Search results for 'Competence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kristine Bærøe (2010). Patient Autonomy, Assessment of Competence and Surrogate Decision-Making: A Call for Reasonableness in Deciding for Others. Bioethics 24 (2):87-95.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I address some of the shortcomings of established clinical ethics centring on personal autonomy and consent and what I label the Doctrine of Respecting Personal Autonomy in Healthcare. I discuss two implications of this doctrine: 1) the practice for treating patients who are considered to have borderline decision-making competence and 2) the practice of surrogate decision-making in general. I argue that none of these practices are currently aligned with respectful treatment of vulnerable individuals. Because of 'structural (...)
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  2. Jillian Craigie (2011). Competence, Practical Rationality and What a Patient Values. Bioethics 25 (6):326-333.score: 18.0
    According to the principle of patient autonomy, patients have the right to be self-determining in decisions about their own medical care, which includes the right to refuse treatment. However, a treatment refusal may legitimately be overridden in cases where the decision is judged to be incompetent. It has recently been proposed that in assessments of competence, attention should be paid to the evaluative judgments that guide patients' treatment decisions.In this paper I examine this claim in light of theories of (...)
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  3. Yu-Shan Chen (2008). The Driver of Green Innovation and Green Image – Green Core Competence. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):531 - 543.score: 18.0
    This study proposed a novel construct – green core competence – to explore its positive effects on green innovation and green images of firms. The results showed that green core competences of firms were positively correlated to their green innovation performance and green images. In addition, this research also verified two types of green innovation performance had partial mediation effects between green core competences and green images of firms. Therefore, investment in the development of green core competence was (...)
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  4. Mark Addis (2013). Linguistic Competence and Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):327-336.score: 18.0
    Questions about the relationship between linguistic competence and expertise will be examined in the paper. Harry Collins and others distinguish between ubiquitous and esoteric expertise. Collins places considerable weight on the argument that ordinary linguistic competence and related phenomena exhibit a high degree of expertise. His position and ones which share close affinities are methodologically problematic. These difficulties matter because there is continued and systematic disagreement over appropriate methodologies for the empirical study of expertise. Against Collins, it will (...)
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  5. Andrew Davis (2005). Social Externalism and the Ontology of Competence. Philosophical Explorations 8 (3):297-308.score: 18.0
    Social externalism implies that many competences are not personal assets separable from social and cultural environments but complex states of affairs involving individuals and persisting features of social reality. The paper explores the consequences for competence identity over time and across contexts, and hence for the predictive role usually accorded to competences.
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  6. Andy Clark (1990). Connectionism, Competence and Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (June):195-222.score: 18.0
    A competence model describes the abstract structure of a solution to some problem. or class of problems, facing the would-be intelligent system. Competence models can be quite derailed, specifying far more than merely the function to be computed. But for all that, they are pitched at some level of abstraction from the details of any particular algorithm or processing strategy which may be said to realize the competence. Indeed, it is the point and virtue of such models (...)
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  7. Laura Klaming & Pim Haselager (2013). Did My Brain Implant Make Me Do It? Questions Raised by DBS Regarding Psychological Continuity, Responsibility for Action and Mental Competence. Neuroethics 6 (3):527-539.score: 18.0
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-accepted treatment for movement disorders and is currently explored as a treatment option for various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Several case studies suggest that DBS may, in some patients, influence mental states critical to personality to such an extent that it affects an individual’s personal identity, i.e. the experience of psychological continuity, of persisting through time as the same person. Without questioning the usefulness of DBS as a treatment option for various serious and treatment (...)
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  8. Lisa Miracchi (forthcoming). Competence to Know. Philosophical Studies:1-28.score: 18.0
    I argue against traditional virtue epistemology on which knowledge is a success due to a competence to believe truly, by revealing an in-principle problem with the traditional virtue epistemologist’s explanation of Gettier cases. The argument eliminates one of the last plausible explanation of Gettier cases, and so of knowledge, in terms of non-factive mental states and non-mental conditions. I then I develop and defend a different kind of virtue epistemology, on which knowledge is an exercise of a competence (...)
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  9. Steve Clarke (2013). The Neuroscience of Decision Making and Our Standards for Assessing Competence to Consent. Neuroethics 6 (1):189-196.score: 18.0
    Rapid advances in neuroscience may enable us to identify the neural correlates of ordinary decision making. Such knowledge opens up the possibility of acquiring highly accurate information about people’s competence to consent to medical procedures and to participate in medical research. Currently we are unable to determine competence to consent with accuracy and we make a number of unrealistic practical assumptions to deal with our ignorance. Here I argue that if we are able to detect competence to (...)
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  10. Jos V. M. Welie & Sander P. K. Welie (2001). Patient Decision Making Competence: Outlines of a Conceptual Analysis. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):127-138.score: 18.0
    In order to protect patients against medical paternalism, patients have been granted the right to respect of their autonomy. This right is operationalized first and foremost through the phenomenon of informed consent. If the patient withholds consent, medical treatment, including life-saving treatment, may not be provided. However, there is one proviso: The patient must be competent to realize his autonomy and reach a decision about his own care that reflects that autonomy. Since one of the most important patient rights hinges (...)
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  11. Marcello Frixione (2001). Tractable Competence. Minds and Machines 11 (3):379-397.score: 18.0
    In the study of cognitive processes, limitations on computational resources (computing time and memory space) are usually considered to be beyond the scope of a theory of competence, and to be exclusively relevant to the study of performance. Starting from considerations derived from the theory of computational complexity, in this paper I argue that there are good reasons for claiming that some aspects of resource limitations pertain to the domain of a theory of competence.
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  12. David E. Desplaces, David E. Melchar, Laura L. Beauvais & Susan M. Bosco (2007). The Impact of Business Education on Moral Judgment Competence: An Empirical Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):73 - 87.score: 18.0
    This study uses theories of moral reasoning and moral competence to investigate how university codes of ethics, perceptions of ethical culture, academic pressure from significant others, and ethics pedagogy are related to the moral development of students. Results suggest that ethical codes and student perceptions of such codes affect their perceptions of the ethical nature of the cultures within these institutions. In addition, faculty and student discussion of ethics in business courses is significantly and positively related to moral (...) among students. Our results point to the need to further examine the connections among academic institutional structures, ethics pedagogy, and students’ moral development. (shrink)
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  13. Tae-Yeol Kim & Minsoo Kim (2013). Leaders' Moral Competence and Employee Outcomes: The Effects of Psychological Empowerment and Person–Supervisor Fit. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):155-166.score: 18.0
    This study examined how leaders’ moral competence is linked to employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Based on a sample of 102 employee–supervisor pairs from seven organizations in South Korea, the results of this study revealed that leaders’ moral competence was positively associated with employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors toward leaders (OCBS). As expected, employees’ psychological empowerment partially mediated the relationship between leaders’ moral competence and employees’ task performance and OCBS. Furthermore, person–supervisor fit (PS (...)
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  14. S. Eriksson, G. Helgesson & A. T. Höglund (2007). Being, Doing, and Knowing: Developing Ethical Competence in Health Care. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):207-216.score: 18.0
    There is a growing interest in ethical competence-building within nursing and health care practising. This tendency is accompanied by a remarkable growth of ethical guidelines. Ethical demands have also been laid down in laws. Present-day practitioners and researchers in health care are thereby left in a virtual cross-fire of various legislations, codes, and recommendations, all intended to guide behaviour. The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of ethical guidelines in the process of ethical competence-building within (...)
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  15. Terry Horgan & Matjaž Potrč (2013). Epistemological Skepticism, Semantic Blindness, and Competence-Based Performance Errors. Acta Analytica 28 (2):161-177.score: 18.0
    The semantic blindness objection to contextualism challenges the view that there is no incompatibility between (i) denials of external-world knowledge in contexts where radical-deception scenarios are salient, and (ii) affirmations of external-world knowledge in contexts where such scenarios are not salient. Contextualism allegedly attributes a gross and implausible form of semantic incompetence in the use of the concept of knowledge to people who are otherwise quite competent in its use; this blindness supposedly consists in wrongly judging that there is genuine (...)
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  16. Gerben Meynen (2011). Depression, Possibilities, and Competence: A Phenomenological Perspective. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (3):181-193.score: 18.0
    Competent decision-making is required for informed consent. In this paper, I aim, from a phenomenological perspective, to identify the specific facets of competent decision-making that may form a challenge to depressed patients. On a phenomenological account, mood and emotions are crucial to the way in which human beings encounter the world. More precisely, mood is intimately related to the options and future possibilities we perceive in the world around us. I examine how possibilities should be understood in this context, and (...)
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  17. Sander P. K. Welie (2001). Criteria for Patient Decision Making (in)Competence: A Review of and Commentary on Some Empirical Approaches. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):139-151.score: 18.0
    The principle of autonomy presupposes Patient Decision Making Competence (PDMC). For a few decades a considerable amount of empirical research has been done into PDMC. In this contribution that research is explored. After a short exposition on four qualities involved in PDMC, different approaches to assess PDMC are distinguished, namely a negative and a positive one. In the negative approach the focus is on identifying psychopathologic conditions that impair sound decision making; the positive one attempts to assess whether a (...)
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  18. Eric Vogelstein (2014). Competence and Ability. Bioethics 28 (5):235-244.score: 18.0
    It is nearly universally thought that the kind of decision-making competence that gives one a strong prima facie right to make one's own medical decisions essentially involves having an ability (or abilities) of some sort, or having a certain level or degree of ability (or abilities). When put under philosophical scrutiny, however, this kind of theory does not hold up. I will argue that being competent does not essentially involve abilities, and I will propose and defend a theory of (...)
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  19. Nick Boreham (2004). A Theory of Collective Competence: Challenging the Neo-Liberal Individualisation of Performance at Work. British Journal of Educational Studies 52 (1):5 - 17.score: 18.0
    Contemporary work-related education and training policy represents occupational competence as the outcome of individual performance at work. This paper presents a critique of this neo-liberal assumption, arguing that in many cases competence should be regarded as an attribute of groups, teams and communities. It proposes a theory of collective competence in terms of (1) making collective sense of events in the workplace, (2) developing and using a collective knowledge base and (3) developing a sense of interdependency. It (...)
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  20. Lorraine Y. Landry (1999). Multi-Disciplinary Competence Assessment: A Case Study in Consensus and Culture. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (5):423-437.score: 18.0
    The case of May Redwing, an American Indian woman assessed for competence is examined in detail. The case highlights the interconnections between the cultures of medicine and law and notes the importance of criteria of competence assessment, but also underscores the necessity of attention to the patient'scultural background in a multi-disciplinary competence assessment team process. Three interrelated areas of inquiry are explored: (1) Can we expect a morally and politically justifiable assessment of competence from a multi-disciplinary (...)
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  21. Niklas Möller (2014). All That Jazz: Linguistic Competence and Improvisation. Philosophical Studies 167 (2):237-250.score: 18.0
    Recently, theorists have pointed to the role of improvisation in practical reasoning and in gaining new moral knowledge. Laura and François Schroeter have gone even further by suggesting an account of competence with evaluative terms based on holistic improvisation. I argue, however, that they fail in their task. Through a challenge of their key claim against Allan Gibbard’s alternative account, I demonstrate that Schroeter and Schroeter provide only partial constraints on competence, and thus that their account lacks the (...)
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  22. Rebecca J. Hester (2012). The Promise and Paradox of Cultural Competence. HEC Forum 24 (4):279-291.score: 18.0
    Cultural competence has become a ubiquitous and unquestioned aspect of professional formation in medicine. It has been linked to efforts to eliminate race-based health disparities and to train more compassionate and sensitive providers. In this article, I question whether the field of cultural competence lives up to its promise. I argue that it does not because it fails to grapple with the ways that race and racism work in U.S. society today. Unless we change our theoretical apparatus for (...)
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  23. Thomas McNally & Sinéad McNally (forthcoming). Chomsky and Wittgenstein on Linguistic Competence. Nordic Wittgenstein Review.score: 18.0
    In his Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language , Saul Kripke presents his influential reading of Wittgenstein’s later writings on language. One of the largely unexplored features of that reading is that Kripke makes a small number of suggestive remarks concerning the possible threat that Wittgenstein’s arguments pose for Chomsky’s linguistic project. In this paper, we attempt to characterise the relevance of Wittgenstein’s later work on meaning and rule-following for transformational linguistics, and in particular to identify the potentially negative impact (...)
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  24. Anna Bergqvist (2009). Semantic Particularism and Linguistic Competence. Logique et Analyse 52 (208):343-361.score: 18.0
    In this paper I examine a contemporary debate about the general notion of linguistic rules and the place of context in determining meaning, which has arisen in the wake of a challenge that the conceptual framework of moral particularism has brought to the table. My aim is to show that particularism in the theory of meaning yields an attractive model of linguistic competence that stands as a genuine alternative to other use-oriented but still generalist accounts that allow room for (...)
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  25. David M. Adams (forthcoming). Belief and Death: Capital Punishment and the Competence-for-Execution Requirement. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-14.score: 18.0
    A curious and comparatively neglected element of death penalty jurisprudence in America is my target in this paper. That element concerns the circumstances under which severely mentally disabled persons, incarcerated on death row, may have their sentences carried out. Those circumstances are expressed in a part of the law which turns out to be indefensible. This legal doctrine—competence-for-execution (CFE)—holds that a condemned, death-row inmate may not be killed if, at the time of his scheduled execution, he lacks an awareness (...)
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  26. George Hargraves (2000). The Review of Vocational Qualifications, 1985 to 1986: An Analysis of Its Role in the Development of Competence-Based Vocational Qualifications in England and Wales. [REVIEW] British Journal of Educational Studies 48 (3):285 - 308.score: 18.0
    A significant historical role in the development of competence-based vocational qualifications in England and Wales is customarily ascribed to the 1985 to 1986 Review of Vocational Qualifications (RVQ), the body which invented the National Vocational Qualification (NVQ). This paper analyses the RVQ's internal debates. The paper demonstrates that the RVQ proposed only the general principles of a structure and an administration for a reformed vocational qualifications system. The RVQ did not address in detail either the definition of occupational (...) or the curriculum and assessment models to be embodied in the NVQ. In the light of this analysis, the paper re-evaluates the role of the RVQ in the development of competence-based vocational qualifications, and suggests some potentially fruitful areas for future research. (shrink)
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  27. M. Strätling, V. E. Scharf & P. Schmucker (2004). Mental Competence and Surrogate Decision-Making Towards the End of Life. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):209-215.score: 18.0
    German legislation demands that decisions about the treatment of mentally incompetent patients require an ‘informed consent’. If this was not given by the patient him-/herself before he/she became incompetent, it has to be sought by the physician from a guardian, who has to be formally legitimized before. Additionally this surrogate has to seek the permission of a Court of Guardianship (Vormundschaftsgericht), if he/she intends to consent to interventions, which pose significant risks to the health or the life of the person (...)
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  28. Lazare Benaroyo & Guy Widdershoven (2004). Competence in Mental Health Care: A Hermeneutic Perspective. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 12 (4):295-306.score: 18.0
    In this paper we develop a hermeneutic approach to the concept of competence. Patient competence, according to a hermeneutic approach, is not primarily a matter of being able to reason, but of being able to interpret the world and respond to it. Capacity should then not be seen as theoretical, but as practical. From the perspective of practical rationality, competence and capacity are two sides of the same coin. If a person has the capacity to understand the (...)
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  29. Jacinta O. A. Tan & Jorg M. Fegert (2004). Capacity and Competence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Health Care Analysis 12 (4):285-294.score: 18.0
    Capacity and competence in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry are complex issues, because of the many different influences that are involved in how children and adolescents make treatment decisions within the setting of mental health. This article will examine some of the influences which must be considered, namely: developmental aspects, the paradoxical relationship between the need for autonomy and participation and the capacity of children, family psychiatry, and the duty of care towards children and adolescents. The legal (...)
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  30. A. T. Höglund, G. Helgesson & S. Eriksson (2010). Ethical Dilemmas and Ethical Competence in the Daily Work of Research Nurses. Health Care Analysis 18 (3):239-251.score: 18.0
    In spite of the growing interest in nursing ethics, few studies have focused on ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses working with clinical studies as ‘research nurses’. The aim of the present study was to describe and explore ethical dilemmas that Swedish research nurses experience in their day-to-day work. In a qualitative study a purposeful sample of six research nurses from five wards of differing disciplines in four Swedish hospitals was interviewed. The analysis displayed several examples of ethical dilemmas, primarily tensions (...)
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  31. James A. Marcum (2011). Care and Competence in Medical Practice: Francis Peabody Confronts Jason Posner. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):143-153.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I discuss the role of care and competence, as well as their relationship to one another, in contemporary medical practice. I distinguish between two types of care. The first type, care1, represents a natural concern that motivates physicians to help or to act on the behalf of patients, i.e. to care about them. However, this care cannot guarantee the correct technical or right ethical action of physicians to meet the bodily and existential needs of patients, i.e. (...)
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  32. Stella Reiter-Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schürmann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer-Zehnder (2011). Evidence – Competence – Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi-Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap. Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.score: 18.0
    In this paper we assume that ‘theory’ is important for Clinical Ethics Support Services (CESS). We will argue that the underlying implicit theory should be reflected. Moreover, we suggest that the theoretical components on which any clinical ethics support (CES) relies should be explicitly articulated in order to enhance the quality of CES.A theoretical framework appropriate for CES will be necessarily complex and should include ethical (both descriptive and normative), metaethical and organizational components. The various forms of CES that exist (...)
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  33. Franz Ebner Roland H. Grabner, Gernot Reishofer, Karl Koschutnig (2011). Brain Correlates of Mathematical Competence in Processing Mathematical Representations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 18.0
    The ability to extract numerical information from different representation formats (e.g., equations, tables, or diagrams) is a key component of mathematical competence but little is known about its neural correlate. Previous studies comparing mathematically less and more competent adults have focused on mental arithmetic and reported differences in left angular gyrus activity which were interpreted to reflect differential reliance on arithmetic fact retrieval during problem solving. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate (...)
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  34. Rebecca Lewthwaite Suzete Chiviacowsky, Gabriele Wulf (2012). Self-Controlled Learning: The Importance of Protecting Perceptions of Competence. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Recent studies examining the role of self-controlled feedback have shown that learners ask for feedback after what they believe was a “good” rather than “poor” trial. Also, trials on which participants request feedback are often more accurate than those without feedback. The present study examined whether manipulating participants’ perception of “good” performance would have differential effects on learning. All participants practiced a coincident-anticipation timing task with a self-controlled feedback schedule during practice. Specifically, they were able to ask for feedback after (...)
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  35. Philip Bielby (2005). The Conflation of Competence and Capacity in English Medical Law: A Philosophical Critique. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):357-369.score: 18.0
    Ethical and legal discourse pertaining to the ability to consent to treatment and research in England operates within a dualist framework of “competence” and “capacity”. This is confusing, as while there exists in England two possible senses of legal capacity – “first person” legal capacity and “delegable” legal capacity, currently neither is formulated to bear a necessary relationship with decision-making competence. Notwithstanding this, judges and academic commentators frequently invoke competence to consent in discussions involving the validity of (...)
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  36. Carmela Di Mauro (2008). Uncertainty Aversion Vs. Competence: An Experimental Market Study. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 64 (2-3):301-331.score: 18.0
    Heath and Tversky (1991, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 4:5–28) posed that reaction to ambiguity is driven by perceived competence. Competence effects may be inconsistent with ambiguity aversion if betting on own judgement is preferred to betting on a chance event, because judgemental probabilities are more ambiguous than chance events. This laboratory experiment analyses whether ambiguity affects prices and volumes in a double auction market, and contrasts ambiguity aversion to competence effects. In order to test for the (...)
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  37. Gerben Meynen (2009). Exploring the Similarities and Differences Between Medical Assessments of Competence and Criminal Responsibility. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):443-451.score: 18.0
    The medical assessments of criminal responsibility and competence to consent to treatment are performed, developed and debated in distinct domains. In this paper I try to connect these domains by exploring the similarities and differences between both assessments. In my view, in both assessments a decision-making process is evaluated in relation to the possible influence of a mental disorder on this process. I will argue that, in spite of the relevance of the differences, both practices could benefit from the (...)
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  38. A. M. Ruissen, T. A. Abma, A. J. L. M. Van Balkom, G. Meynen & G. A. M. Widdershoven (forthcoming). Moving Perspectives on Patient Competence: A Naturalistic Case Study in Psychiatry. Health Care Analysis:1-15.score: 18.0
    Patient competence, defined as the ability to reason, appreciate, understand, and express a choice is rarely discussed in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and coercive measures are seldom used. Nevertheless, a psychiatrist of psychologist may doubt whether OCD patients who refuse treatment understand their disease and the consequences of not being treated, which could result in tension between respecting the patient’s autonomy and beneficence. The purpose of this article is to develop a notion of competence that is (...)
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  39. Matthew Talbert (2012). Moral Competence, Moral Blame, and Protest. Journal of Ethics 16 (1):89-109.score: 15.0
    I argue that wrongdoers may be open to moral blame even if they lacked the capacity to respond to the moral considerations that counted against their behavior. My initial argument turns on the suggestion that even an agent who cannot respond to specific moral considerations may still guide her behavior by her judgments about reasons. I argue that this explanation of a wrongdoer’s behavior can qualify her for blame even if her capacity for moral understanding is impaired. A second argument (...)
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  40. James T. Higginbotham (1998). Conceptual Competence. Philosophical Issues 9:149-162.score: 15.0
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  41. Robert Schwartz (1995). Is Mathematical Competence Innate? Philosophy of Science 62 (2):227-40.score: 15.0
    Despite a vast philosophical literature on the epistemology of mathematics and much speculation about how, in principle, knowledge of this domain is possible, little attention has been paid to the psychological findings and theories concerning the acquisition, comprehension and use of mathematical knowledge. This contrasts sharply with recent philosophical work on language where comparable issues and problems arise. One topic that is the center of debate in the study of mathematical cognition is the question of innateness. This paper critically examines (...)
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  42. Raymond J. Nelson (1978). The Competence-Performance Distinction in Mental Philosophy. Synthese 39 (November):337-382.score: 15.0
  43. Kristine Baerøe (2010). Patient Autonomy, Assessment of Competence and Surrogate Decision-Making: A Call for Reasonableness in Deciding for Others. Bioethics 24 (2):87-95.score: 15.0
  44. David K. Henderson & Terence E. Horgan (2000). Simulation and Epistemic Competence. In H. Kobler & K. Steuber (eds.), Empathy and Agency: The Problem of Understanding in the Social Sciences. Westview.score: 15.0
    Epistemology has recently come to more and more take the articulate form of an investigation into how we do, and perhaps might better, manage the cognitive chores of producing, modifying, and generally maintaining belief-sets with a view to having a true and systematic understanding of the world. While this approach has continuities with earlier philosophy, it admittedly makes a departure from the tradition of epistemology as first philosophy.
     
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  45. Philippe Chaubet, Enrique Correa Molina & Colette Gervais (2013). Considérations méthodologiques pour aborder la compétence à « réfléchir » ou à « faire réfléchir » sur sa pratique en enseignement. Phronesis 2 (1):28-40.score: 15.0
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  46. Joachim P. Sturmberg & John Hinchy (2010). Borderline Competence – From a Complexity Perspective: Conceptualization and Implementation for Certifying Examinations. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (4):867-872.score: 15.0
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  47. John Vorhaus (2005). Citizenship, Competence and Profound Disability. Journal of Philosophy of Education 39 (3):461–475.score: 15.0
  48. Hank Davis & Rachelle Pérusse (1988). Numerical Competence in Animals: Definitional Issues, Current Evidence, and a New Research Agenda. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):561.score: 15.0
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  49. Roland Imhoff, Jonas Woelki, Sebastian Hanke & Ron Dotsch (2013). Warmth and Competence in Your Face! Visual Encoding of Stereotype Content. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 15.0
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  50. Stella Reiter‐Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schuermann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer‐Zehnder (2011). Evidence–Competence–Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi‐Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap. Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.score: 15.0
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