Search results for 'Condition' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Steve Matthews (2010). Personal Identity, the Causal Condition, and the Simple View. Philosophical Papers 39 (2):183-208.score: 18.0
    Among theories of personal identity over time the simple view has not been popular among philosophers, but it nevertheless remains the default view among non philosophers. It may be construed either as the view that nothing grounds a claim of personal identity over time, or that something quite simple (a soul perhaps) is the ground. If the former construal is accepted, a conspicuous difficulty is that the condition of causal dependence between person-stages is absent. But this leaves such a (...)
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  2. Peter Spirtes (2011). Intervention, Determinism, and the Causal Minimality Condition. Synthese 182 (3):335-347.score: 18.0
    We clarify the status of the so-called causal minimality condition in the theory of causal Bayesian networks, which has received much attention in the recent literature on the epistemology of causation. In doing so, we argue that the condition is well motivated in the interventionist (or manipulability) account of causation, assuming the causal Markov condition which is essential to the semantics of causal Bayesian networks. Our argument has two parts. First, we show that the causal minimality (...), rather than an add-on methodological assumption of simplicity, necessarily follows from the substantive interventionist theses, provided that the actual probability distribution is strictly positive. Second, we demonstrate that the causal minimality condition can fail when the actual probability distribution is not positive, as is the case in the presence of deterministic relationships. But we argue that the interventionist account still entails a pragmatic justification of the causal minimality condition. Our argument in the second part exemplifies a general perspective that we think commendable: when evaluating methods for inferring causal structures and their underlying assumptions, it is relevant to consider how the inferred causal structure will be subsequently used for counterfactual reasoning. (shrink)
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  3. Nathan Miczo (2008). The Human Condition and the Gift: Towards a Theoretical Perspective on Close Relationships. [REVIEW] Human Studies 31 (2):133 - 155.score: 18.0
    Hannah Arendt’s exposition of the human condition provides the basic framework for a theoretical perspective on close relationships. According to Arendt, the human condition is comprised of three modes of activity: labor, work, and action. Labor is need-driven behavior, work concerns goal-directed activity and the fabrication of things, and action involves the mutual validation of unique individuals. Within this framework, the gift is the means by which relational ties are made concrete. I propose a model of gift-giving organized (...)
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  4. Daniel Steel (2006). Homogeneity, Selection, and the Faithfulness Condition. Minds and Machines 16 (3):303-317.score: 18.0
    The faithfulness condition (FC) is a useful principle for inferring causal structure from statistical data. The usual motivation for the FC appeals to theorems showing that exceptions to it have probability zero, provided that some apparently reasonable assumptions obtain. However, some have objected that, the theorems notwithstanding, exceptions to the FC are probable in commonly occurring circumstances. I argue that exceptions to the FC are probable in the circumstances specified by this objection only given the presence of a (...) that I label homogeneity, and furthermore that this condition typically does not obtain in the FC’s intended domain of application. (shrink)
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  5. Floris Roelofsen (2010). Condition B Effects in Two Simple Steps. Natural Language Semantics 18 (2):115-140.score: 18.0
    This paper is concerned with constraints on the interpretation of pronominal anaphora, in particular Condition B effects. It aims to contribute to a particular approach, initiated by Reinhart (Anaphora and semantic interpretation, 1983) and further developed elsewhere. It proposes a modification of Reinhart’s Interface Rule, and argues that the resulting theory compares favorably with others, while being compatible with independently motivated general hypotheses about the interaction between different interpretive mechanisms.
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  6. Henning Trüper (2012). What Condition Our Condition is In. History and Theory 51 (2):246-256.score: 18.0
    In Humanism in Intercultural Perspective, editors Jörn Rüsen and Henner Laass outline their project of renewing the foundations of the notion of “humanism.” They collect a large variety of contributions they hope will be conducive to this aim. Yet the architecture of the project leaves open a long list of conceptual problems, concerning in particular: the integration of cultural diversity into humanism; the relationship between humanism and the political; the way in which normativity is incorporated into humanism; and the question (...)
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  7. Michelle Zancarini-Fournel (2011). Condition féminine, rapports sociaux de sexe, genre.. Clio 2:119-129.score: 18.0
    L’article se propose de retracer brièvement l’itinéraire et le fondement théorique (du marxisme au poststructuralisme) des termes « condition féminine », « rapports sociaux de sexe » et « genre » dans différentes disciplines (sociologie, histoire et science politique) en précisant la chronologie différenciée de leur usage en France et dans le monde anglophone.
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  8. Mavis Hetherington & Leonard E. Ross (1963). Effect of Sex of Subject, Sex of Experimenter, and Reinforcement Condition on Serial Verbal Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (6):572.score: 15.0
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  9. Alexandre Escudier (2011). L'herméneutique de la condition historique selon Paul Ricœur. Archives de Philosophie 4:581-597.score: 15.0
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  10. Louis E. Price, William E. Vandament & David W. Abbott (1964). Effects of Ready Signal Condition on Acquisition and Extinction of the Conditioned Eyelid Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (5):516.score: 15.0
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  11. Karoly Veress (2010). The Interpretive Possibilities of the Paradox of the Minority Condition. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 1 (3):72-84.score: 15.0
    The author of this paper presents the main interpretative orientations regarding the concept on the minority being of the reformed Transylvanian bishop Makkai Sándor who lived in the inter-war period. The author tries to point out the philosophical, moral, and existential sides of this problem which has become deep-rooted and permanent in the consciousness of the Hungarian intellectuals from Transylvania, and which has been known as the problem of the minority existential paradox. To accomplish this, the author relies on the (...)
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  12. Guobin Yang (2009). The Internet as Cultural Form: Technology and the Human Condition in China. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 22 (2):109-115.score: 15.0
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  13. Derek Allan (1988). André Malraux: The Commitment to Action in 'La Condition Humaine'. In Harold Bloom (ed.), André Malraux's Man's Fate. Chelsea House.score: 15.0
    Discusses the function of action in Malraux's third and most famous novel.
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  14. Derek Allan (1982). The Psychology of a Terrorist: Tchen in 'La Condition Humaine'. Nottingham French Studies 21 (1):48-66.score: 15.0
    Discusses the psychology of the terrorist Tchen in Malraux's 'Man's Fate'.
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  15. Charles Y. Nakamura & Jaques W. Kaswan (1962). Effect of Stimulus Condition and Reaction Time Information on Spatial Stimulus Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (1):67.score: 15.0
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  16. Helmut Wolter (1993). Consequences of Schanuel's Condition for Zeros of Exponential Terms. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):559-565.score: 15.0
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  17. William G. Lycan (2010). Direct Arguments for the Truth-Condition Theory of Meaning. Topoi 29 (2):99-108.score: 14.0
    The truth-condition theory of meaning is, naturally, thought of an as explanatory theory whose explananda are the meaning facts. But there are at least two deductive arguments that purport to establish the truth of the theory irrespective of its explanatory virtues. This paper examines those arguments and concludes that they succeed.
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  18. Stephen J. Boulter (2004). Metaphysical Realism as a Pre-Condition of Visual Perception. Biology and Philosophy 19 (2):243-261.score: 12.0
    In this paper I present a transcendental argument based on the findings of cognitive psychology and neurophysiology which invites two conclusions: First and foremost, that a pre-condition of visual perception itself is precisely what the Aristotelian and other commonsense realists maintain, namely, the independent existence of a featured, or pre-packaged world; second, this finding, combined with other reflections, suggests that, contra McDowell and other neo-Kantians, human beings have access to things as they are in the world via non-projective perception. (...)
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  19. Michael Bergmann (1997). Internalism, Externalism and the No-Defeater Condition. Synthese 110 (3):399-417.score: 12.0
    Despite various attempts to rectify matters, the internalism-externalism (I-E) debate in epistemology remains mired in serious confusion. I present a new account of this debate, one which fits well with entrenched views on the I-E distinction and illuminates the fundamental disagreements at the heart of the debate. Roughly speaking, the I-E debate is over whether or not certain of the necessary conditions of positive epistemic status are internal. But what is the sense of internal here? And of which conditions of (...)
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  20. Michael McKenna (2008). Putting the Lie on the Control Condition for Moral Responsibility. Philosophical Studies 139 (1):29 - 37.score: 12.0
    In “Control, Responsibility, and Moral Assessment” Angela Smith defends her nonvoluntarist theory of moral responsibility against the charge that any such view is shallow because it cannot capture the depth of judgments of responsibility. Only voluntarist positions can do this since only voluntarist positions allow for control. I argue that Smith is able to deflect the voluntarists’ criticism, but only with further resources. As a voluntarist, I also concede that Smith’s thesis has force, and I close with a compromise position, (...)
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  21. Daniel M. Hausman & James Woodward (2004). Modularity and the Causal Markov Condition: A Restatement. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (1):147-161.score: 12.0
    expose some gaps and difficulties in the argument for the causal Markov condition in our essay ‘Independence, Invariance and the Causal Markov Condition’ ([1999]), and we are grateful for the opportunity to reformulate our position. In particular, Cartwright disagrees vigorously with many of the theses we advance about the connection between causation and manipulation. Although we are not persuaded by some of her criticisms, we shall confine ourselves to showing how our central argument can be reconstructed and to (...)
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  22. Nancy Cartwright (2002). Against Modularity, the Causal Markov Condition, and Any Link Between the Two: Comments on Hausman and Woodward. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (3):411-453.score: 12.0
    In their rich and intricate paper ‘Independence, Invariance, and the Causal Markov Condition’, Daniel Hausman and James Woodward ([1999]) put forward two independent theses, which they label ‘level invariance’ and ‘manipulability’, and they claim that, given a specific set of assumptions, manipulability implies the causal Markov condition. These claims are interesting and important, and this paper is devoted to commenting on them. With respect to level invariance, I argue that Hausman and Woodward's discussion is confusing because, as I (...)
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  23. DM Hausman & J. Woodward (1999). Independence, Invariance and the Causal Markov Condition. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (4):521-583.score: 12.0
    This essay explains what the Causal Markov Condition says and defends the condition from the many criticisms that have been launched against it. Although we are skeptical about some of the applications of the Causal Markov Condition, we argue that it is implicit in the view that causes can be used to manipulate their effects and that it cannot be surrendered without surrendering this view of causation.
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  24. Michael A. Day (1990). The No-Slip Condition of Fluid Dynamics. Erkenntnis 33 (3):285 - 296.score: 12.0
    In many applications of physics, boundary conditions have an essential role. The purpose of this paper is to examine from both a historical and philosophical perspective one such boundary condition, namely, the no-slip condition of fluid dynamics. The historical perspective is based on the works of George Stokes and serves as the foundation for the philosophical perspective. It is seen that historically the acceptance of the no-slip condition was problematic. Philosophically, the no-slip condition is interesting since (...)
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  25. Nancy Cartwright (2006). From Metaphysics to Method: Comments on Manipulability and the Causal Markov Condition. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):197-218.score: 12.0
    Daniel Hausman and James Woodward claim to prove that the causal Markov condition, so important to Bayes-nets methods for causal inference, is the ‘flip side’ of an important metaphysical fact about causation—that causes can be used to manipulate their effects. This paper disagrees. First, the premise of their proof does not demand that causes can be used to manipulate their effects but rather that if a relation passes a certain specific kind of test, it is causal. Second, the proof (...)
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  26. Roger Wertheimer (1968). Conditions. Journal of Philosophy 65 (12):355-364.score: 12.0
    Critique of prevailing textbook conception of sufficient conditions and necessary conditions as a truth functional relation of material implication (p->q)/(~q->~p). Explanation of common sense conception of condition as correlative of consequence, involving dependence. Utility of this conception exhibited in resolving puzzles regarding ontology, truth, and fatalism.
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  27. Daniel Hausman & James Woodward (2004). Manipulation and the Causal Markov Condition. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):846-856.score: 12.0
    This paper explores the relationship between a manipulability conception of causation and the causal Markov condition (CM). We argue that violations of CM also violate widely shared expectations—implicit in the manipulability conception—having to do with the absence of spontaneous correlations. They also violate expectations concerning the connection between independence or dependence relationships in the presence and absence of interventions.
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  28. Denis Collins (2000). The Quest to Improve the Human Condition: The First 1 500 Articles Published in Journal of Business Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 26 (1):1 - 73.score: 12.0
    In 1999, the Journal of Business Ethics published its 1 500th article. This article commemorates the journal's quest "to improve the human condition" (Michalos, 1988, p. 1) with a summary and assessment of the first eighteen volumes. The first part provides an overview of JBE, highlighting the journal's growth, types of methodologies published, and the breadth of the field. The second part provides a detailed account of the quantitative research findings. Major research topics include (1) prevalence of ethical behavior, (...)
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  29. Chris Mortensen (1997). The Leibniz Continuity Condition, Inconsistency and Quantum Dynamics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 26 (4):377-389.score: 12.0
    A principle of continuity due to Leibniz has recently been revived by Graham Priest in arguing for an inconsistent account of motion. This paper argues that the Leibniz Continuity Condition has a reasonable interpretation in a different, though still inconsistent, class of dynamical systems. The account is then applied to the quantum mechanical description of the hydrogen atom.
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  30. Thomas I. Cochrane (2007). Brain Disease or Moral Condition? Wrong Question. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):24 – 25.score: 12.0
    The author comments on the article “The neurobiology of addition: Implications for voluntary control of behavior,‘ by S. E. Hyman. The author agrees with Hyman that debate persists whether addiction is a brain disease or a moral condition. The author suggests that even if we understand the neurobiology of addiction, it will make sense to seek accountability from the addict and to modify his behavior. He also suggests that no facts about neurobiology will change these moral requirements. Accession Number: (...)
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  31. Diane P. Michelfelder (2000). Our Moral Condition in Cyberspace. Ethics and Information Technology 2 (3):147-152.score: 12.0
    Some kinds of technological change not only trigger new ethical problems, but also give rise to questions about those very approaches to addressing ethical problems that have been relied upon in the past. Writing in the aftermath of World War II, Hans Jonas called for a new ``ethics of responsibility,'' based on the reasoning that modern technology dramatically divorces our moral condition from the assumptions under which standard ethical theories were first conceived. Can a similar claim be made about (...)
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  32. Igor Douven (2007). On Bradley's Preservation Condition for Conditionals. Erkenntnis 67 (1):111 - 118.score: 12.0
    Bradley has argued that a truth-conditional semantics for conditionals is incompatible with an allegedly very weak and intuitively compelling constraint on the interpretation of conditionals. I argue that the example Bradley offers to motivate this constraint can be explained along pragmatic lines that are compatible with the correctness of at least one popular truth-conditional semantics for conditionals.
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  33. Luca Moretti (2003). Why the Converse Consequence Condition Cannot Be Accepted. Analysis 63 (4):297–300.score: 12.0
    Three confirmation principles discussed by Hempel are the Converse Consequence Condition, the Special Consequence Condition and the Entailment Condition. Le Morvan (1999) has argued that, when the choice among confirmation principles is just about them, it is the Converse Consequence Condition that must be rejected. In this paper, I make this argument definitive. In doing that, I will provide an indisputable proof that the simple conjunction of the Converse Consequence Condition and the Entailment Condition (...)
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  34. G. William Moore, Grover M. Hutchins & Robert E. Miller (1986). A New Paradigm for Hypothesis Testing in Medicine, with Examination of the Neyman Pearson Condition. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 7 (3).score: 12.0
    In the past, hypothesis testing in medicine has employed the paradigm of the repeatable experiment. In statistical hypothesis testing, an unbiased sample is drawn from a larger source population, and a calculated statistic is compared to a preassigned critical region, on the assumption that the comparison could be repeated an indefinite number of times. However, repeated experiments often cannot be performed on human beings, due to ethical or economic constraints. We describe a new paradigm for hypothesis testing which uses only (...)
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  35. Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia (2003). Taking Self-Excitations Seriously: On Angel's Initial Condition. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):319-326.score: 12.0
    In a recent article, L. Angel ([2001]) argues that if we do not implement Newtonian physics adding to it a certain usual type of boundary condition, then this leads to the rejection of what he calls the P principle: ‘the composition of contact interactions does not create a noncontact interaction.’ Here I shall demonstrate that this conclusion does not follow. However, as will be made clear, this in no way diminishes the interest or importance of the model introduced by (...)
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  36. Isaac Levi (2003). Counterexamples to Recovery and the Filtering Condition. Studia Logica 73 (2):209 - 218.score: 12.0
    David Makinson has argued that the compelling character of counterexamples to the Recovery Condition on contraction is due to an appeal to justificational structure. In “naked theories” where such structure is ignored or is not present, Recovery does apply. This note attempts to show that Makinson is mistaken on both counts. Recovery fails when no appeal is made to justificational structure.
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  37. James Owen Weatherall (2012). A Brief Remark on Energy Conditions and the Geroch-Jang Theorem. Foundations of Physics 42 (2):209-214.score: 12.0
    The status of the geodesic principle in General Relativity has been a topic of some interest in the recent literature on the foundations of spacetime theories. Part of this discussion has focused on the role that a certain energy condition plays in the proof of a theorem due to Bob Geroch and Pong-Soo Jang [“Motion of a Body in General Relativity.” Journal of Mathematical Physics 16(1) (1975)] that can be taken to make precise the claim that the geodesic principle (...)
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  38. Andrea Asperti & Agata Ciabattoni (1997). A Sufficient Condition for Completability of Partial Combinatory Algebras. Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1209-1214.score: 12.0
    A Partial Combinatory Algebra is completable if it can be extended to a total one. In [1] it is asked (question 11, posed by D. Scott, H. Barendregt, and G. Mitschke) if every PCA can be completed. A negative answer to this question was given by Klop in [12, 11]; moreover he provided a sufficient condition for completability of a PCA (M, ·, K, S) in the form of ten axioms (inequalities) on terms of M. We prove that just (...)
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  39. Adam Gajda (1988). The Adequacy Condition as a Definition of Elementary Interpretation. Studia Logica 47 (1):57 - 69.score: 12.0
    A definition of elementary interpretation, equivalent (up to isomorphisms) to the ones of [3] and [4], is given. The defining condition, used here, seems to confirm that intuitions agree with the choice of the class of elementary interpretations, which was done in [3].
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  40. Sieuwert van Otterloo, Wiebe Van Der Hoek & Michael Wooldridge (2006). Knowledge Condition Games. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (4):425-452.score: 12.0
    Understanding the flow of knowledge in multi-agent protocols is essential when proving the correctness or security of such protocols. Current logical approaches, often based on model checking, are well suited for modeling knowledge in systems where agents do not act strategically. Things become more complicated in strategic settings. In this paper we show that such situations can be understood as a special type of game – a knowledge condition game – in which a coalition “wins” if it is able (...)
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  41. H. Cason (1935). An Attempt to Condition Hand Withdrawal Responses in Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (3):307.score: 11.0
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  42. W. N. Kellogg, James Deese, N. H. Pronko & M. Feinberg (1947). An Attempt to Condition the Chronic Spinal Dog. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (2):99.score: 11.0
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  43. P. S. Shurrager (1947). A Comment on 'an Attempt to Condition the Chronic Spinal Dog.'. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (3):261-263.score: 11.0
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  44. C. H. Wedell, F. V. Taylor & A. Skolnick (1940). An Attempt to Condition the Pupillary Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (5):517.score: 11.0
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  45. Wolfgang Spohn (2002). Laws, Ceteris Paribus Conditions, and the Dynamics of Belief. Erkenntnis 57 (3):373-394.score: 10.0
    The characteristic difference between laws and accidental generalizations lies in our epistemic or inductive attitude towards them. This idea has taken various forms and dominated the discussion about lawlikeness in the last decades. Likewise, the issue about ceteris paribus conditions is essentially about how we epistemically deal with exceptions. Hence, ranking theory with its resources of defeasible reasoning seems ideally suited to explicate these points in a formal way. This is what the paper attempts to do. Thus it will turn (...)
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  46. Paul Russell (2004). Responsibility and the Condition of Moral Sense. Philosophical Topics 32 (1-2):287-305.score: 10.0
    Recent work in contemporary compatibilist theory displays considerable sophistication and subtlety when compared with the earlier theories of classical compatibilism. Two distinct lines of thought have proved especially influential and illuminating. The first developed around the general hypothesis that moral sentiments or reactive attitudes are fundamental for understanding the nature and conditions of moral responsibility. The other important development is found in recent compatibilist accounts of rational self-control or reason responsiveness. Strictly speaking, these two lines of thought have developed independent (...)
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  47. Paul Weirich (1983). Conditional Probabilities and Probabilities Given Knowledge of a Condition. Philosophy of Science 50 (1):82-95.score: 10.0
    The conditional probability of h given e is commonly claimed to be equal to the probability that h would have if e were learned. Here I contend that this general claim about conditional probabilities is false. I present a counter-example that involves probabilities of probabilities, a second that involves probabilities of possible future actions, and a third that involves probabilities of indicative conditionals. In addition, I briefly defend these counter-examples against charges that the probabilities they involve are illegitimate.
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  48. I. Walker (1996). Prediction of Evolution? Somatic Plasticity as a Basic, Physiological Condition for the Viability of Genetic Mutations. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (2).score: 10.0
    The argument is put forward that genetic mutations are viable then only, when the changed pattern of growth and/or metabolism is accommodated by the taxon-specific biochemistry of the organisms, i.e. by adaptive, somatic/physiological plasticity. The range of somatic plasticity under changing environmental conditions, therefore, has a certain predictive value for the kind of mutations that are likely to be viable.
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  49. Wayne A. Davis (2005). Concept Individuation, Possession Conditions, and Propositional Attitudes. Noûs 39 (1):140-66.score: 9.0
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  50. Brian Loar (1982). Conceptual Role and Truth Conditions. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 23 (July):272-83.score: 9.0
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