Search results for 'Conditionals (Logic' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  74
    Ernest W. Adams (1975). The Logic of Conditionals: An Application of Probability to Deductive Logic. D. Reidel Pub. Co..
    THE INDICATIVE CONDITIONAL. A PROBABILISTIC CRITERION OF SOUNDNESS FOR DEDUCTIVE INFERENCES Our objective in this section is to establish a prima facie case ...
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  2.  70
    James Hawthorne (1998). On the Logic of Nonmonotonic Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities: Predicate Logic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (1):1-34.
    In a previous paper I described a range of nonmonotonic conditionals that behave like conditional probability functions at various levels of probabilistic support. These conditionals were defined as semantic relations on an object language for sentential logic. In this paper I extend the most prominent family of these conditionals to a language for predicate logic. My approach to quantifiers is closely related to Hartry Field's probabilistic semantics. Along the way I will show how Field's semantics differs from (...)
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  3.  19
    Zhuanghu Liu & Xiaowu Li (2006). Logic of Primary-Conditionals and Secondary-Conditionals. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (4):710-725.
    Firstly, the authors analyzed the properties of primary-onditionals and secondary-conditionals, establishthe minimum system $C2L_{m}$ of primary-conditionals and secondary-conditionals, and then prove some of the formal theorems of the system which have important intuitive meanings. Secondly, the authors constructed the neighborhood semantics, prove the soundness of $C2L_{m}$ , introduce a general concept of canonical model by the neighborhood semantics, and then prove the completeness of $C2L_{m}$ by the canonical model. Finally, according to the technical results of the minimum (...)
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  4.  2
    Liu Zhuanghu & Li Xiaowu (2006). Logic of Primary-Conditionals and Secondary-Conditionals. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (4):710-725.
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  5.  28
    Johan van Benthem, Preference Logic, Conditionals and Solution Concepts in Games.
    Preference is a basic notion in human behaviour, underlying such varied phenomena as individual rationality in the philosophy of action and game theory, obligations in deontic logic (we should aim for the best of all possible worlds), or collective decisions in social choice theory. Also, in a more abstract sense, preference orderings are used in conditional logic or non-monotonic reasoning as a way of arranging worlds into more or less plausible ones. The field of preference logic (cf. Hansson [10]) studies (...)
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  6.  6
    Sven Ove Hansson (forthcoming). Iterated Descriptor Revision and the Logic of Ramsey Test Conditionals. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-22.
    Two of the major problems in AGM-style belief revision, namely the difficulties in accounting for iterated change and for Ramsey test conditionals, have satisfactory solutions in descriptor revision. In descriptor revision, the input is a metalinguistic sentence specifying the success condition of the operation. The choice mechanism selects one of the potential outcomes in which the success condition is satisfied. Iteration of this operation is unproblematic. Ramsey test conditionals can be introduced without giving rise to the paradoxical results (...)
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  7.  23
    Richard Bradley (2000). Conditionals and the Logic of Decision. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):32.
    In this paper Richard Jeffrey's 'Logic of Decision' is extended by examination of agents' attitudes to the sorts of possibilities identified by indicative conditional sentences. An expression for the desirability of conditionals is proposed and, along with Adams' thesis that the probability of a conditional equals the conditional probability of its antecedent given its consequent, is defended by informally deriving it from Jeffrey's notion of desirability and some weak constraints on rational preference for conditional possibilities. Finally a statement is (...)
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  8.  49
    Nicholas Allott & Hiroyuki Uchida (2009). Classical Logic, Conditionals and “Nonmonotonic” Reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):85-85.
    Reasoning with conditionals is often thought to be non-monotonic, but there is no incompatibility with classical logic, and no need to formalise inference itself as probabilistic. When the addition of a new premise leads to abandonment of a previously compelling conclusion reached by modus ponens, for example, this is generally because it is hard to think of a model in which the conditional and the new premise are true.
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  9.  5
    Robert N. McLaughlin (1990). On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals. State University of New York Press.
    A formal treatment of the logic of a type of conditional found in natural speech which differs substantially from the material conditional of propositional logic and from the conditionals afforded by theories of possible worlds.
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  10.  13
    M. Abraham, D. M. Gabbay & U. Schild (2012). Contrary to Time Conditionals in Talmudic Logic. Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (2):145-179.
    We consider conditionals of the form A ⇒ B where A depends on the future and B on the present and past. We examine models for such conditional arising in Talmudic legal cases. We call such conditionals contrary to time conditionals.Three main aspects will be investigated: Inverse causality from future to past, where a future condition can influence a legal event in the past (this is a man made causality).Comparison with similar features in modern law.New types of (...)
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  11.  20
    R. N. McLaughlin (1973). On the Logic of General Conditionals. Philosophical Quarterly 23 (91):133-143.
    The aim of the essay is to devise a logic of conditionality which escapes the paradoxes which arise when the general conditional is identified with the universalization of the material conditional. The assumption I adopt is that the logic of one contingent form differs from that of another to the extent that the two forms have different confirmations and disconfirmations. The logic of conditionals is not, But that of their confirmations and disconfirmations is, At bottom truth-Functional; and the logical (...)
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  12.  69
    James Hawthorne (1996). On the Logic of Nonmonotonic Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities. Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (2):185-218.
    I will describe the logics of a range of conditionals that behave like conditional probabilities at various levels of probabilistic support. Families of these conditionals will be characterized in terms of the rules that their members obey. I will show that for each conditional, →, in a given family, there is a probabilistic support level r and a conditional probability function P such that, for all sentences C and B, 'C → B' holds just in case P[B | (...)
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  13. Jonathan Bennett (2003). A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals. Oxford University Press.
    Conditional sentences are among the most intriguing and puzzling features of language, and analysis of their meaning and function has important implications for, and uses in, many areas of philosophy. Jonathan Bennett, one of the world's leading experts, distils many years' work and teaching into this Philosophical Guide to Conditionals, the fullest and most authoritative treatment of the subject. An ideal introduction for undergraduates with a philosophical grounding, it also offers a rich source of illumination and stimulation for graduate (...)
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  14. Lennart Åqvist (1971). The Completeness of Some Modal Logics with Circumstantials, Subjunctive Conditionals, Transworld Identity and Dispositional Predicates a Study in the Prolegomena to the Logic of Science. Uppsala Universitet].
     
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  15. Ernest Adams (1965). The Logic of Conditionals. Inquiry 8 (1-4):166 – 197.
    The standard use of the propositional calculus ('P.C.?) in analyzing the validity of inferences involving conditionals leads to fallacies, and the problem is to determine where P.C. may be ?safely? used. An alternative analysis of criteria of reasonableness of inferences in terms of conditions of justification rather than truth of statements is proposed. It is argued, under certain restrictions, that P. C. may be safely used, except in inferences whose conclusions are conditionals whose antecedents are incompatible with the (...)
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  16.  50
    Zsófia Zvolenszky, A Semantic Constraint on the Logic of Modal Conditionals. Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium on Logic and Language (LoLa 9).
  17.  56
    Lennart Åqvist (1973). Modal Logic with Subjunctive Conditionals and Dispositional Predicates. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):1 - 76.
  18.  4
    M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.) (2010). Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought. Oxford University Press.
    This book shows how these developments have led researchers to view people's conditional reasoning behaviour more as succesful probabilistic reasoning rather ...
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  19.  50
    R. B. Angell (1962). A Propositional Logic with Subjunctive Conditionals. Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (3):327-343.
  20. Ernest Adams (1966). ``Probability and the Logic of Conditionals&Quot. In Jaakko Hintikka & Patrick Suppes (eds.), Aspects of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland 165-316.
  21.  16
    E. J. Lowe (1983). A Simplification of the Logic of Conditionals. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24 (3):357-366.
  22.  27
    Vann McGee (1981). Finite Matrices and the Logic of Conditionals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 10 (3):349 - 351.
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  23.  32
    Gary M. Hardegree (1975). Stalnaker Conditionals and Quantum Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (4):399 - 421.
  24.  8
    Katrin Schulz (2014). Minimal Models Vs. Logic Programming: The Case of Counterfactual Conditionals. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 24 (1-2):153-168.
    This article aims to propagate Logic Programming as a formal tool to deal with non-monotonic reasoning. In philosophy and linguistics non-monotonic reasoning is modelled using Minimal Models as standard, i.e., by imposing an order (or selection function) on the class of all models and then by defining entailment as only caring about the minimal models of the premises with respect to the order. In this article we investigate the question whether instead of minimal models we should use logic programming to (...)
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  25.  8
    Francine F. Abeles (2013). Nineteenth Century British Logic on Hypotheticals, Conditionals, and Implication. History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (1):1-14.
  26.  5
    Charles B. Cross & Donald Nute (1997). Conditionals: From Philosophy to Computer Science, Edited by Crocco G., Del Cerro L. Fariñas, and Herzig A., Studies in Logic and Computation, No. 5, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York 1995, Viii+ 368 Pp. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1487-1490.
  27.  4
    Robert Stalnaker (1974). Review: Ernest Adams, The Logic of Conditionals; Ernest W. Adams, Jaakko Hintikka, Patrick Suppes, Probability and the Logic of Conditionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 39 (3):609-611.
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  28.  6
    Scott Lehmann (1979). A General Propositional Logic of Conditionals. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (1):77-83.
  29.  1
    Nuel D. Belnap (1970). Review: R. B. Angell, A Propositional Logic with Subjunctive Conditionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):464-465.
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  30. K. G. Ferguson (1991). R. N. MCLAUGHLIN "On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals". [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of Logic 12 (2):251.
     
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  31.  86
    Horacio Arlo-Costa, The Logic of Conditionals. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    entry for the Entry for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007.
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  32. Edwin Mares (2006). Relevant Logic, Probabilistic Information, and Conditionals. Logique Et Analyse 49:399-411.
     
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  33. Andrew J. I. Jones (1991). On the Logic of Deontic Conditionals. Ratio Juris 4 (3):355-366.
  34.  59
    P. B. Downing (1961). Opposite Conditionals and Deontic Logic. Mind 70 (280):491-502.
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  35.  5
    David Ebrey (2015). Why Are There No Conditionals in Aristotle’s Logic? Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (2):185-205.
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  36.  26
    James E. Tomberlin (1989). Obligation, Conditionals, and the Logic of Conditional Obligation. Philosophical Studies 55 (1):81 - 92.
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  37.  19
    Ian F. Carlstrom & Christopher S. Hill (1978). Book Review:The Logic of Conditionals Ernest W. Adams. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 45 (1):155-.
  38.  3
    Claudio Pizzi (1999). Fictionalism and the Logic of “as If” Conditionals. In L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer/Plenum 293--310.
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  39. D. Edgington (1978). ADAMS, E. W. "The Logic of Conditionals: An Application of Probability to Deductive Logic". [REVIEW] Mind 87:619.
     
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  40.  28
    Michael Woods (1997). Conditionals. Oxford University Press.
    Conditionals has at its center an extended essay on this problematic and much-debated subject in the philosophy of language and logic, which the widely respected Oxford philosopher Michael Woods had been preparing for publication at the time of his death in 1993. It appears here edited by his eminent colleague David Wiggins, and is accompanied by a commentary specially written by a leading expert on the topic, Dorothy Edgington. This masterly and original treatment of conditionals will demand the (...)
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  41. Ernest Sosa (ed.) (1975). Causation and Conditionals. Oxford University Press.
    Mackie, J. L. Causes and conditions.--Taylor, R. The metaphysics of causation.--Scriven, M. Defects of the necessary condition analysis of causation.--Kim, J. Causes and events: Mackie on causation.--Anscombe, G. E. M. Causality and determination.--Davidson, D. Causal relations.--Wright, G. H. von. On the logic and epistemology of the causal relation.--Ducasse, C. J. On the nature and the observability of the causal relation.--Sellars, W. S. Counterfactuals.--Chisholm, R. M. Law statements and counterfactual inference.--Rescher, N. Belief-contravening suppositions and the problem of contrary-to-fact conditionals.--Stalnaker, R. (...)
     
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  42.  35
    G. Crocco, Luis Fariñas del Cerro & Andreas Herzig (eds.) (1995). Conditionals: From Philosophy to Computer Science. Oxford University Press.
    This book looks at the ways in which conditionals, an integral part of philosophy and logic, can be of practical use in computer programming. It analyzes the different types of conditionals, including their applications and potential problems. Other topics include defeasible logics, the Ramsey test, and a unified view of consequence relation and belief revision. Its implications will be of interest to researchers in logic, philosophy, and computer science, particularly artificial intelligence.
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  43. Ernest Adams (1998). A Primer of Probability Logic. Stanford: Csli Publications.
    This book is meant to be a primer, that is, an introduction, to probability logic, a subject that appears to be in its infancy. Probability logic is a subject envisioned by Hans Reichenbach and largely created by Adams. It treats conditionals as bearers of conditional probabilities and discusses an appropriate sense of validity for arguments such conditionals, as well as ordinary statements as premisses. This is a clear well-written text on the subject of probability logic, suitable for advanced (...)
     
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  44.  27
    Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter (2010). The Conditional in Mental Probability Logic. In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought. Oxford University Press 153--173.
    The present chapter describes a probabilistic framework of human reasoning. It is based on probability logic. While there are several approaches to probability logic, we adopt the coherence based approach.
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  45.  1
    Hans Rott (1997). Drawing Inferences From Conditionals. In Eva Ejerhed Sten Lindström (ed.), Logic, Action and Cognition. Essays in Philosophical Logic. Kluwer 149-179.
    This paper compares three accounts of what can be inferred from a knowledge base that contains conditionals: Lehmann and Magidor’s Rational Entailment; Pearl’s System Z, later extended and refined in collaboration with Goldszmidt; and the present author’s Nonmonotonic conditional logic for belief revision. We show that although the ideas motivating these systems are strikingly different, they are formally equivalent. An explanation of the surprising parallel is offered in terms of the interpretation of conditionals in the context of nonmonotonic (...)
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  46. Niki Pfeifer (2013). Reasoning About Uncertain Conditionals. Studia Logica (4):1-18.
    There is a long tradition in formal epistemology and in the psychology of reasoning to investigate indicative conditionals. In psychology, the propositional calculus was taken for granted to be the normative standard of reference. Experimental tasks, evaluation of the participants’ responses and psychological model building, were inspired by the semantics of the material conditional. Recent empirical work on indicative conditionals focuses on uncertainty. Consequently, the normative standard of reference has changed. I argue why neither logic nor standard probability (...)
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  47.  29
    Isaac Levi (1996). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. These two (...)
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  48.  50
    Frank Jackson (ed.) (1991). Conditionals. Oxford University Press.
    This collection introduces the reader to some of the most interesting current work on conditionals. Particular attention is paid to possible world semantics for conditionals, the role of conditional probability in helping us to understand conditionals, implicature and the material conditional, and subjunctive versus indicative conditionals. Contributors include V.H. Dudman, Dorothy Edgington, Nelson Goodman, H.P. Grice, David Lewis, and Robert Stalnaker.
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  49.  61
    John Cantwell (2009). Conditionals in Reasoning. Synthese 171 (1):47 - 75.
    The paper presents a non-monotonic inference relation on a language containing a conditional that satisfies the Ramsey Test. The logic is a weakening of classical logic and preserves many of the ‘paradoxes of implication’ associated with the material implication. It is argued, however, that once one makes the proper distinction between supposing that something is the case and accepting that it is the case, these ‘paradoxes’ cease to be counterintuitive. A representation theorem is provided where conditionals are given a (...)
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  50. Rani Lill Anjum (2007). The Logic of `If' — or How to Philosophically Eliminate Conditional Relations. Sorites 19:51-57.
    In this paper I present some of Robert N. McLaughlin's critique of a truth functional approach to conditionals as it appears in his book On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals. Based on his criticism I argue that the basic principles of logic together amount to epistemological and metaphysical implications that can only be accepted from a logical atomist perspective. Attempts to account for conditional relations within this philosophical framework will necessarily fail. I thus argue that it is not (...)
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