 (3):569-577.score: 24.0
    D. Lewis proposed the reformed conditional analysis of disposition to handle Martin's influential counterexamples to the simple counterfactual analysis. Some philosophers, however, argue that the mere fact that the reformed conditional analysis of disposition can handle Martin's counterexamples should not be regarded as a reason to prefer the reformed conditional analysis to the simple analysis. In this paper, I argue that the reformed version should be preferred not because it can handle Martin's counterexamples but because (...)
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  49. Howard Harris (2001). Content Analysis of Secondary Data: A Study of Courage in Managerial Decision Making. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):191 - 208.score: 24.0
    Empirical studies in business ethics often rely on self-reported data, but this reliance is open to criticism. Responses to questionnaires and interviews may be influenced by the subject''s view of what the researcher might want to hear, by a reluctance to talk about sensitive ethical issues, and by imperfect recall. This paper reviews the extent to which published research in business ethics relies on interviews and questionnaires, and then explores the possibilities of using secondary data, such as company documents and (...)
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  50. Jacob Stegenga (2011). Is Meta-Analysis the Platinum Standard of Evidence? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (4):497-507.score: 24.0
    An astonishing volume and diversity of evidence is available for many hypotheses in the biomedical and social sciences. Some of this evidence—usually from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)—is amalgamated by meta-analysis. Despite the ongoing debate regarding whether or not RCTs are the ‘gold-standard’ of evidence, it is usually meta-analysis which is considered the best source of evidence: meta-analysis is thought by many to be the platinum standard of evidence. However, I argue that meta-analysis falls far short of (...)
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