Search results for 'Conflict of laws' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Frederic Harrison (1919/1994). On Jurisprudence and the Conflict of Laws. W.S. Hein & Co..
     
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  2.  33
    Perry Dane (1996). Conflict of Laws. In Dennis M. Patterson (ed.), A Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory. Blackwell Publishers
    This essay on choice of law (private international law) appears in the second edition of the Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory, edited by Dennis Patterson. It is a revision of an entry on the same topic in the first edition of the book. The essay focuses on the epic battle over the course of the last century between two very different traditions - classical choice of law, articulated most completely by Joseph Beale in the 1930s, and (...)
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  3.  1
    A. Briggs (1989). Conflict of Laws: Postponing the Future? Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 9 (2):251-259.
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    J. Harris (2000). Contractual Freedom in the Conflict of Laws. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 20 (2):247-269.
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    Vadim Verenich (2005). Verba and Voluntas – Conflict of Laws in Interpretation of Contracts. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 18 (1):67-82.
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  6.  8
    Dorinda Outram (1986). Uncertain Legislator: Georges Cuvier's Laws of Nature in Their Intellectual Context. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (3):323 - 368.
    We should now be able to come to some general conclusions about the main lines of Cuvier's development as a naturalist after his departure from Normandy. We have seen that Cuvier arrived in Paris aware of the importance of physiology in classification, yet without a fully worked out idea of how such an approach could organize a whole natural order. He was freshly receptive to the ideas of the new physiology developed by Xavier Bichat.Cuvier arrived in a Paris also torn (...)
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  7.  1
    Edwin M. Carawan (2002). The Athenian Amnesty and the 'Scrutiny of the Laws'. Journal of Hellenic Studies 122:1-23.
    The ¿scrutiny of all the laws¿ that Andocides invokes in his defence On the Mysteries is usually interpreted as a recodification with the aim of barring prosecution for the crimes of civil conflict. This article advances four theses against that traditional reading: (1) In Andocides¿ argument the Scrutiny was designed for a more practicable purpose, not to pardon crimes unpunished but to quash any further action against former atimoi, those penalized under the old regime but restored to rights (...)
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  8.  2
    Eric A. Posner (2012). Human Rights, the Laws of War, and Reciprocity. Law and Ethics of Human Rights 6 (2):147-171.
    Human rights law does not appear to enjoy as high a level of compliance as the laws of war, yet is institutionalized to a greater degree. This Article argues that the reason for this difference is related to the strategic structure of international law. The laws of war are governed by a regime of reciprocity, which can produce selfenforcing patterns of behavior, whereas the human rights regime attempts to produce public goods and is thus subject to collective action (...)
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  9.  87
    Hadassa A. Noorda (2011). Book Review: Noam Lubell, Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors. [REVIEW] Journal of Conflict and Security Law 16 (1):207-222.
    Book Review: Noam Lubell, Extraterritorial Use of Force against Non-State Actors.
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  10.  48
    Dirk Greimann (2008). Does Frege Use a Truth-Predicate in His ‘Justification’ of the Laws of Logic? A Comment on Weiner. Mind 117 (466):403-425.
    Joan Weiner has recently claimed that Frege neither uses, nor has any need to use, a truth-predicate in his justification of the logical laws. She argues that because of the assimilation of sentences to proper names in his system, Frege does not need to make use of the Quinean device of semantic ascent in order to formulate the logical laws, and that the predicate ‘is the True’, which is used in Frege's justification, is not to be considered as (...)
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  11.  41
    Łukasz Kosowski (2008). Noema in the Light of Contradiction, Conflict, and Nonsense: The Noema as Possibly Thinkable Content. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 24 (3):243-259.
    The present paper is guided by the belief that Edmund Husserl’s concept of noema can be significantly enriched when considered in light of extreme epistemological instances. These include the phenomena of the absurd and nonsense, but also intentional conflict and cases of consciousness directed to contradictory objects. The paper shows that the noema, when experienced in such a context, exhibits interesting characteristics that are rather difficult to note in other circumstances. The paper consists of five sections. The first interprets (...)
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  12. Mohammad Naji & Hamied Tabouli (2011). Conflict Rate and Job Satisfaction Among Staffs in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Rafsanjan Township as a Case Study. Asian Culture and History 3 (2):p49.
    This study is to investigate conflict rate and job satisfaction among staffs in the public organizations in Rafsanjan Township in the Islamic republic of Iran. In this study, staffs personality, laws and guide directions, staffs needs, communications and job satisfaction is investigated by examining the staffs’ salary, job nature, supervisor and salary of staffs’ colleagues and their promotion. This was a quantitative study. All data of this study have been collected by using questioner. All data of this study (...)
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  13.  2
    D. Kapust (2004). Skinner, Pettit and Livy: The Conflict of the Orders and the Ambiguity of Republican Liberty. History of Political Thought 25 (3):377-401.
    I argue that an ambiguity exists between Philip Pettit's largely normative and Quentin Skinner's largely historical accounts of republican liberty. Historical republican liberty, as seen in Livy's narrative of the period following the expulsion of the Roman kings to the passage of the Licinian-Sextian laws, was largely defensive, in the form of the tribunate. Though republican liberty protected the plebeians from wanton patrician abuse, removing them from a formal dependence analogous to that of slave or child in Roman law, (...)
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  14.  20
    Sarah Winch & Michael Sinnott (2011). Toward a Sociology of Conflict of Interest in Medical Research. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (4):389-391.
    Toward a Sociology of Conflict of Interest in Medical Research Content Type Journal Article Category Case Studies Pages 389-391 DOI 10.1007/s11673-011-9332-0 Authors Sarah Winch, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia 4072 Michael Sinnott, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia 4072 Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529 Journal Volume Volume 8 Journal Issue Volume 8, Number 4.
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  15. Alexander Bird (2005). The Dispositionalist Conception of Laws. Foundations of Science 10 (4):353-70.
    This paper sketches a dispositionalist conception of laws and shows how the dispositionalist should respond to certain objections. The view that properties are essentially dispositional is able to provide an account of laws that avoids the problems that face the two views of laws (the regularity and the contingent nomic necessitation views) that regard properties as categorical and laws as contingent. I discuss and reject the objections that (i) this view makes laws necessary whereas they (...)
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  16. Lydia Jaeger (2010). The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1611-1624.
    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without (...)
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  17.  63
    Michael Davis & Andrew Stark (eds.) (2001). Conflict of Interest in the Professions. Oxford University Press.
    Conflicts of interest pose special problems for the professions. Even the appearance of a conflict of interest can undermine essential trust between professional and public. This volume is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the ramifications and problems associated with important issue. It contains fifteen new essays by noted scholars and covers topics in law, medicine, journalism, engineering, financial services, and others.
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  18.  6
    Bryn Williams-Jones & Chris MacDonald (2008). Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Universities: Clarity and Content. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (1):79-90.
    Discussions of conflict of interest (COI) in the university have tended to focus on financial interests in the context of medical research; much less attention has been given to COI in general or to the policies that seek to manage COI. Are university COI policies accessible and understandable? To whom are these policies addressed (faculty, staff, students)? Is COI clearly defined in these policies and are procedures laid out for avoiding or remedying such situations? To begin tackling these important (...)
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  19.  29
    Joshua Fogel & Hershey H. Friedman (2008). Conflict of Interest and the Talmud. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):237 - 246.
    A core value of Judaism is leading an ethical life. The Talmud, an authoritative source on Jewish law and tradition, has a number of discussions that deal with honesty in business and decision-making. One motive that can cause individuals to be unscrupulous is the presence of a conflict of interest. This paper will define, discuss, and review five Talmudic concepts relevant to conflict of interest. They are (1) Nogea B’Davar (being an interested party), (2) V’hiyitem N’keyim (behaving to (...)
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  20.  12
    Marie-Josée Potvin (2012). The Strange Case of Dr. B and Mr. Hide: Ethical Sensitivity as a Means to Reflect Upon One's Actions in Managing Conflict of Interest. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):225-227.
    The Strange Case of Dr. B and Mr. Hide: Ethical Sensitivity as a Means to Reflect Upon One’s Actions in Managing Conflict of Interest Content Type Journal Article Category Case Studies Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11673-012-9360-4 Authors Marie-Josée Potvin, Programmes de bioéthique, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3J7 Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529.
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  21.  8
    Elise Smith (2012). Toward a Postmodernist View of Conflict of Interest. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):223-224.
    Toward a Postmodernist View of Conflict of Interest Content Type Journal Article Category Case Studies Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s11673-012-9359-x Authors Elise Smith, Doctorat en sciences humaines appliquées, option bioéthique, Programmes de bioéthique, Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3J7 Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529.
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  22.  20
    Jose Luiz Ames (2009). Freedom and conflict-confrontation of desires as background of the idea of freedom in Machiavelli. Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 50 (119):179-196.
    The article works out the thesis that to the excessive desire of the powerful for the absolute appropriation/domination it is opposed a not less excessive and absolute desire from people in order not to be appropriated/dominated: two desires of a distinct nature which are neither the desire for the same things nor the desire for different things, but desires in which the act of desiring is different. Taking into account that each desire aims at its absolute effectiveness, each one of (...)
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  23.  15
    Sheldon Krimsky & L. S. Rothenberg (2001). Conflict of Interest Policies in Science and Medical Journals: Editorial Practices and Author Disclosures. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2):205-218.
    This study examines the extent to which scientific and biomedical journals have adopted conflict of interest (COI) policies for authors, and whether the adoption and content of such policies leads to the publishing of authors’ financial interest disclosure statements by such journals. In particular, it reports the results of a survey of journal editors about their practices regarding COI disclosures. About 16 percent of 1396 highly ranked scientific and biomedical journals had COI policies in effect during 1997. Less than (...)
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  24. Karen R. Zwier (2012). The Status of Laws of Nature in the Philosophy of Leibniz. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 85:149-160.
    Is it possible to take the enterprise of physics seriously while also holding the belief that the world contains an order beyond the reach of that physics? Is it possible to simultaneously believe in objective laws of nature and in miracles? Is it possible to search for the truths of physics while also acknowledging the limitations of that search as it is carried out by limited human knowers? As a philosopher, as a Christian, and as a participant in the (...)
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    Elizabeth A. Boyd & Lisa A. Bero (2007). Defining Financial Conflicts and Managing Research Relationships: An Analysis of University Conflict of Interest Committee Decisions. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):415-435.
    Despite a decade of federal regulation and debate over the appropriateness of financial ties in research and their management, little is known about the actual decision-making processes of university conflict of interest (COI) committees. This paper analyzes in detail the discussions and decisions of three COI committees at three public universities in California. University committee members struggle to understand complex financial relationships and reconcile institutional, state, and federal policies and at the same time work to protect the integrity of (...)
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  26.  23
    Nancy J. Crigger (2009). Towards Understanding the Nature of Conflict of Interest and its Application to the Discipline of Nursing. Nursing Philosophy 10 (4):253-262.
    Most incidences of dishonesty in research, financial investments that promote personal financial gain, and kickback scandals begin as conflicts of interest (COI). Research indicates that healthcare professionals who maintain COI relationships make less optimal and more expensive patient care choices. The discovery of COI relationships also negatively impact patient and public trust. Many disciplines are addressing this professional issue, but little work has been done towards understanding and applying this moral category within a nursing context. Do COIs occur in nursing (...)
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  27.  20
    Hadassa A. Noorda (2012). The Islamic Law of War – Justifications and Regulations. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (1):67-69.
    Book Review: Ahmed Al Dawoody, The Islamic Law of War - Justifications and Regulations -.
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  28. Marc Lange (2009). Laws and Lawmakers: Science, Metaphysics, and the Laws of Nature. Oxford University Press.
    Laws form counterfactually stable sets -- Natural necessity -- Three payoffs of my account -- A world of subjunctives.
     
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  29.  16
    Daniel Steiner (1996). Competing Interests: The Need to Control Conflict of Interests in Biomedical Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):457-468.
    Individual and institutional conflict of interests in biomedical research have becomes matters of increasing concern in recent years. In the United States, the growth in relationships — sponsored research agreements, consultancies, memberships on boards, licensing agreements, and equity ownership — between for-profit corporations and research universities and their scientists has made the problem of conflicts, particularly financial conflicts, more acute. Conflicts can interfere with or compromise important principles and obligations of researchers and their institutions, e.g., adherence (...)
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  30.  9
    Nils Hasselmo (2002). Individual and Institutional Conflict of Interest: Policy Review by Research Universities in the United States. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):421-427.
    This paper is a discussion of efforts to manage real and potential conflicts of interest in university research in the United States. The focus is on the report by an Association of American Universities (AAU) task force that addresses both individual and institutional conflict of interest issues.
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  31.  7
    Maurizio Salvi (2003). Conflict of Interest in Biomedical Research: A View From Europe. Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (1):101-108.
    In this paper I address the conflict of interest (CoI) issue from a legal point of view at a European level. We will see that the regulatory framework that exists in Europe does state the need for the independence of ethics committee involved in authorisation of research and clinical trials. We will see that CoI is an element that has to be closely monitored at National and International level. Therefore, Member States and Newly Associated States do have to address (...)
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  32.  4
    Dr Imogen Evans (2002). Conflict of Interest: The Importance of Potential. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):393-396.
    The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) takes the issue of conflict of interest very seriously. The overall aim is to preserve a climate in which personal and organisational innovation can flourish while ensuring that potential conflicts are disclosed and identified and conflicts are either avoided or managed with integrity. The approach needs to encompass the MRC’s various responsibilities and the levels at which conflicts might arise: MRC staff (scientists and administrators); the governing Council; research Boards and committees; external (...)
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  33.  16
    Wendy Baldwin (2002). Conflict of Interest and its Significance in Science and Medicine Warsaw, Poland, 5–6 April, 2002. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):469-475.
    This article summarizes the April 5–6, 2002 conference on Conflict of Interest and Its Significance in Science and Medicine. Several themes are identified and addressed, including the globalization of science, the widespread presence of conflicts, the increased interest and involvement in conflict of interest by a number of organizations, the difference between academic research and research conducted by industry, and the tension between science and medicine. At the heart of the matter lies objectivity in research and the need (...)
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  34.  3
    Professor Bozidar Vrhovac (2002). Conflict of Interest in Croatia: Doctors with Dual Obligations. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):309-316.
    There is an emerging awareness of the possibility of conflicts of interest in the practice of medicine in Croatia. The paper examines areas within the medical profession where conflicts of interest can and have occurred, probably not only in Croatia. Particularly addressed are situations when a doctor may have dual obligations and how independent ethics committees can help in decreasing the influence of a conflict of interest. The paper also presents extracts from the Croatian Code of Ethics for the (...)
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  35.  6
    A. Górski (2001). Conflict of Interest and its Significance in Science and Medicine: A View From Eastern Europe. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):307-312.
    Continued scientific and medical progress in Central and Eastern Europe depends on the development of an atmosphere that is conducive to implementing the changes that are necessary to bring better health and longer lives for everyone. Privatization and commercialization are threatening the objectivity of clinical research and the availability of health care because uncontrolled market mechanisms focused on profit are nurturing conflict of interest that generate bias and unreliability into research and medicine. Changes are needed that address (...)
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  36. Lynn T. Kozlowski (forthcoming). Coping with the Conflict-of-Interest Pandemic by Listening to and Doubting Everyone, Including Yourself. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-6.
    In light of the widespread existence of financial and non-financial issues that contribute to the appearance or fact of conflict of interest, it is proposed that conflict of interest should generally be assumed, no matter the source of financial support or the expressed declarations of conflicts and even with respect to one’s own work. No new model is advanced for modification of peer-review processes or for elaboration of author declarations of interest. Researchers should be assessing the quality of (...)
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  37. Ann Nichols-Casebolt & Francis L. Macrina (forthcoming). Current Perspectives Regarding Institutional Conflict of Interest. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-7.
    Policies and processes dealing with institutional conflict of interest lag well behind those dealing with individual COI. To remediate this, academic institutions must develop strategies for addressing some of the unique challenges in iCOI, including: clarifying the definition of iCOI that addresses the range of individuals potentially involved; implementing a well-designed electronic database for reporting and managing iCOI across multiple leadership constituencies; and providing ongoing education to appropriate institutional officials that communicates the importance of managing iCOI.
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  38. W. Jones (1966). Bishops, Politics, and the Two Laws: The Gravamina of the English Clergy, 1237–1399*Article Author Queryjones Wr [Google Scholar]. [REVIEW] Speculum 41 (2):209-245.
    During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the English clergy, like the lords and commons, were experimenting with various methods for obtaining relief of their grievances and for defending the liberties of the church against encroachment by the Crown. Especially prominent in this conflict between church and monarchy were rivalries of a legal and jurisdictional kind—the product of competing claims for the royal and ecclesiastical courts. From the reign of Henry III to the accession of Henry IV the English clergy (...)
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  39.  87
    Martin Leckey (1999). The Naturalness Theory of Laws. In Howard Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature. Kluwer 77--82.
    If I were to drop an apple, then it would fall. It is not possible that it would fly upwards. It is necessary that it would fall. I think these statements are true, but at the same time I believe that it is not logically necessary that the apple would fall. I believe that there is in nature a kind of necessity weaker than logical necessity: natural necessity.
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  40. Ave Mets & Piret Kuusk (2009). The Constructive Realist Account of Science and its Application to Ilya Prigogine's Conception of Laws of Nature. Foundations of Science 14 (3):239-248.
    Sciences are often regarded as providing the best, or, ideally, exact, knowledge of the world, especially in providing laws of nature. Ilya Prigogine, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his theory of non-equilibrium chemical processes—this being also an important attempt to bridge the gap between exact and non-exact sciences [mentioned in the Presentation Speech by Professor Stig Claesson (nobelprize.org, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977)]—has had this ideal in mind when trying to formulate a new kind of science. (...)
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  41.  70
    Alexander Bird (2008). The Epistemological Argument Against Lewis's Regularity View of Laws. Philosophical Studies 138 (1):73–89.
    I argue for the claim that if Lewis’s regularity theory of laws were true, we could not know any positive law statement to be true. Premise 1: According to that theory, for any law statement true of the actual world, there is always a nearby world where the law statement is false (a world that differs with respect to one matter of particular fact). Premise 2: One cannot know a proposition to be true if it is false in a (...)
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  42. Author unknown, The Metaphysics of Moral Conflict.
    One of the more fundamental questions raised by the generalism–particularism debate in ethics is just what a right-making factor (or reason) is. I contrast two possible conceptions of such factors and defend the second. The first understands right-making factors in terms of moral laws, and variants of it are advanced by writers on either side of the generalism–particularism debate. The second understands right-making factors in terms of right-making properties conceived dispositionally—i.e., as powers, capacities, etc. I defend the latter, dispositionalist (...)
     
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  43. Seth Lazar (2012). The Morality and Law of War. In Andrei Marmor (ed.), Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Law. Routledge 364.
    The revisionist critique of conventional just war theory has undoubtedly scored some important victories. Walzer’s elegantly unified defense of combatant legal equality and noncombatant immunity has been seriously undermined. This critical success has not, however, been matched by positive arguments, which when applied to the messy reality of war would deprive states and soldiers of the permission to fight wars that are plausibly thought to be justified. The appeal to law that is sought to resolve this objection by casting it (...)
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  44.  42
    Mauro Dorato & Michael Esfeld (forthcoming). The Metaphysics of Laws: Dispositionalism Vs. Primitivism. In T. Bigaj & C. Wutrich (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Poznan Studies
    The paper compares dispositionalism about laws of nature with primitivism. It argues that while the distinction between these two positions can be drawn in a clear-cut manner in classical mechanics, it is less clear in quantum mechanics, due to quantum non-locality. Nonetheless, the paper points out advantages for dispositionalism in comparison to primitivism also in the area of quantum mechanics, and of contemporary physics in general.
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  45. Kaave Lajevardi (2011). Laws and Counterfactuals: Defusing an Argument Against the Humean View of Laws. Dialogue 50 (04):751-758.
    ABSTRACT: Appealing to the failure of counterfactual support is a standard device in refuting a Humean view on laws of nature: some true generalisations do not support relevant counterfactuals; therefore not every true general fact is a law of nature—so goes the refutation. I will argue that this strategy does not work, for our understanding of the truth-value of any counterfactual is grounded in our understanding of the lawhood of some statements related to it.
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  46. Chris Swoyer (1982). The Nature of Natural Laws. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 60 (3):203 – 223.
    That laws of nature play a vital role in explanation, prediction, and inductive inference is far clearer than the nature of the laws themselves. My hope here is to shed some light on the nature of natural laws by developing and defending the view that they involve genuine relations between properties. Such a position is suggested by Plato, and more recent versions have been sketched by several writers.~ But I am not happy with any of these accounts, (...)
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  47. Joshua L. Watson (2012). Leibniz on the Laws of Nature and the Best Deductive System. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (4):577-584.
    Many philosophers who do not analyze laws of nature as the axioms and theorems of the best deductive systems nevertheless believe that membership in those systems is evidence for being a law. This raises the question, “If the best systems analysis fails, what explains the fact that being a member of the best systems is evidence for being a law?” In this essay I answer this question on behalf of Leibniz. I argue that although Leibniz’s philosophy of laws (...)
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  48.  31
    Sally Gunz, John McCutcheon & Frank Reynolds (2009). Independence, Conflict of Interest and the Actuarial Profession. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (1):77 - 89.
    The actuarial profession has a long history of providing critical expertise to society. The services delivered are some of the most complex and mysterious to outsiders of all professions but little has been written about the professional responsibilities of actuaries in the academic literature beyond that of the profession itself. This paper makes the case that the issues surrounding professional independence of actuaries are, in principle, similar to those that faced the audit profession before the scandals and resultant regulatory changes (...)
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  49.  8
    Akram Heidari, Seyyed Hassan Adeli, Shiva Mehravaran & Fariba Asghari (2012). Addressing Ethical Considerations and Authors' Conflict of Interest Disclosure in Medical Journals in Iran. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):457-462.
    The purpose of this study was to examine how ethical approval and competing interests are addressed by medical journals in Iran. In a cross-sectional study, 151 journals accredited by the Publications Commission of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education were reviewed. Data collection was carried out by assessing journal guidelines and conducting structured phone interviews with journal managers, focusing on how ethical considerations and conflicts of interest (COI) are addressed. Overall, 135 of the 151 journals (89.4 percent) examined some (...)
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  50.  9
    Anton Oleinik (2013). Conflict(s) of Interest in Peer Review: Its Origins and Possible Solutions. Science and Engineering Ethics (1):1-21.
    Scientific communication takes place at two registers: first, interactions with colleagues in close proximity—members of a network, school of thought or circle; second, depersonalised transactions among a potentially unlimited number of scholars can be involved (e.g., author and readers). The interference between the two registers in the process of peer review produces a drift toward conflict of interest. Three particular cases of peer review are differentiated: journal submissions, grant applications and applications for tenure. The current conflict of interest (...)
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