Search results for 'Complex organizations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  16
    J. Stuart Bunderson (2001). Normal Injustices and Morality in Complex Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 33 (3):181 - 190.
    This paper applies theory and research examining errors in complex organizational systems to the problem of individual and collective morality in organizations. It is proposed that because of the nature of complex organizations, unjust outcomes can (and will) result from organizational actions even when all organization members have acted responsibly. The argument that complex organizations are therefore immoral is considered and rejected. Instead, the paper argues that morality in complex organizations begins with (...)
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  2.  7
    Kurt Richardson (2008). Managing Complex Organizations: Complexity Thinking and the Science and Art of Management. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 10 (2):13-26.
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  3.  14
    Paul Attewell (1986). Imperialism Within Complex Organizations. Sociological Theory 4 (2):115-125.
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  4.  1
    Jameson W. Doig, Douglas E. Phillips & Tycho Manson (1984). Deterring Illegal Behavior by Officials of Complex Organizations. Criminal Justice Ethics 3 (1):27-56.
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  5.  3
    Stephen P. Turmer (1977). Complex Organizations as Savage Tribes. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 7 (1):99–125.
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  6. Amitai Etzioni & William R. Taber (forthcoming). Scope, Pervasiveness, and Tension Management in Complex Organizations. Social Research.
     
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  7.  4
    Michelle Jordon, Holly Jordan Lanham, Ruth A. Anderson & Reuben R. McDaniel Jr (2010). Implications of Complex Adaptive Systems Theory for Interpreting Research About Health Care Organizations. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (1):228-231.
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  8.  11
    Ysanne Carlisle & Elizabeth McMillan (2006). Innovation in Organizations From a Complex Adaptive Systems Perspective. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 8 (1):2-9.
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  9.  1
    Sergey Samoilenko (2008). Fitness Landscapes of Complex Systems: Insights and Implications On Managing a Conflict Environment of Organizations. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 10 (4).
  10.  4
    John Shotter & Haridimos Tsoukas (2011). Complex Thought, Simple Talk: An Ecological Approach to Language-Based Change in Organizations. In Peter Allen, Steve Maguire & Bill McKelvey (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Complexity and Management. Sage 333.
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  11.  19
    Peter Csermely (2009). Weak Links: The Universal Key to the Stability of Networks and Complex Systems. Springer.
    A principle is born: the Granovetter study -- Why do we like networks? -- Network stability -- Weak links as stabilizers of complex systems -- Atoms, molecules, and macromolecules -- Weak links and cellular stability -- Weak links and the stability of organisms -- Social nets -- Networks of human culture -- The global web -- The Ecoweb -- Conclusions and perspectives.
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  12.  52
    Wim Vandekerckhove & M. S. Ronald Commers (2004). Whistle Blowing and Rational Loyalty. Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):225-233.
    Today's complex and decentralized organization gives rise to organizational needs for both loyalty and institutionalized whistle blowing. However, ethicists see a contradiction between both needs. This paper argues there is no such contradiction. It shows why earlier attempts to go beyond the dilemma are not satisfying. The solution proposed in this paper starts from an organizational perspective instead of an individual one. It does so by reframing the concept of loyalty into rational loyalty. This means that the object of (...)
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  13.  28
    John D. Pringle & Donald C. Cole (2009). Health Research in Complex Emergencies: A Humanitarian Imperative. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):115-123.
    Health researchers, research trainees, and ethics reviewers should be prepared for the special application of research ethics within complex humanitarian emergencies. This paper argues that as a precursor to published ethical guidelines for conducting research in complex emergencies, researchers and research ethics committees should observe the following primary ethical considerations: (1) the research is not at the expense of humanitarian action; (2) the research is justified in that it is needs-driven and relevant to the affected populations; and (3) (...)
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  14.  6
    Haridimos Tsoukas (2004). Complex Knowledge: Studies in Organizational Epistemology. OUP Oxford.
    In this book Haridimos Tsoukas, one of the most imaginative organization theorists of our time, examines the nature of knowledge in organizations, and how individuals and scholars approach the concept of knowledge. -/- Tsoukas firstly looks at organizational knowledge and its embeddedness in social contexts and forms of life. He shows that knowledge is not just a collection of free floating representations of the world to be used at will, but an activity constitutive of the world. On the one (...)
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  15.  14
    Mar Pérezts, Jean-Philippe Bouilloud & Vincent Gaulejac (2011). Serving Two Masters: The Contradictory Organization as an Ethical Challenge for Managerial Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 101 (S1):33-44.
    “No one can serve two masters.” This Bible quotation highlights an irreducible contradiction, which echoes numerous organizational settings. This article considers the under-explored ethical implications of paradoxical injunctions created by such a contradiction at the managerial level. Contradictory organizational constraints turn into paradoxant systems , where the organization structurally settles paradoxical injunctions which challenge managerial ethics in practice. We then ask what managerial responsibility means in such contexts and find that managers have then to reshape their practice as a situated (...)
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  16.  51
    David T. Risser (1996). The Social Dimension of Moral Responsibility: Taking Organizations Seriously. Journal of Social Philosophy 27 (1):189-207.
    This article provides a justification for holding complex organizations morally responsible and shows how this moral dimension is implicit in the concept of power. Several objections to organizational moral responsibility are addressed, and a new view of complex organizations as agents which are morally responsible, but do not possess moral rights, is defended.
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  17. Haridimos Tsoukas (2004). Complex Knowledge. Oxford University Press Uk.
    In this book Haridimos Tsoukas, one of the most imaginative organization theorists of our time, examines the nature of knowledge in organizations, and how individuals and scholars approach the concept of knowledge.Tsoukas firstly looks at organizational knowledge and its embeddedness in social contexts and forms of life. He shows that knowledge is not just a collection of free floating representations of the world to be used at will, but an activity constitutive of the world. On the one hand the (...)
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  18.  20
    Chase E. Thiel, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren Harkrider, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford (2012). Leader Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations: Strategies for Sensemaking. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (1):49-64.
    Organizational leaders face environmental challenges and pressures that put them under ethical risk. Navigating this ethical risk is demanding given the dynamics of contemporary organizations. Traditional models of ethical decision-making (EDM) are an inadequate framework for understanding how leaders respond to ethical dilemmas under conditions of uncertainty and equivocality. Sensemaking models more accurately illustrate leader EDM and account for individual, social, and environmental constraints. Using the sensemaking approach as a foundation, previous EDM models are (...)
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  19.  95
    W. Edward Stead, Dan L. Worrell & Jean Garner Stead (1990). An Integrative Model for Understanding and Managing Ethical Behavior in Business Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (3):233 - 242.
    Managing ethical behavior is a one of the most pervasive and complex problems facing business organizations today. Employees' decisions to behave ethically or unethically are influenced by a myriad of individual and situational factors. Background, personality, decision history, managerial philosophy, and reinforcement are but a few of the factors which have been identified by researchers as determinants of employees' behavior when faced with ethical dilemmas. The literature related to ethical behavior is reviewed in this article, and a model (...)
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  20.  29
    Jonathan Z. Gottlieb & Jyotsna Sanzgiri (1996). Towards an Ethical Dimension of Decision Making in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 15 (12):1275 - 1285.
    There is a growing need to increase our understanding of ethical decision making in U.S. based organizations. The authors examine the complexity of creating uniform ethical standards even when the meaning of ethical behavior is being debated. The nature of these controversies are considered, and three important dimensions for ethical decision making are discussed: leaders with integrity and a strong sense of social responsibility, organization cultures that foster dialogue and dissent, and organizations that are willing to reflect on (...)
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  21.  18
    E. Sharon Mason & Peter E. Mudrack (1997). Do Complex Moral Reasoners Experience Greater Ethical Work Conflict? Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1311-1318.
    Individuals who disagree that organizational interests legitimately supersede those of the wider society may experience conflict between their personal standards of ethics and those demanded by an employing organization, a conflict that is well documented. An additional question is whether or not individuals capable of complex moral reasoning experience greater conflict than those reasoning at a less developed level. This question was first positioned in a theoretical framework and then investigated using 115 survey responses from a student sample. Correlational (...)
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  22.  16
    Allen Buchanan (1996). Toward a Theory of the Ethics of Bureaucratic Organizations. Business Ethics Quarterly 6 (4):419-440.
    This essay articulates a crucial and neglected element of a general theory of the ethics of bureaucratic organizations, both private andpublic. The key to the approach developed here is the thesis that the distinctive ethical principles applicable to bureaucratic organizations are responses to the distinctive agency-risks that arise from the nature of bureaucratic organizations as complex webs of principal/agent relationships. It is argued that the most important and distinctive ethical principles for bureaucratic organizations express commitments (...)
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  23.  45
    Larry S. Temkin (2004). Thinking About the Needy, Justice, and International Organizations. Journal of Ethics 8 (4):349 - 395.
    This article has three main parts, Section 2 considers the nature and extent to which individuals who are well-off have a moral obligation to aid the worlds needy. Drawing on a pluralistic approach to morality, which includes consequentialist, virtue-based, and deontological elements, it is contended that most who are well-off should do much more than they do to aid the needy, and that they are open to serious moral criticism if they simply ignore the needy. Part one also focuses on (...)
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  24.  35
    Chong Ju Choi & Sae Won Kim (2008). Women and Globalization: Ethical Dimensions of Knowledge Transfer in Global Organizations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):53 - 61.
    The topic of women and globalization raises fundamental questions on the impact of globalization on women, ethnic minorities and other socio-demographically under-represented actors in global organizations. This article seeks to integrate theories of procedural justice, psychological contracts, motivation and psychological ownership in knowledge transfer in global organizations, and the implications for women, and other under-represented actors. Our analysis concurs with current research on the need for a relativist perspective in business ethics research and one that encompasses the critical (...)
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  25.  1
    Irina Shandra (2016). Залізнична криза в донбасі в роки першої світової війни: Погляд представницьких організацій підприємців. Схід 7:60-71.
    Representative organizations of employers massively occur in Russian Empire in the post-reform period as a form of protection of the interests of industrialists and businessmen in terms of development of capitalist relations. One of the issues related to the common interests of entrepreneurs in the First World War were rail transportation. Transport problems during the war was most acute for business associations, and became for them some kind a test of the efficiency. Analysis of periodicals and record keeping documentation (...)
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  26.  3
    Farley S. Nobre, Andrew M. Tobias & David S. Walker (2009). The Impact of Cognitive Machines on Complex Decisions and Organizational Change. AI and Society 24 (4):365-381.
    Humans and organizations have limitations of computational capacity and information management. Such constraints are synonymous with bounded rationality. Therefore, in order to extend the human and organizational boundaries to more advanced models of cognition, this research proposes concepts of cognitive machines in organizations. From a micro point of view, what makes this research distinct is that, beyond people, it includes in the list of participants of the organization the cognitive machines. From a macro point of view, this paper (...)
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  27.  45
    Andy Clark, Control & Intervention in Complex Adaptive Systems: From Biology to Biogen.
    Markets, companies and various forms of business organizations may all (we have argued) be usefully viewed through the lens of CAS -- the theory of complex adaptive systems. In this chapter, I address one fundamental issue that confronts both the theoretician and the business manager: the nature and opportunities for control and intervention in complex adaptive regimes. The problem is obvious enough. A complex adaptive system, as we have defined it, is soft assembled and largely self-organizing. (...)
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  28.  1
    Nanna Mik-Meyer (2006). Identities and Organisations. Evaluating the Personality Traits of Clients in Two Danish Rehabilitation Organizations. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (1):32-48.
    This article explores how the guidelines for personality assessments in two Danish rehabilitation organizations influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis shows how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client types pertaining to that organization. The rehabilitation organizations’ local history, (...)
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  29.  2
    Joachim P. Sturmberg (2011). Primary Health Care Organizations – Through a Conceptual and a Political Lens. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (3):525-529.
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  30.  46
    Francis T. Hannafey (2003). Entrepreneurship and Ethics: A Literature Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 46 (2):99 - 110.
    During the past twenty years, there has been an explosion of new interest in entrepreneurs and their activities. Yet only recently has serious research attention been devoted to the ethical problems encountered by entrepreneurs and their organizations. Entrepreneurs face uniquely complex moral problems related to basic fairness, personnel and customer relationships, distribution dilemmas, and other challenges. This essay surveys contemporary research in entrepreneurial ethics, examines the kinds of ethical dilemmas entrepreneurs confront, identifies major research topics and methodological approaches, (...)
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  31.  19
    Kor Grit (2004). Corporate Citizenship: How to Strengthen the Social Responsibility of Managers? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):97-106.
    Corporate citizenship challenges the foundations and working of the basic institutions market, state and civil society. These institutional changes complicate the work of the manager, because the responsibilities of management are not only increasing, they are also becoming vaguer and more elusive. In this paper, I will analyze the new, complex responsibilities of management in terms of the scope and the legitimizationof corporate citizenship. What may we expect of individual organizations? Which wishes of which stakeholders should be honored? (...)
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  32.  41
    Robert A. Rice (2001). Noble Goals and Challenging Terrain: Organic and Fair Trade Coffee Movements in the Global Marketplace. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (1):39-66.
    Social relations associated with conventional agricultural exports find their origins in long term associations based on business, family, and class alliances. Working outside these boundaries presents a host of challenges, especially where small producers with little economic or political power are concerned. Yet, in many developing countries, alternative trade organizations (ATOs) based on philosophies of social justice and/or environmental well-being are carving out spaces alongside traditional agricultural export sectors by establishing new channels of trade and marketing. Coffee provides a (...)
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  33.  15
    David Rooney & Bernard McKenna (2007). Wisdom in Organizations: Whence and Whither. Social Epistemology 21 (2):113 – 138.
    We trace the genealogy of wisdom to show that its status in epistemological and management discourse has gradually declined since the Scientific Revolution. As the status of wisdom has declined, so the status of rational science has grown. We argue that the effects on the practice of management of the decline of wisdom may impede management practice by clouding judgment, degrading decision making and compromising ethical standards. We show that wisdom combines transcendent intellection and rational process with ethics to (...)
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  34.  1
    Kristen C. Nelson, Rachel F. Brummel, Nicholas Jordan & Steven Manson (2014). Social Networks in Complex Human and Natural Systems: The Case of Rotational Grazing, Weak Ties, and Eastern US Dairy Landscapes. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2):245-259.
    Multifunctional agricultural systems seek to expand upon production-based benefits to enhance family wellbeing and animal health, reduce inputs, and improve environmental services such as biodiversity and water quality. However, in many countries a landscape-level conversion is uneven at best and stalled at worst. This is particularly true across the eastern rural landscape in the United States. We explore the role of social networks as drivers of system transformation within dairy production in the eastern United States, specifically rotational grazing (...)
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  35. Daniel J. Mahoney (2006). Ethics and the School Administrator: Balancing Today's Complex Issues. Rowman & Littlefield Education.
    A body of knowledge -- Organizations -- Behavior -- Ethics -- Organizational politics -- Interpersonal dynamics -- Professional ethics -- Balancing it all.
     
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  36.  29
    O. C. Ferrell (2013). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases. Houghton Mifflin Co.
    Providing a vibrant four-color design, market-leading BUSINESS ETHICS: ETHICAL DECISION MAKING AND CASES, Ninth Edition, thoroughly covers the complex environment in which managers confront ethical decision making. Using a proven managerial framework, this accessible, applied text addresses the overall concepts, processes, and best practices associated with successful business ethics programs--helping readers see how ethics can be integrated into key strategic business decisions. Thoroughly revised, the new ninth edition incorporates coverage of new legislation affecting business ethics, (...)
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  37.  51
    Neal Curtis (2011). Three Realms in the Activity of the Image. Social Research: An International Quarterly 78 (4):1089-1114.
    The article addresses the duplicity in our approach to the image that stems from an ambiguity towards the realm of the visual itself. Having inherited Plato's distinction between forms and shadows we remain locked in an unhelpful tension between truth and falsity, and forget that truth for Plato remains visual in nature. A form, the Greek word for which is eidos, refers to both essence and idea, but is also the way something looks, or how it gives itself to be (...)
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  38. Alvaro Moreno & Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo (2009). The Problem of the Emergence of Functional Diversity in Prebiotic Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):585-605.
    Since Darwin it is widely accepted that natural selection (NS) is the most important mechanism to explain how biological organisms—in their amazing variety—evolve and, therefore, also how the complexity of certain natural systems can increase over time, creating ever new functions or functional structures/relationships. Nevertheless, the way in which NS is conceived within Darwinian Theory already requires an open, wide enough, functional domain where selective forces may act. And, as the present paper will try to show, this becomes even more (...)
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  39.  3
    Kevin Brain, LouiseComerford Boyes & Ivan Reid * (2004). Teachers or Learning Leaders?: Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Gone to Be Leaders, Everyone. Educational Studies 30 (3):251-264.
    This paper traces the dramatic proliferation of leadership roles in English primary and secondar schools, due mainly to central government education policy of the past two decades. This has transformed schools from relatively simple to highly complex organizations and has impacted on the working conditions of, and demands on, teachers, together with many aspects of schooling. These changes are illustrated with typical examples of schools' leadership structures and their functioning. Interview data provide teachers' views on, and reactions to, (...)
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  40.  7
    Georges-Yves Kervern (1993). FOCUS: Studying Risks: The Science of Cindynics. Business Ethics 2 (3):140–142.
    ’Catastrophes are not accidents.’All complex organizations can take steps to prevent catastrophe by enlisting the new scientific study of danger. The author is a member of the Scientific Committee of 1′Institut Européen de Cindyniques and Directeur général adjoint of L'Union des Assurances de Paris. This article is part of a presentation made to the 1992 Paris Conference of the European Business Ethics Network, of which the author is a Council member. The subject of the Conference was the role (...)
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  41.  44
    Terrence Guay, Jonathan P. Doh & Graham Sinclair (2004). Non-Governmental Organizations, Shareholder Activism, and Socially Responsible Investments: Ethical, Strategic, and Governance Implications. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 52 (1):125-139.
    In this article, we document the growing influence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the realm of socially responsible investing (SRI). Drawing from ethical and economic perspectives on stakeholder management and agency theory, we develop a framework to understand how and when NGOs will be most influential in shaping the ethical and social responsibility orientations of business using the emergence of SRI as the primary influencing vehicle. We find that NGOs have opportunities to influence corporate conduct via direct, indirect, (...)
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  42. Jeffrey Kirby (2016). Balancing Legitimate Critical-Care Interests: Setting Defensible Care Limits Through Policy Development. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (1):38-47.
    Critical-care decision making is highly complex, given the need for health care providers and organizations to consider, and constructively respond to, the diverse interests and perspectives of a variety of legitimate stakeholders. Insights derived from an identified set of ethics-related considerations have the potential to meaningfully inform inclusive and deliberative policy development that aims to optimally balance the competing obligations that arise in this challenging, clinical decision-making domain. A potential, constructive outcome of such policy engagement is the collaborative (...)
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  43.  17
    Dima Jamali & Ben Neville (2011). Convergence Versus Divergence of CSR in Developing Countries: An Embedded Multi-Layered Institutional Lens. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (4):599-621.
    This paper capitalizes on an institutional perspective to analyze corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientations in the Lebanese context. Specifically, the paper compiles a new theoretical framework drawing on a multi-level model of institutional flows by Scott (Institutions and organizations: ideas and interests, 2008 ) and the explicit/implicit CSR model by Matten and Moon (Acad Manag Rev 33(2):404–424, 2008 ). This new theoretical framework is then used to explore the CSR convergence versus divergence question in a developing country (...)
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  44.  51
    J. Thomas Whetstone (2001). How Virtue Fits Within Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 33 (2):101 - 114.
    This paper proposes that managers add an attention to virtues and vices of human character as a full complement to moral reasoning according to a deontological focus on obligations to act and a teleological focus on consequences (a balanced tripartite approach). Even if the criticisms of virtue ethics cloud its use as a mononomic normative theory of justification, they do not refute the substantial benefits of applying a human character perspective – when done so in conjunction with also-imperfect act-oriented perspectives. (...)
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  45.  30
    Sean T. Hannah, Bruce J. Avolio & Fred O. Walumbwa (2011). Relationships Between Authentic Leadership, Moral Courage, and Ethical and Pro-Social Behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):555-578.
    Organizations constitute morally-complex environments, requiring organization members to possess levels of moral courage sufficient to promote their ethical action, while refraining from unethical actions when faced with temptations or pressures. Using a sample drawn from a military context, we explored the antecedents and consequences of moral courage. Results from this four-month field study demonstrated that authentic leadership was positively related to followers’ displays of moral courage. Further, followers’ moral courage fully mediated the effects of authentic leadership on followers’ (...)
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  46.  79
    Julia Roloff (2008). Learning From Multi-Stakeholder Networks: Issue-Focussed Stakeholder Management. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):233 - 250.
    From an analysis of the role of companies in multi-stakeholder networks and a critical review of stakeholder theory, it is argued that companies practise two different types of stakeholder management: they focus on their organization’s welfare (organization- focussed stakeholder management) or on an issue that affects their relationship with other societal groups and organizations (issue-focussed stakeholder management). These two approaches supplement each other. It is demonstrated that issue-focussed stakeholder management dominates in multi-stakeholder networks, because it enables corporations to address (...)
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  47. Claude Francoeur, Réal Labelle & Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné (2008). Gender Diversity in Corporate Governance and Top Management. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):83 - 95.
    This article examines whether and how the participation of women in the firm’s board of directors and senior management enhances financial performance. We use the Fama and French (1992, 1993) valuation framework to take the level of risk into consideration, when comparing firm performances, whereas previous studies used either raw stock returns or accounting ratios. Our results indicate that firms operating in complex environments do generate positive and significant abnormal returns when they have a high proportion of women officers. (...)
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  48.  36
    Benjamin A. Neville & Bulent Menguc (2006). Stakeholder Multiplicity: Toward an Understanding of the Interactions Between Stakeholders. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 66 (4):377 - 391.
    While stakeholder theory has traditionally considered organization’s interactions with stakeholders in terms of independent, dyadic relationships, recent scholarship has pointed to the fact that organizations exist within a complex network of intertwining relationships [e.g., Rowley, T. J.: 1997, The Academy of Management Review 22(4), 887–910]. However, further theoretical and empirical development of the interactions between stakeholders has been lacking. In this paper, we develop a framework for understanding and measuring the effects upon the organization of competing, complementary (...)
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  49.  43
    Jeanne M. Logsdon & Kristi Yuthas (1997). Corporate Social Performance, Stakeholder Orientation, and Organizational Moral Development. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1213-1226.
    This article begins with an explanation of how moral development for organizations has parallels to Kohlberg's categorization of the levels of individual moral development. Then the levels of organizational moral development are integrated into the literature on corporate social performance by relating them to different stakeholder orientations. Finally, the authors propose a model of organizational moral development that emphasizes the role of top management in creating organizational processes that shape the organizational and institutional components of corporate social performance. This (...)
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  50.  24
    Fahri Karakas (2010). Spirituality and Performance in Organizations: A Literature Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):89 - 106.
    The purpose of this article is to review spirituality at work literature and to explore how spirituality improves employees' performances and organizational effectiveness. The article reviews about 140 articles on workplace spirituality to review their findings on how spirituality supports organizational performance. Three different perspectives are introduced on how spirituality benefits employees and supports organizational performance based on the extant literature: (a) Spirituality enhances employee well-being and quality of life; (b) Spirituality provides employees a sense of purpose and meaning at (...)
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