Search results for 'Comparison' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  69
    Alan Clinton Bale (2008). A Universal Scale of Comparison. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (1):1-55.
    Comparative constructions form two classes, those that permit direct comparisons (comparisons of measurements as in Seymour is taller than he is wide) and those that only allow indirect comparisons (comparisons of relative positions on separate scales as in Esme is more beautiful than Einstein is intelligent). In contrast with other semantic theories, this paper proposes that the interpretation of the comparative morpheme remains the same whether it appears in sentences that compare individuals directly or indirectly. To develop a unified account, (...)
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  2.  22
    Alan Clinton Bale (2011). Scales and Comparison Classes. Natural Language Semantics 19 (2):169-190.
    This paper discusses comparison classes—sets that relativize the interpretation of gradable adjectives, often specified with for-clauses as in John is smart for a linguist. Such a discussion ultimately lends support to the thesis that scales, degrees, measure functions, and linear orders are grammatically derived from more basic relations between individuals. Three accounts of comparison classes are compared and evaluated. The first proposes that such classes serve as an argument to a function that determines a standard of comparison. (...)
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  3.  13
    Rick Nouwen (2008). Upper-Bounded No More: The Exhaustive Interpretation of Non-Strict Comparison. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 16 (4):271-295.
    The paper concerns the expression of non-strict comparison, focusing in particular on constructions of the form [no(t) . . .-er than] in modified numerals. The main empirical finding is the observation that negated comparatives contrast with regular comparatives in that the former but not the latter can give rise to (scalar) implicatures. It is shown that such a contrast falls out of theories of exhaustive interpretation that claim alternatives to form dense scales. An important result is that the paper (...)
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  4.  10
    B. De Schuymer, H. De Meyer & B. de Baets (2007). Extreme Copulas and the Comparison of Ordered Lists. Theory and Decision 62 (3):195-217.
    We introduce two extreme methods to pairwisely compare ordered lists of the same length, viz. the comonotonic and the countermonotonic comparison method, and show that these methods are, respectively, related to the copula T M (the minimum operator) and the Ł ukasiewicz copula T L used to join marginal cumulative distribution functions into bivariate cumulative distribution functions. Given a collection of ordered lists of the same length, we generate by means of T M and T L two probabilistic relations (...)
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  5.  39
    Xiang Chen (2001). Perceptual Symbols and Taxonomy Comparison. Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S200-S212.
    Many recent cognitive studies reveal that human cognition is inherently perceptual, sharing systems with perception at both the conceptual and the neural levels. This paper introduces Barsalou's theory of perceptual symbols and explores its implications for philosophy of science. If perceptual symbols lie in the heart of conceptual processing, the process of attribute selection during concept representation, which is critical for defining similarity and thus for comparing taxonomies, can no longer be determined solely by background beliefs. The analogous nature of (...)
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  6.  5
    Osamu Sawada (2014). An Utterance Situation-Based Comparison. Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (3):205-248.
    The Japanese comparative adverb motto has two different uses. In the degree use, motto compares two individuals and denotes that there is a large gap between the target and a given standard with a norm-related presupposition. On the other hand, in the so-called ‘negative use’ it conveys the speaker’s attitude toward the utterance situation. I argue that similarly to the degree motto, the negative motto is a comparative morpheme, but unlike the degree motto it compares a current situation and an (...)
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  7.  2
    Andreas Dorschel (1994). The Anthropological Argument in Practical Philosophy and the Logic of Comparison. History of European Ideas 18 (3):387-400.
    Arnold Gehlen's attempt to give anthropological grounds for morality stems from Kant's idea that being freed from the compulsion of instinct left human beings in need of compensation for the loss of the practical guidance which instinct had hitherto provided. Whereas Kant thought this compensation was to found only in reasoned morality, Gehlen would argue that morality provides recompense by becoming a quasi-instinct that functions without reflection and that needs to be bred into human beings. The author maintains that in (...)
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  8.  16
    Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Ziad Swaidan & Jamal Al-Khatib (2006). Does Religion Matter? A Comparison Study of the Ethical Beliefs of Marketing Students of Religious and Secular Universities in Japan. Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):69 - 86.
    This study was designed to examine the determinants of and differences between the ethical beliefs of two groups of Japanese students in religious and secular universities. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students of the Japanese religious university perceived that young, male, relativistic, and opportunistic students tended to behave less ethically than did older, female, and idealistic students. Students of the Japanese secular university perceived that male, achievement-oriented, and opportunistic students tended to behave less ethically than did female and experience-oriented students. (...)
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  9.  15
    Tisha L. N. Emerson & Stephen J. Conroy (2004). Have Ethical Attitudes Changed? An Intertemporal Comparison of the Ethical Perceptions of College Students in 1985 and 2001. Journal of Business Ethics 50 (2):167-176.
    Recent ethical breeches by corporate governorsat the highest levels have called into questionwhether ethical attitudes have changed sincethe Corporate Raider scandals of the mid-1980s. We exploit a unique opportunity to follow-up ona previous investigation of college students inthe mid-1980s to analyze this question. Usinga similar survey instrument, we find thatstudents surveyed in 2001 are significantlyless accepting of the ethically questionablesituations in seven of 15 scenarios and moreaccepting in only one. Seven scenarios showedno significant change. We conclude that,overall, ethical attitudes of (...)
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  10.  32
    Clément Vidal (2012). Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison. Metaphilosophy 43 (3):306-347.
    Philosophy lacks criteria to evaluate its philosophical theories. To fill this gap, this essay introduces nine criteria to compare worldviews, classified in three broad categories: objective criteria (objective consistency, scientificity, scope), subjective criteria (subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality), and intersubjective criteria (intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity). The essay first defines what a worldview is and exposes the heuristic used in the quest for criteria. After describing each criterion individually, it shows what happens when each of them is violated. From the (...)
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  11.  7
    Benson Schaeffer & Richard Wallace (1970). The Comparison of Word Meanings. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):144.
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  12.  8
    Silvana Barbaro, Francesco G. De Rosa, Lorena Charrier, Carlo Silvestre, Emanuela Lovato & Maria M. Gianino (2012). Three Methods for Estimating Days of Hospitalization Because of Hospital‐Acquired Infection: A Comparison. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):776-780.
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  13.  2
    John M. Parkman (1972). Temporal Aspects of Simple Multiplication and Comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):437.
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  14.  10
    R. Delver, H. Monsuur & A. J. A. Storcken (1991). Ordering Pairwise Comparison Structures. Theory and Decision 31 (1):75-94.
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  15.  7
    Jesper Ryberg (2014). When Should Neuroimaging Be Applied in the Criminal Court? On Ideal Comparison and the Shortcomings of Retributivism. Journal of Ethics 18 (2):81-99.
    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what is referred to as the “ideal comparative view.” Secondly, it is—on the ground of this view—argued that the answer as to whether neuroimaging technology should be applied presupposes penal theoretical considerations. Thirdly, (...)
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  16.  5
    Joseph A. Sgro, Robert A. Glotfelty & Bruce D. Moore (1970). Delay of Reward in the Double Alleyway: A Within-Subjects Versus Between-Groups Comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):82.
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  17.  6
    Martin Pekárek & Stefanie Pötzsch (2009). A Comparison of Privacy Issues in Collaborative Workspaces and Social Networks. Identity in the Information Society 2 (1):81-93.
    With the advent of Web 2.0, numerous social software applications allow people to publish and share information on the Internet. Two of these types of applications – collaborative workspaces and social network sites – have a number of features in common, which are explored to provide a basis for comparative analysis. This basis is extended with a suitable definition of privacy, a sociological perspective and an applicable adversary model in order to facilitate an investigation of similarities and differences with regard (...)
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  18.  1
    Joan E. Foley & Florence J. Maynes (1969). Comparison of Training Methods in the Production of Prism Adaptation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):151.
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  19.  2
    David R. Thomas, James T. Miller & Gary Hansen (1972). Role of Stimulus Comparison in Equivalence Training. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):297.
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  20.  2
    Lester E. Krueger (1972). Sentence-Picture Comparison: A Test of Additivity of Processing Time for Feature Matching and Negation Coding. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):275.
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  21.  3
    Seiji Bito, Shinji Matsumura, Marjorie Kagawa Singer, Lisa S. Meredith, Shunichi Fukuhara & Neil S. Wenger (2007). Acculturation and End-of-Life Decision Making: Comparison of Japanese and Japanese-American Focus Groups. Bioethics 21 (5):251–262.
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  22.  2
    W. R. Garner & G. A. Miller (1944). Differential Sensitivity to Intensity as a Function of the Duration of the Comparison Tone. Journal of Experimental Psychology 34 (6):450.
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  23.  2
    Nelson G. Hanawalt (1952). The Method of Comparison Applied to the Problem of Memory Change. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (1):37.
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  24.  1
    Robert Thompson (1955). Transposition in the White Rat as a Function of Stimulus Comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (3):185.
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  25. Diana Deutsch (1972). Effect of Repetition of Standard and of Comparison Tones on Recognition Memory for Pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):156.
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  26. Diana Deutsch & Philip L. Roll (1974). Error Patterns in Delayed Pitch Comparison as a Function of Relational Context. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):1027.
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  27. L. Frewer, A. Fischer & N. Gupta (2015). Ethics, Risk and Benefits Associated with Different Applications of Nanotechnology: A Comparison of Expert and Consumer Perceptions of Drivers of Societal Acceptance. NanoEthics 9 (2):93-108.
    Examining those risk and benefit perceptions utilised in the formation of attitudes and opinions about emerging technologies such as nanotechnology can be useful for both industry and policy makers involved in their development, implementation and regulation. A broad range of different socio-psychological and affective factors may influence consumer responses to different applications of nanotechnology, including ethical concerns. A useful approach to identifying relevant consumer concerns and innovation priorities is to develop predictive constructs which can be used to differentiate applications of (...)
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  28. N. Gupta, A. R. H. Fischer & L. J. Frewer (2015). Ethics, Risk and Benefits Associated with Different Applications of Nanotechnology: A Comparison of Expert and Consumer Perceptions of Drivers of Societal Acceptance. NanoEthics 9 (2):93-108.
    Examining those risk and benefit perceptions utilised in the formation of attitudes and opinions about emerging technologies such as nanotechnology can be useful for both industry and policy makers involved in their development, implementation and regulation. A broad range of different socio-psychological and affective factors may influence consumer responses to different applications of nanotechnology, including ethical concerns. A useful approach to identifying relevant consumer concerns and innovation priorities is to develop predictive constructs which can be used to differentiate applications of (...)
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  29.  16
    Greg Wood (2000). A Cross Cultural Comparison of the Contents of Codes of Ethics: USA, Canada and Australia. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 25 (4):287 - 298.
    This paper examines the contents of the codes of ethics of 83 of the top 500 companies operating in the private sector in Australia in an attempt to discover whether there are national characteristics that differentiate the codes used by companies operating in Australia from codes used by companies operating in the American and Canadian systems. The studies that were used as a comparison were Mathews (1987) for the United States of America and Lefebvre and Singh (1992) for Canada. (...)
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  30.  73
    Man Kit Chang (1998). Predicting Unethical Behavior: A Comparison of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (16):1825-1834.
    This study is a comparison of the validity of theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior as applied to the area of moral behavior (i.e., illegal copying of software) using structural equation modeling. Data were collected from 181 university students on the various components of the theories and used to asses the influence of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on the intention to make unauthorized software copies. Theory of planned behavior was found to be better (...)
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  31.  18
    Mark A. Davis, Nancy Brown Johnson & Douglas G. Ohmer (1998). Issue-Contingent Effects on Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):373-389.
    This experiment examined the effects of three elements comprising Jones' (1991) moral intensity construct, (social consensus, personal proximity, and magnitude of consequences) in a cross-cultural comparison of ethical decision making within a human resource management (HRM) context. Results indicated social consensus had the most potent effect on judgments of moral concern and judgments of immorality. An analysis of American, Eastern European, and Indonesian responses also indicted socio-cultural differences were moderated by the type of HRM ethical issue. In addition, individual (...)
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  32.  19
    Steven Lysonski & William Gaidis (1991). A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Ethics of Business Students. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (2):141 - 150.
    The ethical tendencies of university business students from the USA, Denmark, and New Zealand were examined by analyzing their reactions to ethical dilemmas presented in a set of ethical problem situations. These dilemmas dealt with coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, paternalism and personal integrity. Findings indicate that students' reactions tended to be similar regardless of their country. A comparison of these findings to practicing managers indicated that students and practicing managers exhibit a similar degree of sensitivity (...)
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  33.  29
    Helmut Becker & David J. Fritzsche (1987). Business Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Managers' Attitudes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 6 (4):289 - 295.
    A comparison of attitudes among managers from France, Germany and the United States is made with respect to codes of ethics and ethical business philosophy. Findings are also compared with past studies by Baumhart and by Brenner and Molander where data are available. While the current data appear to be consistent with the past studies, there appear to be differences in attitudes among the managers from the three countries.
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  34.  27
    John Cherry (2006). The Impact of Normative Influence and Locus of Control on Ethical Judgments and Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (2):113 - 132.
    The study extends the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in a cross-cultural setting, incorporating ethical judgments and locus of control in a comparison of Taiwanese and US businesspersons. A self-administered survey of 698 businesspersons from the US and Taiwan examined several hypothesized differences. Results indicate that while Taiwanese respondents have a more favorable attitude toward a requested bribe than US counterparts, and are less likely to view it as an ethical issue, their higher locus externality causes ethical judgments and (...)
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  35.  35
    Laura Martignon & Ulrich Hoffrage (2002). Fast, Frugal, and Fit: Simple Heuristics for Paired Comparison. Theory and Decision 52 (1):29-71.
    This article provides an overview of recent results on lexicographic, linear, and Bayesian models for paired comparison from a cognitive psychology perspective. Within each class, we distinguish subclasses according to the computational complexity required for parameter setting. We identify the optimal model in each class, where optimality is defined with respect to performance when fitting known data. Although not optimal when fitting data, simple models can be astonishingly accurate when generalizing to new data. A simple heuristic belonging to the (...)
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  36. J. Zhang (2013). A Comparison of Three Occam's Razors for Markovian Causal Models. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (2):423-448.
    The framework of causal Bayes nets, currently influential in several scientific disciplines, provides a rich formalism to study the connection between causality and probability from an epistemological perspective. This article compares three assumptions in the literature that seem to constrain the connection between causality and probability in the style of Occam's razor. The trio includes two minimality assumptions—one formulated by Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines (SGS) and the other due to Pearl—and the more well-known faithfulness or stability assumption. In terms of (...)
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  37.  5
    Dedre Gentner, Susan C. Levine, Raedy Ping, Ashley Isaia, Sonica Dhillon, Claire Bradley & Garrett Honke (2016). Rapid Learning in a Children's Museum Via Analogical Comparison. Cognitive Science 40 (1):224-240.
    We tested whether analogical training could help children learn a key principle of elementary engineering—namely, the use of a diagonal brace to stabilize a structure. The context for this learning was a construction activity at the Chicago Children's Museum, in which children and their families build a model skyscraper together. The results indicate that even a single brief analogical comparison can confer insight. The results also reveal conditions that support analogical learning.
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  38.  5
    Christophe Mussolin, Sandrine Mejias & Marie-Pascale Noël (2010). Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Number Comparison in Children with and Without Dyscalculia. Cognition 115 (1):10-25.
    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a pervasive difficulty affecting number processing and arithmetic. It is encountered in around 6% of school-aged children. While previous studies have mainly focused on general cognitive functions, the present paper aims to further investigate the hypothesis of a specific numerical deficit in dyscalculia. The performance of 10- and 11-year-old children with DD characterised by a weakness in arithmetic facts retrieval and age-matched control children was compared on various number comparison tasks. Participants were asked to compare (...)
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  39.  3
    Thomas Tang & Roberto Luna-Arocas (2015). Are You Satisfied With Your Pay When You Compare? It Depends on Your Love of Money, Pay Comparison Standards, and Culture. Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):279-289.
    We develop a theoretical model of income and pay comparison satisfaction with two mediators, examine the direct and the indirect paths of our model, and treat culture as a moderator. Based on 311 professors in the US and Spain, we demonstrate a positive direct path and a negative indirect path. Our subsequent multi-group analysis illustrates: For American professors, their direct path shows that income is directly related to high pay comparison satisfaction. Their indirect path reveals the following new (...)
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  40.  9
    Ann M. DuPont & Jane S. Craig (1996). Does Management Experience Change the Ethical Perceptions of Retail Professionals: A Comparison of the Ethical Perceptions of Current Students with Those of Recent Graduates? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (8):815 - 826.
    The purpose of this study was to extend the previous research on ethics in retailing. Prior research of Dornoff and Tankersley (1985–1976), Gifford and Norris (1987), Norris and Gifford (1988), and Burns and Rayman (1989) examined the ethics orientation of retail sales persons, sales managers, and business school students. These studies found the college students less ethically-oriented than retail sales people and retail managers. The present study attempts to extend the research on ethics formation to a geographically and academically diverse (...)
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  41.  14
    Wybo Houkes, Peter Kroes, Anthonie Meijers & Pieter E. Vermaas (2011). Dual-Nature and Collectivist Frameworks for Technical Artefacts: A Constructive Comparison. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):198-205.
    This paper systematically compares two frameworks for analysing technical artefacts: the Dual-Nature approach, exemplified by the contributions to Kroes and Meijers , and the collectivist approach advocated by Schyfter , following Kusch . After describing the main tenets of both approaches, we show that there is significant overlap between them: both frameworks analyse the most typical cases of artefact use, albeit in different terms, but to largely the same extent. Then, we describe several kinds of cases for which the frameworks (...)
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  42.  6
    Thomas A. Lewis, Jonathan Wyn Schofer, Aaron Stalnaker & Mark A. Berkson (2005). Anthropos and Ethics Categories of Inquiry and Procedures of Comparison. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (2):177-185.
    Building on influential work in virtue ethics, this collection of essays examines the categories of self, person, and anthropology as foci for comparative analysis. The papers unite reflections on theory and method with descriptive work that addresses thinkers from the modern West, Christian and Jewish Late Antiquity, early China, and other settings. The introduction sets out central methodological issues that are subsequently taken up in each essay, including the origin of the categories through which comparison proceeds, the status of (...)
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  43. Thomas A. Lewis, Jonathan Wyn Schofer, Aaron Stalnaker & Mark A. Berkson (2005). Anthropos and Ethics: Categories of Inquiry and Procedures of Comparison. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (2):177 - 185.
    Building on influential work in virtue ethics, this collection of essays examines the categories of self, person, and anthropology as foci for comparative analysis. The papers unite reflections on theory and method with descriptive work that addresses thinkers from the modern West, Christian and Jewish Late Antiquity, early China, and other settings. The introduction sets out central methodological issues that are subsequently taken up in each essay, including the origin of the categories through which comparison proceeds, the status of (...)
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  44.  7
    E. Angell, A. J. Sutton, K. Windridge & M. Dixon-Woods (2006). Consistency in Decision Making by Research Ethics Committees: A Controlled Comparison. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (11):662-664.
    There has been longstanding interest in the consistency of decisions made by research ethics committees in the UK, but most of the evidence has come from single studies submitted to multiple committees. A systematic comparison was carried out of the decisions made on 18 purposively selected applications, each of which was reviewed independently by three different RECs in a single strategic health authority. Decisions on 11 applications were consistent, but disparities were found among RECs on decisions on seven applications. (...)
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  45.  5
    Paula Rubio-Fernández, Bart Geurts & Chris Cummins (forthcoming). Is an Apple Like a Fruit? A Study on Comparison and Categorisation Statements. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-24.
    Categorisation models of metaphor interpretation are based on the premiss that categorisation statements and comparison statements are fundamentally different types of assertion. Against this assumption, we argue that the difference is merely a quantitative one: ‘x is a y’ unilaterally entails ‘x is like a y’, and therefore the latter is merely weaker than the former. Moreover, if ‘x is like a y’ licenses the inference that x is not a y, then that inference is a scalar implicature. We (...)
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  46.  47
    Jürgen Kocka (1999). Asymmetrical Historical Comparison: The Case of the German Sonderweg. History and Theory 38 (1):40–50.
    Frequently, historical comparisons are asymmetrical in the sense that they investigate one case carefully while limiting themselves to a mere sketch of the other case which serve as comparative reference point. The debate on the German Sonderweg and the rich historical literature originating from this debate can serve as examples. This article reconstructs the pros and cons within this controversial debate, reports its results and puts it into a broader historical context. It analyzes the comparative logic implied by the Sonderweg (...)
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  47.  98
    Sam Glucksberg & Catrinel Haught (2006). On the Relation Between Metaphor and Simile: When Comparison Fails. Mind and Language 21 (3):360–378.
    Since Aristotle, many writers have treated metaphors and similes as equals: any metaphor can be paraphrased as a simile, and vice-versa. This property of metaphors is the basis for psycholinguistic comparison theories of metaphor comprehension. However, if metaphors cannot always be paraphrased as similes, then comparison theories must be abandoned. The different forms of a metaphor—the comparison and categorical forms—have different referents. In comparison form, the metaphor vehicle refers to the literal concept, e.g. 'in my lawyer (...)
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  48.  11
    Dong-Jin Lee & M. Joseph Sirgy (1999). The Effect of Moral Philosophy and Ethnocentrism on Quality-of-Life Orientation in International Marketing: A Cross-Culturaal Comparison. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 18 (1):73 - 89.
    This paper examines the effects of moral philosophy and ethnocentrism on quality of life orientation in international marketing. It also provides a cross-cultural comparison of ethical values between Koreans and Americans. International quality-of-life (IQOL) orientation refers to marketers' disposition to make decisions to enhance the well-being of consumers in foreign markets while preserving the well-being of other stakeholders. It is hypothesized that marketers' moral philosophy and ethnocentrism influence the development of marketers' IQOL. Specifically, the higher the IQOL orientation of (...)
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  49.  5
    Michel Morange (2013). Comparison Between the Work of Synthetic Biologists and the Action of Evolution: Engineering Versus Tinkering. Biological Theory 8 (4):318-323.
    The comparison between natural evolution and the action of a tinkerer has become highly popular since its reintroduction by François Jacob at the end of the 1970s. It has been used as a weapon against the existence of an “intelligent design” as well as a way for synthetic biologists to promote their ambitious projects. I will describe the complex history of this metaphor, and examine its pertinence. Whereas Darwin considered it as a way to describe how evolution proceeded, Jacob (...)
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  50.  23
    Mahmut Arslan (2000). A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British and Turkish Managers in Terms of Protestant Work Ethic Characteristics. Business Ethics 9 (1):13–19.
    This paper presents a cross‐cultural comparison of Protestant work ethic characteristics of practising Protestant British and practising Muslim Turkish managers using Mirels and Garrett’s Protestant work ethic scale. Max Weber’s Protestant work ethic thesis is used as the conceptual framework in this study. The nature of the Protestant work ethic thesis and its relationship with organisation culture is discussed. Multivariate and univariate analysis of variance were used to analyse the data. The results suggest that there is a significant difference (...)
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