Search results for 'Commonsense reasoning' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Robert L. Causey (2003). Computational Dialogic Defeasible Reasoning. Argumentation 17 (4):421-450.score: 108.0
    This article begins with an introduction to defeasible (nonmonotonic) reasoning and a brief description of a computer program, EVID, which can perform such reasoning. I then explain, and illustrate with examples, how this program can be applied in computational representations of ordinary dialogic argumentation. The program represents the beliefs and doubts of the dialoguers, and uses these propositional attitudes, which can include commonsense defeasible inference rules, to infer various changing conclusions as a dialogue progresses. It is proposed (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Gerhard Brewka (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense. Cambridge University Press.score: 90.0
    In this book the author gives a broad overview of different areas of research in nonmonotonic reasoning, and presents some new results and ideas based on his research. The guiding principles are: clarification of the different research activities in the area, which have sometimes been undertaken independently of each other; and appreciation of the fact that these research activities often represent different means to the same ends, namely sound theoretical foundations and efficient computation. The book begins with a discussion (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Isaac Levi (1996). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.score: 84.0
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Rinke Hoekstra & Joost Breuker (2007). Commonsense Causal Explanation in a Legal Domain. Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (3):281-299.score: 72.0
    In this paper, we present an approach to commonsense causal explanation of stories that can be used for automatically determining the liable party in legal case descriptions. The approach is based on , a core ontology for law that takes a commonsense perspective. Aside from our thesis that in the legal domain many terms still have a strong commonsense flavour, the descriptions of events in legal cases, as e.g. presented at judicial trials, are cast in commonsense (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Heinrich Herre (1993). Review: Gerhard Brewka, Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (3):1079-1080.score: 72.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Varol Akman, Issues in Commonsense Set Theory.score: 48.0
    The success of set theory as a foundation for mathematics inspires its use in arti cial intelligence, particularly in commonsense reasoning. In this survey, we brie y review classical set theory from an AI perspective, and then consider alternative set theories. Desirable properties of a possible commonsense set theory are investigated, treating di erent aspects like cumulative hierarchy, self-reference, cardinality, etc. Assorted examples from the ground-breaking research on the subject are also given.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Mujdat Pakkan & Varol Akman (1995). Hypersolver: A Graphical Tool for Commonsense Set Theory. .score: 48.0
    This paper investigates an alternative set theory (due to Peter Aczel) called Hyperset Theory. Aczel uses a graphical representation for sets and thereby allows the representation of non-well-founded sets. A program, called HYPERSOLVER, which can solve systems of equations defined in terms of sets in the universe of this new theory is presented. This may be a useful tool for commonsense reasoning.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Mujdat Pakkan & Varol Akman (1995). Issues in Commonsense Set Theory. .score: 48.0
    The success of set theory as a foundation for mathematics inspires its use in artificial intelligence, particularly in commonsense reasoning. In this survey, we briefly review classical set theory from an AI perspective, and then consider alternative set theories. Desirable properties of a possible commonsense set theory are investigated, treating different aspects like cumulative hierarchy, self-reference, cardinality, etc. Assorted examples from the ground-breaking research on the subject are also given.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Leora Morgenstern (2001). Mid-Sized Axiomatizations of Commonsense Problems: A Case Study in Egg Cracking. Studia Logica 67 (3):333-384.score: 48.0
    We present an axiomatization of a problem in commonsense reasoning, characterizing the proper procedure for cracking an egg and transferring its contents to a bowl. The axiomatization is mid-sized, larger than toy problems such as the Yale Shooting Problem or the Suitcase Problem, but much smaller than the comprehensive axiomatizations associated with CYC and HPKB. This size of axiomatization permits the development of non-trivial, reusable core theories of commonsense reasoning, acts as a testbed for existing theories (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Lynne Rudder Baker (1999). What is This Thing Called 'Commonsense Psychology'? Philosophical Explorations 2 (1):3-19.score: 42.0
    What is this thing called ‘Commonsense Psychology’? The first matter to settle is what the issue is here. By ‘commonsense psychology,’ I mean primarily the systems of describing, explaining and predicting human thought and action in terms of beliefs, desires, hopes, fears, expectations, intentions and other so-called propositional attitudes. Although commonsense psychology encompasses more than propositional attitudes--e.g., emotions, traits and abilities are also within its purview--belief-desire reasoning forms the core of commonsense psychology. Commonsense psychology (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Jim Hopkins (1996). Psychoanalytic and Scientific Reasoning. British Journal of Psychotherapy 13 (1).score: 42.0
    Psychoanalytic reasoning is an instance of inference to the best explanation and provides an extension of commonsense psychology that is potentially cogent, cumulative, and radical.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Walid S. Saba & Jean-Pierre Corriveau (2001). Plausible Reasoning and the Resolution of Quantifier Scope Ambiguities. Studia Logica 67 (2):271-289.score: 42.0
    Despite overwhelming evidence suggesting that quantifier scope is a phenomenon that must be treated at the pragmatic level, most computational treatments of scope ambiguities have thus far been a collection of syntactically motivated preference rules. This might be in part due to the prevailing wisdom that a commonsense inferencing strategy would require the storage of and reasoning with a vast amount of background knowledge. In this paper we hope to demonstrate that the challenge in developing a commonsense (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Scott Atran, Douglas I. Medin & Norbert Ross (2002). Thinking About Biology. Modular Constraints on Categorization and Reasoning in the Everyday Life of Americans, Maya, and Scientists. Mind and Society 3 (2):31-63.score: 42.0
    This essay explores the universal cognitive bases of biological taxonomy and taxonomic inference using cross-cultural experimental work with urbanized Americans and forest-dwelling Maya Indians. A universal, essentialist appreciation of generic species appears as the causal foundation for the taxonomic arrangement of biodiversity, and for inference about the distribution of causally-related properties that underlie biodiversity. Universal folkbiological taxonomy is domain-specific: its structure does not spontaneously or invariably arise in other cognitive domains, like substances, artifacts or persons. It is plausibly an innately-determined (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. F. Alonso-Amo, J. L. Maté, J. L. Morant & J. Pazos (1992). From Epistemology toGnoseology: Foundations of the Knowledge Industry. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (2):140-165.score: 42.0
    In this paper, the foundations for setting up a knowledge industry are laid. Firstly, it is established that this industry constitutes the only way of making use of the huge amounts of knowledge produced as a result of the introduction of the Science-Technology binomial in postindustrial society. Then, the elements which will lead to such an industry are defined, that is, the resources and means. Under the ‘Means’ section, special emphasis is placed on the processes involved, in other words, inference (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Nenad Mišćević (1994). Naturalism and Modal Reasoning. Grazer Philosophische Studien 49:149-173.score: 42.0
    A naturalistic theory of modal intuitions and modal reasoning inspired by Hintikka's theorizing should start from the principle that advanced modal reasoning has its roots in commonsense intuitions. It is proposed that the naturalist can rely on the assumption of uniformity: the same set of basic principles is used in reasoning about actual and counterfactual dependencies - modal cognition is conservative. In the most primitive cases the difference between a model of an actual situation and of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Andrzej Szalas (2006). Second-Order Reasoning in Description Logics. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 16 (3-4):517-530.score: 42.0
    Description logics refer to a family of formalisms concentrated around concepts, roles and individuals. They belong to the most frequently used knowledge representation formalisms and provide a logical basis to a variety of well known paradigms. The main reasoning tasks considered in the area of description logics are those reducible to subsumption. On the other hand, any knowledge representation system should be equipped with a more advanced reasoning machinery. Therefore in the current paper we make a step towards (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Mark Sprevak (2005). The Frame Problem and the Treatment of Prediction. In L. Magnani & R. Dossena (eds.), Computing, Philosophy and Cognition. 4--349.score: 30.0
    The frame problem is a problem in artificial intelligence that a number of philosophers have claimed has philosophical relevance. The structure of this paper is as follows: (1) An account of the frame problem is given; (2) The frame problem is distinguished from related problems; (3) The main strategies for dealing with the frame problem are outlined; (4) A difference between commonsense reasoning and prediction using a scientific theory is argued for; (5) Some implications for the..
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. E. Thomas Lawson (2005). A New Look at the Science-and-Religion Dialogue. Zygon 40 (3):555-564.score: 30.0
    Cognitive science is beginning to make a contribution to the science-and-religion dialogue by its claims about the nature of both scientific and religious knowledge and the practices such knowledge informs. Of particular importance is the distinction between folk knowledge and abstract theoretical knowledge leading to a distinction between folk science and folk religion on the one hand and the reflective, theoretical, abstract form of thought that characterizes both advanced scientific thought and sophisticated theological reasoning on the other. Both folk (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Hans Rott (2004). A Counterexample to Six Fundamental Principles of Belief Formation. Synthese 139 (2):225 - 240.score: 30.0
    In recent years there has been a growing consensus that ordinary reasoning does not conform to the laws of classical logic, but is rather nonmonotonic in the sense that conclusions previously drawn may well be removed upon acquiring further information. Even so, rational belief formation has up to now been modelled as conforming to some fundamental principles that are classically valid. The counterexample described in this paper suggests that a number of the most cherished of these principles should not (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. John F. Horty (1994). Moral Dilemmas and Nonmonotonic Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (1):35 - 65.score: 30.0
    From a philosophical standpoint, the work presented here is based on van Fraassen [26]. The bulk of that paper is organized around a series of arguments against the assumption, built into standard deontic logic, that moral dilemmas are impossible; and van Fraassen only briefly sketches his alternative approach. His paper ends with the conclusion that “the problem of possibly irresolvable moral conflict reveals serious flaws in the philosophical and semantic foundations of ‘orthodox’ deontic logic, but also suggests a rich set (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Dov M. Gabbay & Andrzej Szałas (2007). Second-Order Quantifier Elimination in Higher-Order Contexts with Applications to the Semantical Analysis of Conditionals. Studia Logica 87 (1):37 - 50.score: 30.0
    Second-order quantifier elimination in the context of classical logic emerged as a powerful technique in many applications, including the correspondence theory, relational databases, deductive and knowledge databases, knowledge representation, commonsense reasoning and approximate reasoning. In the current paper we first generalize the result of Nonnengart and Szałas [17] by allowing second-order variables to appear within higher-order contexts. Then we focus on a semantical analysis of conditionals, using the introduced technique and Gabbay’s semantics provided in [10] and substantially (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Douglas W. Maynard & John F. Manzo (1993). On the Sociology of Justice: Theoretical Notes From an Actual Jury Deliberation. Sociological Theory 11 (2):171-193.score: 30.0
    Despite the venerable place that "justice" occupies in social scientific theory and research, little effort has been made to see how members of society themselves define and use the concept when confronted with determining "what has happened" in some social arena, theorizing about why it happened, and deciding what should ensue. We take an ethnomethodological approach to justice, attempting to recover it as a feature of practical activity or a "phenomenon of order." Our analysis involves an actual videotaped jury deliberation. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Richmond H. Thomason, Logical Semantics for Causal Constructions.score: 30.0
    Montague’s framework for semantic interpretation has always been less well adapted to the interpretation of words than of syntactic constructions. In the late 1970s, David Dowty addressed this problem, concentrating on the interpretation of tense, aspect, inchoatives, and causatives in an extension of Montague’s Intensional Logic. In this paper I will try to revive this project, conceiving it as part of a larger task aiming at the interpretation of derivational morphology. I will try to identity some obstacles arising in Dowty’s (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Gustavo A. Bodanza & Fernando A. Tohmé (2005). Local Logics, Non-Monotonicity and Defeasible Argumentation. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (1):1-12.score: 30.0
    In this paper we present an embedding of abstract argumentation systems into the framework of Barwise and Seligmans logic of information flow. We show that, taking P.M. Dungs characterization of argument systems, a local logic over states of a deliberation may be constructed. In this structure, the key feature of non-monotonicity of commonsense reasoning obtains as the transition from one local logic to another, due to a change in certain background conditions. Each of Dungs extensions of argument systems (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. James T. Cushing (1990). Is Scientific Methodology Interestingly Atemporal? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (2):177-194.score: 30.0
    Any division between scientific practice and a metalevel of the methods and goals of science is largely a false dichotomy. Since a priori, foundationist or logicist approaches to normative principles have proven unequal to the task of representing actual scientific practice, methodologies of science must be abstracted from episodes in the history of science. Of course, it is possible that such characteristics could prove universal and constant across various eras. But, case studies show that they are not in anything beyond (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Ron Sun, Intelligence.score: 30.0
    The paper attempts to account for common pattems in commonsense reasoning through integrating rule-based reasoning and similarity-based reasoning as embodied in connectionist models.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Michael Anderson, Logic, Self-Awareness and Self-Improvement: The Metacognitive Loop Andthe Problem of Brittleness.score: 30.0
    This essay describes a general approach to building perturbation-tolerant autonomous systems, based on the conviction that artificial agents should be able to notice when something is amiss, assess the anomaly, and guide a solution into place. This basic strategy of self-guided learning is termed the metacognitive loop; it involves the system monitoring, reasoning about, and, when necessary, altering its own decision-making components. This paper (a) argues that equipping agents with a metacognitive loop can help to overcome the brittleness problem, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Carlos Iván Chesñevar & Guillermo Ricardo Simari (2007). Modelling Inference in Argumentation Through Labelled Deduction: Formalization and Logical Properties. [REVIEW] Logica Universalis 1 (1):93-124.score: 30.0
    . Artificial Intelligence (AI) has long dealt with the issue of finding a suitable formalization for commonsense reasoning. Defeasible argumentation has proven to be a successful approach in many respects, proving to be a confluence point for many alternative logical frameworks. Different formalisms have been developed, most of them sharing the common notions of argument and warrant. In defeasible argumentation, an argument is a tentative (defeasible) proof for reaching a conclusion. An argument is warranted when it ultimately prevails (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Vladimir Lifschitz, A Modular Action Description Language.score: 30.0
    “Toy worlds” involving actions, such as the blocks world and the Missionaries and Cannibals puzzle, are often used by researchers in the areas of commonsense reasoning and planning to illustrate and test their ideas. We would like to create a database of generalpurpose knowledge about actions that encodes common features of many action domains of this kind, in the same way as abstract algebra and topology represent common features of specific number systems. This paper is a report on (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Michael Miller & Donald Perlis (1996). Automated Inference in Active Logics. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 6 (1):9-27.score: 30.0
    ABSTRACT Certain problems in commonsense reasoning lend themselves to the use of non-standard formalisms which we call active logics. Among these are problems of objects misidentification. In this paper we describe some technical issues connected with automated inference in active logics, using particular object misidentification problems as illustrations. Control of exponential growth of inferences is a key issue. To control this growth attention is paid to a limited version of an inference rule for negative introspection. We also present (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Vladimir Lifschitz, Why the Monkey Needs the Box: A Serious Look at a Toy Domain.score: 30.0
    “Toy worlds” involving actions, such as the Blocks World and the Monkey and Bananas domain, are often used by researchers in the areas of commonsense reasoning and planning to illustrate and test their ideas. Many of the axioms found in descriptions of these toy worlds are expressions of generalpurpose knowledge, though they are often cast in a form only useful for solving one specific problem and are not faithful representations of general facts that can be used in other (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Ronald Prescott Loui, Carlos Ivan Ches~Nevar & Ana Gabriela Maguitman, Logical Models of Argument.score: 30.0
    Logical models of argument formalize commonsense reasoning while taking process and computation seriously. This survey discusses the main ideas which characterize di erent logical models of argument. It presents the formal features of a few main approaches to the modeling of argumentation. We trace the evolution of argumentationfrom the mid-80's, when argumentsystems emerged as an alternative to nonmonotonic formalisms based on classical logic, to the present, as argument is embedded in di erent complex systems for real-world applications, and (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Kazimierz Trzęsicki (2006). Wkład logików polskich w światową informatykę. Filozofia Nauki 3.score: 30.0
    The position of Polish informatics, as well in research as in didactic, has its roots in achievements of Polish mathematicians of Warsaw School and logicians of Lvov-Warsaw School. Jan Lukasiewicz is considered in the world of computer science as the most famous Polish logician. The parenthesis-free notation, invented by him, is known as PN (Polish Notation) and RPN (Reverse Polish Notation). Lukasiewicz created many-valued logic as a separate subject. The idea of multi-valueness is applied to hardware design (many-valued or fuzzy (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Michał Tyburski (2009). Cyrkumskrypcja: formalizacja rozumowania niemonotonicznego w logice drugiego rzędu. Filozofia Nauki 1.score: 30.0
    We discuss circumscription, a logical formalization of non-monotonic reasoning, introduced by John McCarthy and Vladimir Lifschitz. First section contains presentation of assumptions of logic-based artificial intelligence, problem of non-monotonicity in commonsense reasoning and informal formulation of circumscription. In section two, a formal definition of circumscription is given. The idea of circumscription is discussed from syntactic and semantic point of view. Theoretical investigations are supplemented with examples. In section three, methods of computing circumscription are discussed. Section four contains (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Douglas W. Portmore (2011). Commonsense Consequentialism: Wherein Morality Meets Rationality. Oxford University Press.score: 26.0
    This is a book on morality, rationality, and the interconnections between the two. In it, I defend a version of consequentialism that both comports with our commonsense moral intuitions and shares with other consequentialist theories the same compelling teleological conception of practical reasons.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Terry Horgan & Mark Timmons (2002). Conceptual Relativity and Metaphysical Realism. Noûs 36 (s1):74-96.score: 24.0
    Is conceptual relativity a genuine phenomenon? If so, how is it properly understood? And if it does occur, does it undermine metaphysical realism? These are the questions we propose to address. We will argue that conceptual relativity is indeed a genuine phenomenon, albeit an extremely puzzling one. We will offer an account of it. And we will argue that it is entirely compatible with metaphysical realism. Metaphysical realism is the view that there is a world of objects and properties that (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Basileios Kroustallis (2012). Film as Thought Experiment: A Happy-Go-Lucky Case? Film-Philosophy 16 (1):72-84.score: 24.0
    Can some films be genuine thought experiments that challenge our commonsense intuitions? Certain filmic narratives and their mise-en-scène details reveal rigorous reasoning and counterintuitive outcomes on philosophical issues, such as skepticism or personal identity. But this philosophical façade may hide a mundane concern for entertainment. Unfamiliar narratives drive spectator entertainment, and every novel cinematic situation could be easily explained as part of a process that lacks motives of philosophical elucidation. -/- The paper inverses the above objection, and proposes (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Jim Hopkins (1995). Wittgenstein, Interpretation, and the Foundations of Psychoanalysis. New Formations.score: 24.0
    In his work on following a rule Wittgenstein discerned principles of interpretation that apply to commonsense psychology and psychoanalysis. We can use these to assess the cogency of psychoanalytic reasoning.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Nancy J. Nersessian (1989). Conceptual Change in Science and in Science Education. Synthese 80 (1):163 - 183.score: 24.0
    There is substantial evidence that traditional instructional methods have not been successful in helping students to restructure their commonsense conceptions and learn the conceptual structures of scientific theories. This paper argues that the nature of the changes and the kinds of reasoning required in a major conceptual restructuring of a representation of a domain are fundamentally the same in the discovery and in the learning processes. Understanding conceptual change as it occurs in science and in learning science will (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Lawrence J. Kaye (1994). The Computational Account of Belief. Erkenntnis 40 (2):137-53.score: 24.0
    Fodor and others who think that scientific, computational psychology will vindicate commonsense belief-desire psychology have maintained that belief can be identified with the explicit storage of a token with appropriate content. I review and develop problems for the explicit storage view and show that a more plausible account identifies belief with the disposition to use a token with appropriate content in explicit reasoning and planning processes and as a basis for action. I argue that this type of inner (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Johannes Roessler (2013). The Epistemic Role of Intentions. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 113 (1):41-56.score: 24.0
    According to David Velleman, it is part of the ‘commonsense psychology’ of intentional agency that an agent can know what she will do without relying on evidence, in virtue of intending to do it. My question is how this claim is to be interpreted and defended. I argue that the answer turns on the commonsense conception of calculative practical reasoning, and the link between such reasoning and warranted claims to knowledge. I also consider the implications of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Robin Barrow (2006). Judging Quality of Human Achievement. Education and Culture 22 (1):7-16.score: 24.0
    : This paper defends the commonsense view that judgments about the quality of human achievement in the arts can be true or false and shown to be so by objective reasoning, as against both subjectivist views and, more particularly, the view that they can be quantitatively expressed and scientifically demonstrated. It focuses on Charles Murray's recent attempt to rank-order the great achievers in an objective manner, arguing that it is fundamentally flawed, especially in confusing the quantification of references (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Michael J. Pendlebury (2000). Perception and Objective Knowledge. In The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Volume 5: Epistemology. Charlottesville: Philosophy Documentation Center. 29-38.score: 24.0
    McDowell and Putnam are right to insist that objective knowledge is possible only because we are open to the world in perception, but neither of them offers an adequate account of the relationship between perception and perceptual judgments (which are at the core of our most fundamental knowledge of the world). This paper, intended as a contribution to the development of a sophisticated commonsense realism, proposes an account in terms of which perceptions acquire the status of perceptual judgments to (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Agnes E. Tellings (2006). What the Eye Doesn't See: An Analysis of Strategies for Justifying Acts by an Appeal for Concealing Them. Ethics and Behavior 16 (4):363 – 375.score: 24.0
    This article analyzes the moral reasoning implied in a very commonly used expression, namely, "What the eye doesn't see, the heart doesn't grieve over", or "What you don't know won't hurt you." It especially deals with situations in which it is used for trying to justify acts that are, in themselves, reprehensible. For instance, when a cheating husband tries to justify his adultery by appealing to the alleged fact that he does not tell his wife about it and thus (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Daniel Povinelli (2011). World Without Weight: Perspectives on an Alien Mind. OUP Oxford.score: 24.0
    In every domain of reasoning-from time and space, to mental states and physical illness-humans deploy an exceedingly diverse range of intuitive 'theories' about how the world works. Children from diverse cultures always seem to arrive at a few, common folk theories as they hone their developing brains against roughly similar interactions with people and objects. The result is an impressive panoply of folk notions that the human species uses to explain, predict, and just plain talk about everything from why (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Joohyung Lee, Vladimir Lifschitz & Hudson Turner, Nonmonotonic Causal Theories.score: 24.0
    cuted actions. It has been applied to several challenge problems in the theory of commonsense knowledge. We study the relationship between this formalism and other work on nonmonotonic reasoning and knowl-.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Vladimir Lifshitz (1988). Circumscriptive Theories: A Logic-Based Framework for Knowledge Representation. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 17 (4):391 - 441.score: 24.0
    The use of circumscription for formalizing commonsense knowledge and reasoning requires that a circumscription policy be selected for each particular application: we should specify which predicates are circumscribed, which predicates and functions are allowed to vary, and what priorities between the circumscribed predicates are established. The circumscription policy is usually described either informally or using suitable metamathematical notation. In this paper we propose a simple and general formalism which permits describing circumscription policies by axioms, included in the knowledge (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Sven Nyholm (forthcoming). Ingmar Persson, From Morality to the End of Reason (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) Pp. 336. [REVIEW] Utilitas 2014.score: 24.0
    Persson argues that common sense morality involves various “asymmetries” that don’t stand up to rational scrutiny. (One example is that intentionally harming others is commonly thought to be worse than merely allowing harm to happen, even if the harm involved is equal in both cases.) A wholly rational morality would, Persson argues, be wholly symmetrical. He also argues, however, that when we get down to our most basic attitudes and dispositions, we reach the “end of reason,” at which point we (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. E. Griffincollart (1979). Argumentation and Reason in a Commonsense Philosophy. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 33 (127):202-215.score: 24.0
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Kurt Konolige (1996). What's Happening? Elements of Commonsense Causation. In. In J. Ezquerro A. Clark (ed.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Categories, Consciousness, and Reasoning. Kluwer. 197--220.score: 24.0
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000