Search results for 'Conditioning' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. A. Field (2000). I Like It, but I'm Not Sure Why: Can Evaluative Conditioning Occur Without Conscious Awareness? Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):13-36.score: 18.0
    There is good evidence that, in general, autonomic conditioning in humans occurs only when subjects can verbalize the contingencies of conditioning. However, one form of conditioning, evaluative conditioning (EC), seems exceptional in that a growing body of evidence suggests that it can occur without conscious contingency awareness. As such, EC offers a unique insight into what role contingency awareness might play in associative learning. Despite this evidence, there are reasons to doubt that evaluative conditioning can (...)
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  2. Carl Wagner (2013). Is Conditioning Really Incompatible with Holism? Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):409-414.score: 18.0
    Jonathan Weisberg claims that certain probability assessments constructed by Jeffrey conditioning resist subsequent revision by a certain type of after-the-fact defeater of the reasons supporting those assessments, and that such conditioning is thus “inherently anti-holistic.” His analysis founders, however, in applying Jeffrey conditioning to a partition for which an essential rigidity condition clearly fails. Applied to an appropriate partition, Jeffrey conditioning is amenable to revision by the sort of after-the-fact defeaters considered by Weisberg in precisely the (...)
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  3. Lydia McGrew (2014). Jeffrey Conditioning, Rigidity, and the Defeasible Red Jelly Bean. Philosophical Studies 168 (2):569-582.score: 18.0
    Jonathan Weisberg has argued that Jeffrey Conditioning is inherently “anti-holistic” By this he means, inter alia, that JC does not allow us to take proper account of after-the-fact defeaters for our beliefs. His central example concerns the discovery that the lighting in a room is red-tinted and the relationship of that discovery to the belief that a jelly bean in the room is red. Weisberg’s argument that the rigidity required for JC blocks the defeating role of the red-tinted light (...)
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  4. W. Robert Batsell & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 18.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a (...)
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  5. Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 18.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in (...)
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  6. Ralf Veit, Lilian Konicar, Jens G. Klinzing, Beatrix Barth, Özge Yilmaz & Niels Birbaumer (2013). Deficient Fear Conditioning in Psychopathy as a Function of Interpersonal and Affective Disturbances. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:706.score: 18.0
    The diminished fear reactivity is one of the most valid physiological findings in psychopathy research. In a fear conditioning paradigm, with faces as conditioned stimulus (CS) and electric shock as unconditioned stimulus (US), we investigated a sample of 14 high psychopathic violent offenders. Event related potentials, skin conductance responses (SCR) as well as subjective ratings of the CSs were collected. This study assessed to which extent the different facets of the psychopathy construct contribute to the fear conditioning deficits (...)
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  7. Tristan A. Bekinschtein, Moos Peeters, Diego Shalom & Mariano Sigman (2011). Sea Slugs, Subliminal Pictures, and Vegetative State Patients: Boundaries of Consciousness in Classical Conditioning. Frontiers in Psychology 2:337-337.score: 18.0
    Classical (trace) conditioning is a specific variant of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus leads to the subsequent prediction of an emotionally charged or noxious stimulus after a temporal gap. When conditioning is concurrent with a distraction task, only participants who can report the relationship (the contingency) between stimuli explicitly show associative learning. This suggests that consciousness is a prerequisite for trace conditioning. We review and question three main controversies concerning this view. Firstly, virtually all animals, (...)
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  8. W. Robert Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 18.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in (...)
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  9. Anthony R. McIntosh Andreea Oliviana Diaconescu, Jimmy Jensen, Hongye Wang, Matthäus Willeit, Mahesh Menon, Shitij Kapur (2010). Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients During Appetitive Conditioning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 18.0
    It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioural level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and galvanic skin recordings (GSR) while patients and controls performed an appetitive (...)
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  10. Pieter Jan Stallen Anna C. Bolders, Guido P. H. Band (2012). Evaluative Conditioning Induces Changes in Sound Valence. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Evaluative Conditioning (EC) has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US). Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT) for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation (...)
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  11. Meghan Davis Caulfield, J. Devin McAuley & Richard J. Servatius (2013). Facilitated Acquisition of Eyeblink Conditioning in Those Vulnerable to Anxiety Disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Behavioral inhibition (BI) increases vulnerability to develop anxiety disorders and is typified by avoidance and withdrawal from novel objects, people, and situations. The present study considered the relationship between behavioral inhibition and temperamental risk factors, such as trait anxiety and acquisition rate of a classically conditioned eyeblink response. 174 healthy undergraduate students (mean age 20.3 years, 71.8% female) were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a battery of self-report measures of behavioral inhibition consisting of the Adult and Retrospective Measures of (...)
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  12. Christophe Gonzales & Pierre-Henri Wuillemin (2011). PRM Inference Using Jaffray & Faÿ's Local Conditioning. Theory and Decision 71 (1):33-62.score: 18.0
    Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) are a framework for compactly representing uncertainties (actually probabilities). They result from the combination of Bayesian Networks (BNs), Object-Oriented languages, and relational models. They are specifically designed for their efficient construction, maintenance and exploitation for very large scale problems, where BNs are known to perform poorly. Actually, in large-scale problems, it is often the case that BNs result from the combination of patterns (small BN fragments) repeated many times. PRMs exploit this feature by defining these patterns (...)
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  13. Peter F. Lovibond & David R. Shanks (2002). The Role of Awareness in Pavlovian Conditioning: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Implications. Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (1):3-26.score: 15.0
  14. Robert E. Clark, Joseph R. Manns & Larry R. Squire (2002). Classical Conditioning, Awareness, and Brain Systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12):524-531.score: 15.0
  15. Joseph R. Manns, Robert E. Clark & Larry R. Squire (2001). Single-Cue Delay Eyeblink Conditioning is Unrelated to Awareness. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience 1 (2):192-198.score: 15.0
  16. Marianne Hammerl (2000). I Like It, but Only When I'm Not Sure Why: Evaluative Conditioning and the Awareness Issue. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):37-40.score: 15.0
  17. Robert H. Kane (2000). Non-Constraining Control and the Threat of Social Conditioning. Journal of Ethics 4 (4):401-403.score: 15.0
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  18. W. N. Kellogg & I. S. Wolf (1939). The Nature of the Response Retained After Several Varieties of Conditioning in the Same Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (4):366.score: 15.0
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  19. James W. Manns, R. Clark & L. R. Squire (2000). Awareness Predicts the Magnitude of Single-Cue Trace Eyeblink Conditioning. Hippocampus 10 (2):181-186.score: 15.0
  20. G. H. S. Razran (1939). Studies in Configural Conditioning. II. The Effect of Subjects' Attitudes and of Task-Sets Upon Configural Conditioning. [REVIEW] Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (1):95.score: 15.0
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  21. W. J. Brogden (1942). Tests of Sensory Pre-Conditioning with Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (6):505.score: 15.0
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  22. Rube Chernikoff & W. J. Brogden (1949). The Effect of Instructions Upon Sensory Pre-Conditioning of Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (2):200.score: 15.0
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  23. Harry W. Karn (1947). Sensory Pre-Conditioning and Incidental Learning in Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (6):540.score: 15.0
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  24. Delos D. Wickens & Gordon B. Harding (1965). Effect of UCS Strength on GSR Conditioning: A Within-Subject Design. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (2):151.score: 15.0
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  25. H. D. Kimmel & H. S. Sternthal (1967). Replication of Gsr Avoidance Conditioning with Concomitant Emg Measurement and Subjects Matched in Responsivity and Conditionability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):144-146.score: 15.0
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  26. Shepard Siegel, Eliot Hearst & Nancy George (1968). Generalization Gradients Obtained From Individual Subjects Following Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):171.score: 15.0
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  27. Arthur Zeiner & William W. Grings (1968). Backward Conditioning: A Replication with Emphasis on Conceptualizations by the Subject. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (2p1):232.score: 15.0
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  28. Kenneth C. Kleist & John J. Furedy (1969). Appetitive Classical Autonomic Conditioning with Subject-Selected Cool-Puff UCS. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (3):598.score: 15.0
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  29. Robert M. Young (1979). Compatibilism and Conditioning. Noûs 13 (September):361-378.score: 15.0
  30. Robert Ader & Nicholas Cohen (1985). CNS–Immune System Interactions: Conditioning Phenomena. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (3):379-395.score: 15.0
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  31. R. Albino & G. Burnand (1964). Conditioning of the Alpha Rhythm in Man. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (6):539.score: 15.0
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  32. Gerald W. Barnes (1956). Conditioned Stimulus Intensity and Temporal Factors in Spaced-Trial Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (3):192.score: 15.0
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  33. W. K. Estes (1943). Discriminative Conditioning. I. A Discriminative Property of Conditioned Anticipation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (2):150.score: 15.0
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  34. John J. Furedy & Karl Schiffman (1973). Concurrent Measurement of Autonomic and Cognitive Processes in a Test of the Traditional Discriminative Control Procedure for Pavlovian Electrodermal Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (1):210.score: 15.0
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  35. Saul M. Levin (1961). The Effects of Awareness on Verbal Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (1):67.score: 15.0
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  36. David K. Spelt (1948). The Conditioning of the Human Fetus in Utero. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (3):338.score: 15.0
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  37. Joseph J. Antonitis (1951). Response Variability in the White Rat During Conditioning, Extinction, and Reconditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (4):273.score: 15.0
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  38. Pietro Badia & James P. Harley (1970). Habituation and Temporal Conditioning as Related to Shock Intensity and its Judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (3):534.score: 15.0
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  39. Paul E. Baer & Marcus J. Fuhrer (1968). Cognitive Processes During Differential Trace and Delayed Conditioning of the Gsr. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):81.score: 15.0
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  40. Paul E. Baer & Marcus J. Fuhrer (1970). Cognitive Processes in the Differential Trace Conditioning of Electrodermal and Vasomotor Activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):176.score: 15.0
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  41. Martin R. Baron (1952). The Effect of Long Intertrial Intervals on the Limit of Eyelid Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (6):438.score: 15.0
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  42. Ronald Baxter (1966). Diminution and Recovery of the UCR in Delayed and Trace Classical GSR Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (3):447.score: 15.0
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  43. Richard G. Beery (1968). A Negative Contrast Effect of Reward Delay in Differential Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):429.score: 15.0
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  44. Alan L. Bernstein & Edward F. Rutledge (1969). Simultaneous Performance in Eyelid Conditioning and Probability Learning as a Function of Puff Intensity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (1p1):22.score: 15.0
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  45. P. D. Bishop & H. D. Kimmel (1969). Retention of Habituation and Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):317.score: 15.0
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  46. Roger W. Black (1965). Differential Conditioning Extinction, and Secondary Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (1):67.score: 15.0
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  47. Robert C. Bobbitt & Robert C. Beck (1971). Semantic Differential Judgments of Single and Multiple Conditioned Stimuli with an Aversive Delay Conditioning Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):398.score: 15.0
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  48. James H. Booth & L. J. Hammond (1971). Configural Conditioning: Greater Fear in Rats to Compound Than Component Through Overtraining of the Compound. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (2):255.score: 15.0
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  49. F. W. Boring & M. C. Morrow (1968). Effects of Ucs Intensity Upon Conditioning and Extinction of the Gsr. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (4):567.score: 15.0
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  50. W. A. Bousfield & T. M. Cowan (1963). Conditioning of Motor and Verbal Responses to Nonverbal Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):47.score: 15.0
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